Woodward-Clyde & Associates (1963-1997); URS-Greiner (1997-2014); AECOM (2014-present)
Firm started in January 1950 in Oakland, CA by Ned P. Clyde (1920-1999), Arnold Olitt (1913-1993), and Richard J. Woodward, Jr. (1907–1998), whom met one another as students at Cal Berkeley toards the end of the Second War. Leonard M. Krazynski (1927-2011) (BSCE ’58 Wash State; MS ’60 Berkeley) began his career at Woodward-Clyde in 1960, in Oakland. He became their Chief Engineer and Supervising Engineer of their office in Orange County in late 1963-early 1964. This office was located in Orange, then moved to Santa Ana, where it remained for many years. When they opened the Orange County office the firm went by the name Woodward-Clyde-Sherard & Associates. By 1968 that had reverted to Woodward-Clyde & Associates. In 1997 URS-Greiner purchased WCC for $100 million, and in October 2014 URS was bought out by AECOM for about $4 billion in cash and shares with another $2 billion in assumed debt.
The original group that opened the Orange County office included engineers Louis J. Lee, R. Leonard Allen, and Steve Haley, and engineering geologist Charles J. “Jerry” Pinckney. The Orange County and San Diego offices did a lot of pioneering work with expansive soils, including a two-year contract with the Portland Cement Association’s Los Angeles District, summarized in a 134 page report delivered in March 1968. This report led to the adoption of the UBC 29-2 Soil Expansion Potential Test.
Len Kraznyski moved to the firm’s San Diego office in the late 60s. In 1970 Krazynski moved toi the firm’s Clifton, NJ office, and in 1972 established Woodward Krazynski & Associates in Houston (he remained with the firm until 1984). He was succeeded two years later by Nicholas Chryssafopoulos (1919-95) (BSCE ’40 Robert College in Istanbul; MS ’53; PhD ’56, Illinois), who had joined the firm in 1959 and had previously managed their Montclair, NJ office. Chryssafopoulos left to become a consulting partner with Dames & Moore in their New York office, then re-joined Woodward-Clyde in 1972, managing operations for the Los Angeles metro area.
Woodward-McNeill & Associates (1971-75)
Robert L. McNeill PhD, PE grew up in Bakersfield, received BSCE from Berkeley in 1955 (after attending West Point for 3 years). He began working for Woodward Clyde in Oakland in 1953 as a soils technician, while completing his degree at Berkeley. He worked part-time after graduation, while pursuing his master’s thesis research, evaluating the use of pier-and-grade beam foundations to mitigate damages from expansive soils in the San Ramon Valley (completed in 1957). In the early 1960s he completed his Ph.D. at the Univ. New Mexico (‘65) while supervising Woodward Clyde’s Special Projects Division (working with the Air Force), out of the Oakland office. In the early 1970s the Los Angeles and Orange offices were operated as Woodward-McNeill & Associates and located at 2140 W. Olympic Blvd in downtown Los Angeles, with a branch office in Orange, CA. McNeill resigned on Dec 31, 1975 to start his own consultancy.
During the late 1960s-early 1970s John T. Gaffey (BSCE, MS, PhD from Purdue) became their marketing manager, Bill Uhl CEG was their engineering geologist (later to LA Co), along with geological engineer Hans W. Ewoldsen, PE, CEG (BSCE ’62, PhD GeoE ’66 Berkeley). Other key figures included Richard J. Bielefield, Lewis J. Oriard, John A. Barneich, R. Leonard Allen, and Steve Haley. Bob Muns ran the field operations, and Ist Van Kalman ran the soils lab. The LA office did a lot of consulting for LADWP in the wake of the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake and used Lloyd Cluff, Clarence Allen, and Harry Seed as peer reviewing consultants on ground motions (e.g. Chatsworth Reservoir studies).
Dr. Izzat M. Idriss (BSE ’58 RPI; MSCE ’59 Caltech; PhD ‘66 Berkeley) transferred to Orange County from the firm’s San Francisco office in 1979, after Bob McNeill departed. Idriss became the Santa Ana office principal and remained there until leaving to teach at U.C. Davis in 1989, soon after he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. Other principals included John A. Barneich, GE (who transferred from Oakland in 1968), and John A. Bischoff, GE, who came from the San Jose office to manage the Santa Ana office in the mid-1980s. Senior staff included Yoshiharu Moriwaki, PhD, GE (PhD ’75 Berkeley) and Jean Suter Hill, PE (BSCE ’78 Purdue; MS ’80 Berkeley). Woodward Clyde Consultants was purchased in 1997 by the URS–Greiner combine for $100 million.
Group Delta Consultants (1986-present)
Founded in 1986 by Walt Crampton, PE, Barry Bevier, PE, and Bob Dolwlen, CEG all from Woodward-Clyde. They were employed in the San Diego office of Medal-Worswick until March 1986, when that firm was purchased by Schaefer Dixon Associates. Less than a year later, this group reformed as Group Delta. After Crampton and Bevier retired, the firm became a MBE under Kul Bhushan and Shah Ghanbari. Group Delta Consultants, Inc. provides geotechnical engineering, geology, hydrogeology, earthquake engineering, materials testing & inspection, and forensic services out of offices in San Diego, Irvine, Torrance, Ontario, Victorville, and El Centro. The firm has a staff of 125+ professionals consisting of civil and geotechnical engineers, engineering geologists, laboratory and field technicians, deputy inspectors, drafting/CADD, and drilling and support personnel specialized in their respective fields.
