German nationalism



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Reasons FOR the Growth of

GERMAN NATIONALISM



CULTURAL NATIONALISM (important to an extent)

Fichte described ‘Germany’ as the fatherland where all people spoke the same language and sang the same songs.
KU: Language – 1815, most within the borders of the old Holy Roman Empire spoke German

A: common identity, pro-German feelings


KU: German Literature – Hegel, Goethe & Schiller

German folk tales – compiled and published by Brothers Grimm

Beethoven

A: Their growing popularity gave people a sense of belongingnational identity growing.

A: Few Germans could read / afford to go to music concerts.

Golo Mann“seldom looked up from the plough”, doubted influence of artists as most Germans unaware of nationalist issues.
ECONOMIC NATIONALISM (most important)
KU: Zollverein – 1818, Prussia forms customs union to encourage trade.

– 1836, 25 German states included and getting rich. Austria EXCLUDED

A: demonstrated the benefits of a united Germany

Zollverein brought German states together, increased influence of Prussia, over that of Austria.



William Carr – Zollverein: “the mighty lever of German unification”
KU: Growth of RAIL NETWORK

A: Railways did not only spread goods,

but broke down barriers between states and spread ideas of nationalism.

(more people living closer, ideas spread easily)

POLITICAL NATIONALISM (least important)
KU: Napoleonic Wars 1789-1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte’s takeover of the German states

A: Germans united to force French out of Germany, creating strong nationalist feelings, united against a common enemy.


KU: Deutscher Bund German Confederation – After expulsion of Napoleon the ‘Germany’ was reformed in 1815 into 39 states.

A: German Confederation Assembly did not support Liberalism or Nationalism

(DIET represented rulers, not people)

RULE 2: “The aim of the German Confederation is to… guard the independence of the separate German states.”
KU: In 1817, conflict between Metternich and students reached its peak when a life-sized model of Metternich was burned at a festival in Wartburg, Saxony.

Carlsbad Decrees – banned student societies / censored newspapers.

A: As spreading nationalist ideas was made forbidden, it was difficult for political nationalism to take hold.


KU: 1848 Revolutions – revolutions spread across 50 states in Europe.

Nationalistsunited country ruled by an elected national parliament.

Liberalsfreedom of speech, freedom of press, political rights.

A: revolutions suggested a growing support for nationalism in ‘Germany’.



FAILURE of the revolutions to bring about major changes by 1850 suggests that nationalists were not strong enough to challenge the power of Austria.


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