Ghettos: The Nazis revived the medieval term “ghetto” to describe the compulsory "Jewish Quarter." Ghettos were usually established in the poor sections of a city, where most Jews were forced to reside. Often surrounded by barbed wire or walls, the ghettos were sealed. Established mostly in eastern Europe (e.g., Lodz, Warsaw, Vilna, Riga, or Minsk), the ghettos were characterized by overcrowding, malnutrition, and heavy labor. All were eventually dissolved, and the Jews murdered.
Bund /boond/ : The Jewish Socialist Party founded in 1897. It aspired to equal rights for the Jewish population. During World War II the Bund was active in the underground resistance. They took part in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
The Germans established at least 1,000 ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union. German occupation authorities established the first ghetto in Poland in Piotrków Trybunalski in October 1939.
The Germans either shot ghetto residents in mass graves located nearby or deported them, usually by train, to killing centers where they were murdered. German SS and police authorities deported a small minority of Jews to forced-labor camps and concentration camps.
There were three types of ghettos: closed ghettos, open ghettos, and destruction ghettos.
The largest ghetto in Poland was the Warsaw ghetto, where over 400,000 Jews were crowded into an area of 1.3 square miles.
The Jews in ghettos to wear identifying badges or armbands and had to work for the Germans. Daily life in the ghettos was administered by Nazi-appointed Jewish councils (Judenrat). A ghetto Jewish police force enforced the orders of the German authorities and the ordinances of the Jewish councils, including the facilitation of deportations to killing centers. Both Jewish police officials and Jewish council members, served at the whim of the German authorities. The Germans killed Jewish policemen who did not carry out orders.
Resistance Efforts: Smuggled in arms, medicine and food. School for children was seen as a resistance.
In some ghettos, members of Jewish resistance movements staged armed uprisings. The largest of these was the Warsaw ghetto uprising in spring 1943.