The principal partners include: Michael D. Reader, GE is the CEO, Shah Ghanbari, PE is the President, Chief Technical Officer is Kul Bhushan, PhD, GE, and the Principal Geotech Engineer is Thomas D. Swantko, GE. In May 2011 Group Delta acquired Praad Geotechnical. Daniel Pradel, PhD, GE became a principal engineer of Group Delta’s Forensic and Modeling Group, in Torrance. Pradel has served as Adjunct Associate Professor in geotechnical engineering at UCLA since January 1997 (see his profile in UCLA faculty). Other staff from Praad include senior engineers Kristan Chang and Peter Chiu in Torrance, and Rodney Masuda, CEG in Irvine. Meghan Lithgow is staff engineer in San Diego. Jorge Meneses, GE (PhD Univ Tokyo) joined the firm as an associate in 2014, after working for Kleinfelder.
Geosyntec Consultants-Los Angeles (1992-present)
This firm was established in 1983 by Jean-Pierre Giroud PhD, NAE of Woodward-Clyde Consultants and Joe Fluet, based out of Boca Raton, FL. They specialized in providing consulting services in geosynthetics, mostly for the emerging geoenvironmental industry. In 1986-87 Drs. Rudy Bonaparte (BSCE ’77 Texas; MS ’78; PhD ’81 Berkeley) and Neil D. Williams (BSCE ’77; MS ’79 Utah State; PhD ’82 Berkeley) joined the firm and it grew rapidly soon afterwards, particularly, in the design of landfills, working for Browning-Ferris Industries and other waste disposal clients.
Thierry Sanglerat PE (BSCE 1978 Institut Universitaire; Ingenieur, CE degree 1981 Institut National des Sciences Appliquées; MS GeotE 1982 Northwestern University) opened a branch office in Southern California (Huntington Beach) and Ed Kavazanjian, NAE (BSCE ’73; MS ‘75 MIT; PhD ’78 Berkeley) left his faculty position at Stanford to join the firm and began managing the Southern California office in 1992. By 1995 the firm’s principals included J. F. Beech, N.D. Williams, J.P. Giroud, T.R. Sanglerat, Jeff Dunn, Pat Lucia, Rudy Bonaparte, and Kavazanjian. Kavazanjian left the firm to join the CE faculty at Arizona State in August 2004 (also serving as President of ASCE’s Geo-Institute in 2010-11).
Some of the firm’s senior personnel in the Los Angeles area include: Jeffrey G. Dobrowolski, PE (BSCE 1985 Loyola Marymount; MS 1988 USC); and Patrick Galvin, PE (BS Bio ’82; MSCE ’90 Loyola Marymount).
Rudy Bonaparte is President and CEO of the parent firm, at their Atlanta headquarters. Bonaparte was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2007, Giroud in 2009, and Kavazanjian in 2013.
GeoPentec (1998- )
Founded by a group of principals of Woodward Clyde’s Santa Ana office, after Woodward Clyde’s absorption by URS in 1997. The founders include: John A. Barneich, GE (BSCE ‘654; MS ’66 Berkeley); S. Thomas Freeman, CEG; Eric Fordham, CEG, CHG; Yoshi Moriwaki, GE (PhD CE’75 Berkeley); and Sarkis V. Tatusian, GE. Other staff include Gene Waggoner’s nephew John Waggoner, CEG, and Andrew Dinsick, a staff engineer. The firm is based in Santa Ana and does quite a bit of work for MWD, the Ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, and other public utilities, like EBMUD.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) was founded in 1919 as the "Southern Branch" of the University of California, the second oldest of the ten U.C. campuses. In 1927, the U.C. Regents renamed the school the "University of California at Los Angeles" and land for a new campus was purchased in Westwood. In 1929 the original campus became Los Angeles Junior College (renamed LA City College in 1947) when the Westwood campus opened, with 5,500 students. In 1933 UCLA began awarding master’s degrees, and in 1936, began awarding doctorate degrees.
Today UCLA is organized into five undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, and five professional Health Science schools. These programs offer over 300 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a broad range of disciplines, and enrolls approximately 26,000 undergraduate and 11,000 graduate students.
UCLA Geology Program
Professor W. J. “Will” Miller (at UCLA 1924-48)
William John Miller (1880-1965) was born in Red Bluff and always went by the name “Will.” He attended the University of the Pacific studying geology and graduated in 1900. He completed two years of graduate study at Stanford under John Branner, then transferred to Johns Hopkins, where he completed his PhD in geology in 1905. He taught geology at Hamilton College in Clinton, NY until 1914. He then moved to Smith College in Northampton, MA, where he remained until 1924. That summer he transferred to the new Southern Branch of the University of California, which had been established in downtown Los Angeles in 1918.
In 1924 the enrollment at the U.C. Southern Campus (now the site of Los Angeles City College) was less than 1500 students. They moved to the Westwood campus in 1929. The geology department inaugurated graduate study in geology under Miller’s leadership. He soon became Professor of the Geology Department, serving as its first Chairman from 1924-37, and retiring in 1948. A prolific writer, between 1916-52 he published six editions of the classic collegiate text, An Introduction to Historical Geology, and between 1924-49, he published five editions of An Introduction to Physical Geology.
Miller did a great deal of pioneering work examining and documenting the geology exposed in a number of southern California locales, including: Red Rock Canyon, Deep Springs Valley (where he took his students to field camp), the western San Gabriel Mountains, the southern Peninsular Ranges, the 29 Palms area, Barstow, the Needles-Goffs area, and the strip between Palm Springs and Blyth, which figured prominently in the selection of the route for MWD’s Colorado River Aqueduct, a few years later. He was the earliest worker to recognize the significance of the Elsinore fault zone in shaping the geomorphology of southern California, and the first worker to recognize and name the Jacumba Volcanics, exposed near Jacumba, Devil’s Canyon, and the In-ko-Pah Gorge, near the eastern escarpment of the Southern California Batholith (in the mid-1930s).
