CULTURAL NATIONALISM (important to an extent)
Fichte described ‘Germany’ as the fatherland where all people spoke the same language and sang the same songs.
KU: Language – 1815, most within the borders of the old Holy Roman Empire spoke German
A: common identity, pro-German feelings
KU: German Literature – Hegel, Goethe & Schiller
German folk tales – compiled and published by Brothers Grimm
A: Their growing popularity gave people a sense of belonging – national identity growing.
A: Few Germans could read / afford to go to music concerts.
Golo Mann – “seldom looked up from the plough”, doubted influence of artists as most Germans unaware of nationalist issues.
ECONOMIC NATIONALISM (most important)
KU: Zollverein – 1818, Prussia forms customs union to encourage trade.
– 1836, 25 German states included and getting rich. Austria EXCLUDED
A: demonstrated the benefits of a united Germany
Zollverein brought German states together, increased influence of Prussia, over that of Austria.
William Carr – Zollverein: “the mighty lever of German unification”
KU: Growth of RAIL NETWORK
A: Railways did not only spread goods,
but broke down barriers between states and spread ideas of nationalism.
(more people living closer, ideas spread easily)
POLITICAL NATIONALISM (least important)
KU: Napoleonic Wars 1789-1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte’s takeover of the German states
A: Germans united to force French out of Germany, creating strong nationalist feelings, united against a common enemy.
KU: Deutscher Bund German Confederation – After expulsion of Napoleon the ‘Germany’ was reformed in 1815 into 39 states.
A: German Confederation Assembly did not support Liberalism or Nationalism
(DIET represented rulers,
RULE 2: “The aim of the German Confederation is to… guard the independence of the separate German states.”
KU: In 1817, conflict between Metternich and students reached its peak when a life-sized model of Metternich was burned at a festival in Wartburg, Saxony.
Carlsbad Decrees – banned student societies / censored newspapers.
A: As spreading nationalist ideas was made
forbidden, it was difficult for political nationalism to take hold.
KU: 1848 Revolutions – revolutions spread across 50 states in Europe.
Nationalists – united country ruled by an elected national parliament.
Liberals – freedom of speech, freedom of press, political rights.
A: revolutions suggested a growing support for nationalism in ‘Germany’.
FAILURE of the revolutions to bring about major changes by 1850 suggests that nationalists were
not strong enough to challenge the power of Austria.