In 1931 Miller, Los Angeles consulting geologist Ralph Arnold (PhD Geol 1902 Stanford), and M.H. Bissel completed an in-depth study of the Point Fermin Landslide for the Los Angeles City Engineer, as a more detailed follow-up to the initial study in early 1929 by Caltech Prof. Leslie Ransome (see W.J. Miller, 1931, The Landslide at Point Firmin, California, The Scientific Monthly, v 32:5). This was the first scientific assessment of active landslidding in southern California. Their study demonstrated the role of structure, stratigraphy, and geomorphology on triggering the slide. Miller also consulted on a number of economic geology projects, including clay sources for making brick (a major enterprise prior to the 1933 Long Beach earthquake). Miller also consulted on a few projects in the Palos Verdes Peninsula (diatomite quarries and bentonite seams), landslides along Pacific Palisades, and flood control projects in the western San Gabriel Mountains, the latter subject of which he was considered the most authoritative expert of his era. He was the first geologist to recognize evidence of spotty alpine glaciations in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains (in 1926). He also mapped the geology between Palm Springs and Blyth, which figured prominently in the decision by MWD to use the “central route” for the Colorado River Aqueduct in 1931 (see Profs Ransome and Bulwalda in the Caltech threadline).
Professor U.S. Grant, CEG (at UCLA 1931-59)
Ulysses S. Grant IV, CEG (1893-1977) grew up in San Diego, the youngest child of San Diego attorney and real estate entrepreneur Ulysses S.”Buck” Grant, Jr. (1852-1929), the second son of American President Ulysses S. Grant (1822-85). He always felt he should have been named U.S. Grant, III, but that honor went to his cousin (1881-1968), the son of his uncle, Major General Frederick Grant (West Point Class of 1871). His cousin U.S. Grant III attended West Point (Class of 1903) and had a distinguished career with the US Army Corps of Engineers, which included serving as District Engineer in San Francisco and chair on the California Debris Commission (1921-26). U.S. Grant III rose to the rank of Major General, and commanded the nation’s civil defenses during World War II.
U.S. Grant IV left the west coast in 1911 to study geology at Harvard, his father’s alma mater, graduating cum laude in 1915. Following graduation he sought his fortune mining gold in Mexico. During the First World War he abandoned this enterprise to enlist in the Army, working his way through the enlisted ranks to a lieutenant’s commission by the war’s end. From 1919 to 1925 he worked in the New York Stock Exchange. In 1926, he returned to school, taking graduate courses at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1927 he entered the graduate program in paleontology at Stanford University, where he received his PhD in 1929.
Grant next took a position with the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, as curator of invertebrate paleontology. He began teaching paleontology at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1931. He rose from instructor to chairman of the geology department between 1937-45, and he retired in 1959, remaining in Los Angeles. Grant wrote many papers on Pliocene and Pleistocene mollusks in the southern California borderland, and often collaborated with Leo George Hertlein, his old classmate at Stanford. He was also did extensive work examining the oil potential of late Quaternary units in southwestern San Diego County.
His most notable engineering geologic contributions were on the Wilmington subsidence problems, which began in the late 1930s and continued into the early 50s. The settlement was triggered by the withdrawal of oil, gas, and groundwater. This settlement reached a rate of more than 2 feet per year by 1951 (U.S. Grant and W.E. Sheppard, 1939, Some recent changes in elevation in the Los Angeles basin of southern California, and their possible significance, BSSA v. 29:299-326; and U.S. Grant, 1954, Subsidence of the Wilmington Oil Field, California: CDMG Bull 170 Ch 10, p 19-24).
Prof. Grant was a member of AEG and one of the first geologists to become an approved engineering geologist by the Los Angeles Department of Building & Safety in 1961, and later, by the State of California in 1969. He also served as a consultant to the State Division of Dam Safety on a dam site in Malibu, which was never built. After the Baldwin Hills Reservoir failure, he was also retained as one of the consultants in the litigation that ensued, against the oil companies. He died at St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica, California from lung failure caused by leukemia, in 1977.
Professor William C. Putnam (at UCLA 1938-63)
William Clement Putnam (1908-63) grew up on a ranch near Redding (not far from W. J. Miller, the UCLA geology dept chairman, see above) and majored in geology at Stanford, with an emphasis on geomorphology, studying under Elliot Blackwelder and William Morris Davis (while the latter was a visiting professor). He earned his AB (1929) and MS degrees (1930), with his master’s thesis examining the elevated shorelines of the Santa Monica Mountains. From 1931 till 1938 he taught geology at Los Angeles Junior College, where he and his faculty colleague Alfred Livingston wrote the classic text “Geological Journeys in Southern California” (reprinted in 1939 and 1949).
While teaching at LAJC he pursued his doctorate at Caltech, focusing on the “Physiography of the Ventura region,” and “The geology of the Mono Craters.” He completed his PhD in 1937 and joined the geology faculty at UCLA in 1938. In 1940 he and Bob Sharp at Caltech co-authored a classic paper titled “Landslides and earthflows near Ventura, southern California,” in Geographical Review. During the Second World War he was detached to the USGS Military Geology Unit in the Southwest Pacific, which led to several publications cited frequently by engineering geologists, including: the textbook “Map interpretation with military applications” (in 1943); a chapter of the first Manual of Photogrammetry (1944) titled “Photo-interpretation,” and the article “Aerial photographs in geology” (in Photogrammetric Engineering in 1947).
Bill Putnam served as chairman of the geology department at UCLA from 1953-60, and his long-awaited textbook titled “Geology” (Oxford Univ Press) was not released until a year after his untimely death at age 54, in March 1963. During the seven years he chaired the UCLA geology program, they granted 303 AB degrees, 52 MA degrees, and 23 PhDs; remarkable figures, by any account.
Professor John C. Crowell, CEG (at UCLA 1947-67; at UCSB 1967-87)
(see write-up in U.C. Santa Barbara Threadline)
Dr. John T. McGill, CEG (USGS office at UCLA from 1951-64)
As a student at UCLA John T. “Jack” McGill, CEG (1921-87) played baseball and was an honor graduate of Naval ROTC in 1943. His mentor was Prof. W. C. Putnam, who also commanded the Naval Reserve Officer Research Detachment at UCLA during the Second World War. McGill served in the Pacific Theater during the war, and returned to UCLA to undertake graduate work with Putnam. McGill completed his master’s in 1948 (on the Santa Monica Mtns) and his PhD on “Quaternary Geology of the north-central San Emigdio Mountains, California” in 1951. He continued his collaboration with W.C. Putnam mapping the coastal landforms of the world as a post-doctoral project funded by the Office of Naval Research (Map of Coastal Landforms of the World, published in Geographical Review in 1958). He continued working on this project off and on after taking a newly established position with the Engineering Geology Branch of the USGS assessing geologic hazards in southern California. Working from an office at UCLA, McGill undertook some pioneering work mapping geohazards in southern California, mostly in the Santa Monica Mountains, Pacific Palisades, Palos Verdes Peninsula, and other coastal areas, all the way to San Diego County. He had an adjunct appointment on the geology faculty and taught engineering geology at UCLA, between 1951-66.
McGill was actively involved with the Engineering Geology Division of GSA and in the early years of the California Association of Engineering Geologists, sponsoring a symposium on the Engineering Geology of the Monterey Formation at the 5th annual meeting in 1962. He was also a prominent member of the early advisory committees that developed grading and excavation codes in the Los Angeles area in the early 1960s. In 1964 he authored Growing Importance of Urban Geology, USGS Circular 487. It provides a succinct summary of the growing importance of engineering geology in urban planning and development. During his last few years at UCLA he was assisted by Robert O. Castle.
In 1966 he moved to the USGS office in Denver, and by 1969, was promoted to Chief of the Engineering Geology Branch, in Denver. McGill served the USGS for 35 years and retired to Jefferson, Colorado in 1986, and died in May 1987. His widow Carol established the Carol G. and John T. McGill Fund of the Geological Society of America, which annually awards scholarships to students studying engineering geology or geomorphology.
Prof. David J. Leeds, CEG, RGP – pioneer engineering seismologist
Dr. David Leeds, CEG, RGP (1917-2011) received his formal training in geology at the University of Texas, graduating in 1939. He found a position as a geophysicist for the Seismological Field survey of the U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey, where he was introduced to the study of strong motion seismology which had burst onto the USC&GS radar screen following the 1933 Long Beach Earthquake and the acceleration records recorded at three stations (his predecessor in the position was John A. Blume). During the 1940s and 50s Leeds’ responsibilities grew to envelop the 11 western states, investigating earthquakes, conducting forced vibration experiments, and helping to maintain the strong-motion network in southern California. During the 1950s and 60s he worked out of an office at UCLA, alongside USGS engineering geologist John T. McGill (described below). In the mid-1950s he began working with UCLA civil engineering Professor C. Martin Duke. In May of 1956, Duke and Leeds began making measurements from strain gauges installed in the UCLA Engineering Building while it was under construction to better understand its dynamic behavior. The strain gauges were networked to a central recording facility, which also housed a strong-motion seismograph, to allow accurate recordation of the building's response to earthquake tremors.
The next year the duo traveled down to Mexico to investigate the impacts of the earthquake on structures at two sites: those in Mexico City, located 170 miles from the quake’s epicenter and founded on the deep alluvium of Lake Texcoco, and several cities and villages located only 60 miles from the epicenter, but founded on firmer deposits or granite. These observations were succinctly summarized in an article titled “Soil conditions and damage in the Mexico earthquake of July 28, 1957,” which appeared in the April 1959 issue of the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. The following year he and Martin Duke prepared report on the effect of topography and confinement on seismic site response, titled “Effects of Earthquakes on Tunnels,” for the Second Symposium on Protective Construction, held at the RAND Corporation on March 24-27, 1959. This became one of the most oft-cited unpublished reports of that era because it became a blueprint for the design of underground structures, such as the NORAD complex in Cheyenne Mountain, near Colorado Springs. Duke began encouraging Leeds to pursue his PhD at UCLA in the emerging field of site-specific seismology, which later came to be known as “engineering seismology.”
Another pivotal opportunity came in the fall of 1960, when Bill Moore of Dames & Moore convinced him to accept a position created specifically for him, with the title “engineering seismologist.” Moore’s motivation was a new contract with Southern Cal Edison to perform the first site-dependent earthquake response spectra for the proposed San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant, the first such facility in southern California. Leeds championed this pioneering effort, which was completed in 1962. This report established an evolving protocol for site-dependent studies that became increasing common and sophisticated over the succeeding decades.
After completing the San Onofre report Leeds continued his research at UCLA with C. Martin Duke. In November 1962 they released their report titled "Site Characteristics of Southern California Strong-Motion Earthquake Stations" (UCLA Dept Engineering Report No. 62-55), which became a benchmark reference for all subsequent studies of earthquake engineering applications in southern California. Leeds began teaching courses on engineering seismology at UCLA in the spring of 1964 and completed his PhD dissertation in June 1966.
From 1966 on he worked part-time for Dames & Moore as a consulting engineering seismologist. One of his most-cited articles was “The Design Earthquake,” which appeared in AEG’s Geology, Seismicity, and Environmental Impact in 1973. Leeds spent 30 years offering his services consulting in engineering geology and geophysics, working out of his home at 11971 Challon Rd. Los Angeles, CA 90049. He was the long-time editor of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Newsletter, between 1970-84. He passed away on April 18, 2011 at the age of 94 at his home in Santa Barbara.
Prof. Ronald L. Shreve, RG (at UCLA 1958-87) physical processes geomorphologist
Ronald L. Shreve grew up in Glendale and majored in physics at Caltech (BS ’52 and MS ’54 Physics; PhD Geol ’59 Caltech) where his graduate work specialized in geomorphology, working on the mechanics of glaciers and megalandslides under Prof. Robert P. Sharp. Ron’s PhD dissertation was a study of the Blackhawk Landslide along the north side of the San Bernardino Mountains funded by NSF. This work included a year-long study of long-runout landslides (sturzstroms) in Austria working with Prof. Ken Hsu (PhD Geol ’53 UCLA). It was memorialized in GSA Special Paper 108, published in 1968. He theorized that the sturzstrom megaslide slid on a cushion of compressed air, a widely accepted theorem for about four decades, until Richard Iverson and Francois Legros published separate, but parallel theorems explaining long runout sturzstroms using conservation of momentum. Shreve’s courses in basic geomorphology, physical processes, fluvial geomorphology, and sediment transport (including the mechanics of debris flows and turbidity currents) influenced several generations of engineering geologist educated at UCLA, between 1958 and 1987.
Prof. Leonard A. Palmer, RG (at UCLA 1962-68) coastal retreat specialist
A native of Washington state, Leonard A. Palmer, RG (1931-2001) obtained his BS (1953) and MS (1960) degrees in geology from the University of Washington and his PhD from UCLA in 1967, after a two-year stint at the University of Southern California. His doctoral thesis was on shoreline retreat and uplift rates along coastal California, Oregon, and Washington (L.A. Palmer, 1967, Marine terraces of California, Oregon and Washington: PhD dissertation in geology, UCLA, 379 p). He taught a course on coastal processes at UCLA that was highly regarded in the mid-1960s. He went onto an academic career as Professor at Portland State University, between 1967-91. He specialized in surficial land processes; including landsliding, stream and coastal erosion, and the relationship of these processes to land-use planning and natural resource management. Len served as a frequent expert on for California Coastal Commission hearings and litigation consultations relating to sea cliff retreat in southern California. If he was not specifically retained in one of these matters, then the figures cited in his PhD dissertation were usually quoted in one context or another. Len was one of the charter members (1970) of the Portland Chapter of AEG. He also became a registered geologist in Oregon when that state enacted legislation in 1977. He retired to Port Ludlow, Washington, and died there of pancreatic cancer on New Year’s Eve 2002.
Paul M. Merifield, CEG (at UCLA 1970-2011) Lecturer and Adjunct Professor of Engineering and Environmental Geology
Paul M. Merifield, CEG (BA Geol ’54 UCLA; PhD ’63 Colorado) taught engineering and environmental geology as a Lecturer, and then as an Adjunct Professor at UCLA for 41 years, between 1970-2011. In 1965 he formed a partnership with another UCLA alumnus Donald L. Lamar, PhD, CEG, RGP (1930-2009), which they christened Lamar-Merifield, using Lamar’s Santa Monica office. The firm operated until 1990.
Engineering geologists educated at UCLA
Prominent engineering geologists educated at UCLA include: Gene Waggoner ’37, Burton Rose ’39, John T. McGill ’43, John C. Crowell ’47, Dick Stone ’50, Art Keene, ’50, Alvin L. Franks, ’50, Earl Hart ’50, Glenn Brown ’51, Perry Ehlig ’52, Russell Hood ’52, William Waisgerber ’53, Don Michael ’53, Rich Lung ’54, Paul Merifield ’54, Joe Birman ’57, Richard Proctor ’58, Don Lamar ’58, Jay Smith ’58, Don Rose ’60, Allen Hatheway ’61, Jeremy C. Wire ’61, Richard E. Rowland ’66, David J. Leeds ’66, Robert A. ‘Red’ Robinson ’69, Gary Van Houten ’70, David A. Gardner (’71; ’74), Don Asquith ’72, Frank E. Denison ’73; Gary L. Lass ’74, Ron Shmerling ’75, David Grover ’75, Timothy J. Walsh ’76; ‘79, Daniel Morikawa ’76, Kim M. Bishop ’79, Bob Hollingsworth ’79, Richard H. Hazen MS ’79, Steve Watry ’79, Jeff Knott ’83, Larry Parmalee ’83, Steve Walter ’86, Martin Lieurance ’86, Jeff Farrar ’86, Kurt Myers ’87, Scott Moors ’92, Gary Mozingo ’97, and Gerald Goodman (ukn).
UCLA Geotechnical Program
During the postwar period (late 1940s) UCLA Dean L.M.K. Boelter endeavored to create a College of Engineering and began attracting faculty to accommodate broad areas in engineering teaching and research. Boelter experimented with engineering education on a grand scale, assembling a non-traditional program in general engineering, aptly named the Department of Engineering, with the School of Engineering & Applied Sciences. Undergrad students took courses in electrical, mechanical, civil, and industrial engineering and the department granted BS, JS, and PhD degrees in engineering. In the light of the then-current registration laws for professional engineers in California (adopted in 1929), any degree in engineering was worth four years credit towards the six years of experience necessary to apply for, and then site for the engineer's examination. The student chapter of the American Society of Civil Engineers was established in April 1960.
The university's experiment in engineering education was problematic for their undergraduate students, because graduate programs tended to favor students who came from civil engineering programs accredited by the Engineering Council for Professional Development (ECPD), because it provided more depth and breadth of coursework, including ‘building block’ courses, like surveying.
These philosophical differences gradually came to a head when the accreditation process transferred to the Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology (ABET) in 1978. In 1983 UCLA shifted to a more traditional program, splitting their mechanics & structures programs into separated mechanical and civil engineering departments, and sought ABET accreditation for these programs. This subsequently became a requirement for professional engineering registration in 1997.
C. Martin Duke, PE (at UCLA 1947-80)
Martin Duke, PE (1917-88) grew up in Los Angeles, and attended U.C. Berkeley, receiving his BSCE in 1939 and MS in 1941. He remained at Berkeley during the Second World War, teaching undergraduate courses.
After the war Martin worked as a civilian engineer for the US Government for two years, which included assignments connected with the rebuilding of Guam. Duke was recruited for the new engineering faculty by UCLA Dean L.M.K. Boelter in 1947, when he began building UCLA's School of Engineering & Applied Science. While seeking tenure he taught civil engineering classes and conducted research on cementious material and soil mechanics. Between 1952-67 Duke served as Assistant Dean for Undergraduate Studies, Acting and Associate Dean of the College of Engineering, as well as Vice Chairman and Chairman of the Department of Engineering.
During this same time Duke developed a viable program of research in earthquake engineering, with particular emphasis on lifeline engineering aspects. This interest was sparked by the July 1952 M 7.7 Tehachapi earthquake. In 1956 he took a sabbatical leave to work in earthquake engineering in Japan. He evaluated the damages caused to engineering infrastructure in the 1957 Mexico City and 1960 Chilean Earthquakes. In the late 1960s and early 70s, Duke expanded his work on earthquake engineering, studying seismic vulnerabilities of water resource systems with Professors Dracup and Jacobsen, and on investigations of source, path, and the effects of ground shaking with seismologist David J. Leeds (described above) and Professors Matthiesen and Mal. The UCLA earthquake engineering program included a group of eight faculty and 25 graduate students working on different aspects of the field. This group proved most valuable in the wake of the February 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, when its members launched a number of post-earthquake investigations.
Duke was elected President of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) during 1970-73 and afterwards he managed the "Learning from Earthquakes Project." Under his leadership, a comprehensive report entitled "San Fernando, California Earthquake of February 9, 1971" was published, leading to his being awarded the Ernest E. Howard Award of ASCE in 1973.
During the San Fernando investigation Duke noticed that there was a paucity of earthquake related information on energy, water, transportation, and communication systems. The ASCE Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering was established, primarily due to his effort and encouragement. Duke led several post-earthquake investigations for EERI, including those sent to investigate the December 1972, Managua, Nicaragua earthquake and a similar expedition to Mindanao in the Philippines in 1976. These investigations helped him formulate the concepts used in the EERI study to develop procedures to maximize learning from destructive earthquakes.
Duke retired from UCLA in 1980 and he passed away on April 16, 1988 at a Newport Beach convalescent home. In 1990 ASCE established the C. Martin Duke Award to annually recognize significant contributions to lifeline earthquake engineering. Some of the UCLA students from Professor Duke’s era (pre-1964) who went onto notable careers in geotechnical engineering included: Robert A. “Bob” Merrill (’48), Jimmy Kirkgard (’53), Alan Boris (’61), Carl Basore (’61), and Ronald T. Eguchi (’75), among others.
Richard T. Frankian (at UCLA 1955-65)
Between 1955-65 Dick Frankian, GE (1929-2010) served as a lecturer in soil mechanics at UCLA. He received his bacheolor’s in civil engineering in 1952 and master’s in soil mechanics in 1955 from Cal Berkeley, and was the first practicing engineer in the Los Angeles area with an advanced degree in soil mechanics from Berkeley. In 1963 he started his own consultancy, R.T. Frankian & Associates, in his home town of Burbank. His firm did lots of work on hillside housing tracts. He was a co-founder of the Sigma Phi Delta Engineering Fraternity at both UCLA and UC Berkeley. In 1965 the press of business forced him to relinquish his teaching role. Dick wrote a chapter titled Analysis of Buttress Fills in Mike Scullin’s 1983 text, Excavation and Grading Code Administration, Inspection, and Enforcement.
Kenneth L. Lee (at UCLA 1964-78)
Professor Ken Lee, PEng (1931-78) grew up on a farm near Cardston, Alberta (a few miles north of Glacier National Park) and received his BS (1955) and MS (1958) degrees in engineering from the University of Alberta in Edmonton. After graduation he taught at the University of New Brunswick for a few years, then took a job with a geotechnical engineering firm in Vancouver and Kitimat, British Columbia. In 1961 he enrolled in graduate school at UC Berkeley, working under H. Bolton Seed and studying cyclic stress behavior of sands triggering liquefaction. He accepted a faculty position at UCLA in the fall of 1964 and completed his Ph.D. work in 1965. Ken was UCLA's first full-time instructor in soil mechanics and foundation engineering. He received funding from the National Science Foundation and was nationally recognized for his work in evaluating reinforced earth embankments, for both static and dynamic behavior. His research and publications were recognized by seven ASCE awards, including the Norman Medal with H. Bolton Seed in 1968, the Collingwood Prize and Huber Prize in 1970 and the Middlebrooks Award in 1971. Ken died in March 1978 while trying to hike out of the San Gabriel Mountains after skiing down the wrong side of Blue Ridge Ski Resport in Wrightwood during inclement weather.
In 2003 the annual Kenneth L. Lee Memorial Lecture was instituted by the Geotechnical Group of the Los Angeles Section of ASCE in recognition of outstanding research in the design of earth structures and contributions to geotechnical practice in southern California.
Some of Ken Lee's graduate students included: Wolfgang Roth as a postdoc fellow (1973-75), Steve Haley (Woodward-Clyde/URS), C. K. Shen, Iraj Farhoomand (URS Consultants), Gregory N. Richardson (Professor at North Carolina State, now owns G.N. Richardson & Assoc in Raleigh, NC), Bobby Dean Adams (Fugro), Jeff Johnson (of Dames & Moore, before starting JA Johnson Assoc), Ken Campbell (Dames & Moore), Marshall Lew (LeRoy Crandall, MACTEC, AMEC), Jeff Keaton (Dames & Moore, AMEC), Claude Corvino (Harding Lawson), William Wolfe (Professor at Ohio State), Allen Yourman of Diaz-Yourman Associates, Bart Patton of Kleinfelder, and Timothy R. Huber, Vice President of Geotechnical Consultants in Monterey.
George W. Tauxe (at UCLA 1965-73)
George W. Tauxe, PE (1943-93) grew up in Pacific Palisades, a few blocks from where the Via de Los Osas Landslide buried the Pacific Coast Highway in 1958. After graduating from high school he attended UCLA, completing his BS (1964), MS (1966), and PhD (1973) degrees in general engineering, with an emphasis in civil engineering. His master's work was under Prof. C. M. Duke and his doctoral research was under Prof. W.G. Yeh. From 1966 to 1973 he was a lecturer at UCLA, teaching courses in soil mechanics, computer programming for engineers, and water resources engineering. In 1973 he took a faculty position at the University of Illinois (1973-79), then moved to the University of Oklahoma in 1979, where he remained until his death in 1993. The George W. Tauxe Memorial Scholarship for civil engineering students and the George W. Tauxe Outstanding Professor Award at the University of Oklahoma are named after him.
Awtar Singh (at UCLA 1966-73)
Professor Awtar Singh, GE (1926-2012) received his BSCE degree from Punjab Eng'g College in 1949; MSCE from Colorado in 1963, and Ph.D. from U.C. Berkeley in 1966, working with Prof. Jim Mitchell. He began his professional career in India working on Bhakra Dam, a virtual copy of Shasta Dam designed by the International Engineering Co. of San Francisco. This association led to his coming to the United States for graduate study. He joined the UCLA faculty in the fall of 1966, and was a co-recipient of ASCE's Middlebrooks Award in 1970 for the article "Bonding Effective Stress and Shear Strength of Soils."
Unable to gain tenure, in October 1972 he formed a consulting partnership with Bruce R. Lockwood, CEG, known as Lockwood-Singh & Associates, and continued teaching at UCLA thru the 1972-73 academic year (Lockwood-Singh is profiled below). He continued working for the firm until October 2004, at age 78! In 1998 Singh established the Awtar and Teji Singh Fellowship at U. C. Berkeley to attract promising students from his alma mater, Punjab Engineering College in Chandigarh for graduate studies at Berkeley. This cost him $30,000 annually. Dr. Singh passed away on November 7, 2012, the day before he was inducted into Berkeley’s Academy of Distinguished Alumni in Civil & Environmental Engineering. The Singh’s lived in Encino.
Poul V. Lade (at UCLA 1972-93)
Professor Poul Lade (1943-present) received his MS from the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen in 1967, and his PhD from Berkeley in 1972, working with Prof Mike Duncan on experimental three-dimensional soil testing and constitutive modeling, which was new and futuristic at that time. He joined the UCLA faculty in the fall of 1972. Lade engaged in a wide variety of research, including experimental methods; three-dimensional stress-strain and strength behavior of soils during monotonic loading and large three-dimensional stress reversals; stability, instability and liquefaction of granular materials; time effects in soils; constitutive modeling of frictional materials such as soil, rock, and concrete employing elasticity and work-hardening, isotropic and kinematic plasticity theories; deformation and stability analyses of foundation engineering problems. Examinations of the mechanisms that determine ground-surface offsets above a dip slip earthquake fault, trying to develop a more accurate prediction of how soils lying above a fault would react when fault rupture initiates (which became much more appreciated after the Jan 1994 Northridge quake).
He left UCLA in 1993 and moved to Johns Hopkins University, then the Aalborg University in Denmark from 1999-2003, and then to Catholic University in Washington, DC, where he served as chairman of the civil engineering program from 2003 to 2009, and retiring in 2015. In 2001 he contributed "Chapter 3 - Engineering Properties of Soils and Typical Correlations, in the Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook. During his tenure at UCLA some of his more noted graduates included Jerry Yamamuro (Clarkson University, University of Delaware, and Oregon State University) and Mark M. Kirkgard, GE with Law-Crandall in Los Angeles.
Mete Oner (at UCLA 1981-85)
Prof. Mete Oner served as an associate professor of geotechnical engineering at UCLA between January 1981 and August 1985. He was a native of Turkey, who received his BSCE from Middle East Technical University (METU) in Ankara in 1969, followed by an MS in 1971. He completed his PhD at the Norweigian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1975, then served on the faculty at METU from 1976-81. After serving as a research engineer at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institite in Oslo, he joined the UCLA faculty. He accepted a faculty position in geotechnical engineering in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Oklahoima State University, beginning in the fall semester of 1985. In September 1995 he founded the Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (EJGE) and maintained a webpage on the history and evolution of geotechnical engineering practice. He retired from Oklahoma State in 2005, and continued managing the EJGE out of Stillwater.
Mladin Vucetic (at UCLA 1987-present)
Prof. Mladin Vucetic received his B.S. in 1976 and MS in 1981 from the University of Zagreb in Croatia, during which time he also studied at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) in Oslo. He received his PhD in geotechnical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1986, working with Ricardo Dobry. He joined the faculty at UCLA the following year. His research interests have included stress-strain conditions in the NGI direct simple shear test, cyclic and dynamic behavior of clays, silts and sands under uniform and irregular cyclic loads, small-strain cyclic and dynamic behavior of soils, liquefaction mechanism using nonlinear computer models and case history studies, behavior of soil-nailed excavations during earthquakes using centrifuge modeling, and development of geotechnical site data bases and their utilization in seismic microzoning using GIS.
Daniel Pradel (at UCLA 1997-present)
Prof. Daniel Pradel, GE received his DCE '82 from the Swiss Institute of Technology- Lausanne in 1982, and his PhD from Tokyo University in 1987, working with Prof. Kenji Ishihara. He came to Los Angeles in 1988 to work as a postdoc fellow at UCLA with Poul Lade. After one year, he joined Lockwood Singh Associates, where he remained from 1989-97. He joined the UCLA faculty as an Adjunct Associate Professor in 1997, the same year he founded Praad Geotechnical in Culver City. In 2011 he dissolved Praad and joined Group Delta, and continues to teach geotechnical courses at UCLA.
Jonathan P. Stewart (at UCLA 1998-present)
Prof. Jonathan Stewart, PE grew up in Concord, CA. He attended U.C. Berkeley, receiving his BSCE in 1990, MS in 1992, and PhD in 1996, working under Ray Seed. He joined the UCLA faculty in 1998, where he has specialized in geotechnical earthquake engineering, with an emphasis on seismic soil-structure interaction, characterization of probabilistic earthquake ground motion, and seismically-induced ground failure. He also served as editor of the Journal of Geoenvironmental & Geotechnical Engineering for many years.
Scott J. Brandenberg (at UCLA 2005-present)
Prof. Scott Brandenberg received his BSCE in 2000 from Cal Poly SLO, M.S. in 2001 and PhD in 2005 from U.C. Davis, working with Ross Boulanger. His research interests have centered on geotechnical earthquake engineering, geophysical imaging, data acquisition and signal processing, and numerical analysis.
Consulting firms in UCLA threadline
Stone Geological Services, Inc. (1956-64); Robert Stone & Associates (1964-78); RSA-Robert Stone & Associates (1979-91); AGI Geotechnical, Inc., (1991-present)
Founded in July 1956 by Robert Stone, CEG (1926-78) (BA Geol 1948 City College-New York; PhD Geol 1955 UCLA). Stone enrolled in graduate study at USC in the fall of 1948, but dropped out after two years. In 1950 he joined the Bureau of Reclamation as a groundwater geologist, and in 1952 moved to the USGS as an engineering geologist. In 1952 he also enrolled in the graduate program at UCLA, and became a teaching assistant the following year (1953-54). He completed his PhD dissertation in mid-1955, titled “Ground-water geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of the southeastern San Joaquin Valley, California“
His first major consultation was an assessment of the Portuguese Bend Landslide for Los Angeles County, after the slide reactivated in mid-1956. Stone estimated that it would cost the County about $2 million to stabilize the slide, which they felt was cost-prohibitive (see R. Stone, 1961, Geology and Hillside Appraisal, The Residential Appraiser, v. 29:1, pp. 9-11). Stone was also one of the founding members of the California Association of Engineering Geologists in 1957. From 1956 to 1963 their office was on Wilshire Blvd. in LA. In 1963 Stone moved his office to Woodland Hills (he lived in Canoga Park), and later, moving to Van Nuys. At one time they had branch offices in Santa Clarita and Palmdale (dates unkn).
Stone Geological Services did a lot of pioneering work in Los Angeles Basin, as well as peer review work for Rancho Palos Verdes and general geotechnical work for several municipalities, with Los Angeles County being their largest client. Stone taught field geology for USC for many years, during the summers. The firm frequently employed CSLA Professor Perry Ehlig, CEG (see Cal State LA threadline) as a consultant (the two had been PhD classmates at UCLA), and Perry became the preeminent expert on the Abalone Cove and Portuguese Bend Landslides on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, and a reviewing geologist for several of the municipalities in that area.
Some of the geologists who worked for Stone included: Jack T. Eagen, CEG, Herb Adams, CEG, Dick Lung, CEG, Monte Ray, CEG, Gerry Nicoll, CEG, Bob Tepel, CEG, William G. Uhl, CEG, Blasé Cilweck, CEG, Russ Harter, CEG, Roy Dokka, Kathleen Ehlig Proffer, CEG, Mark S. Oborne, CEG, Dave Simon, CEG, etc. Cuban native Juan A. Vidal, GE (MSCE Havana Univ) joined the firm as its principal engineer in 1968 and purchased the company after Dr. Stone’s death in August 1978. Other senior geotechnical engineers included Robert A. Merrill, GE (BSE ’48 UCLA; MSCE CSULA) and Artedi B. Cortez, GE (MSCE World Open Univ).
After purchasing the firm, Vidal changed its name to RSA – Robert Stone & Associates, a certified DBE/MBE firm, with VP & Chief Geologist Monte Ray, CEG, who was succeeded by VP’s Mike Scullin, CEG (BA Geol ’58 Arizona State; MBA ‘81 Redlands) and Alfredo A. ‘Al’ Guerrero. A branch office in Rancho California was managed by Dave B. Simon, CEG (BS Geol ‘80 UCSB). The senior geologist and general manager was Mark S. Oborne, CEG (BS Geol ‘78; MS ‘82 CSUN). Staff geologists included David L. Snyder, CEG (BS Geol ’84 Cal Lutheran) and Eric L. Smith, CEG (BS Geol ’84 Cal Lutheran), and Patrick L. Drumm, CEG, CHG (BA Geol ’79 West Virginia, MS ’99 CSULA).
In 1991 RSA was dissolved and Vidal started a new firm named AGI Geotechnical, Inc. with Keith Ehlert, CEG as VP, followed by Mark Swiatek, CEG, and more recently, by Alan McLeron, PG.
Hood & Schmidt, Engineering Geologists (1959-64)
Founded by Russell G. Hood, CEG (BA Geol ’52 UCLA) and C. William Schmidt, CEG in 1959. Hood received his BS in geology from UCLA in 1952, and had become Chief Geologist at Dames & Moore by 1959, when he left to start this firm. He became President of Geotechnical Consultants in 1964. Glenn Brown, CEG worked for the firm’s Santa Ana office in 1963-64, Doug Moran, CEG in 1964-65, and Francis L. Nevin, CEG, RGP in 1965-66. According to Allen Hatheway, Russ sold out to go "raise cattle in Missouri,” and to write his experiences in soil mechanics consulting, as “One Goshdarned Thing After Another.” Dick Proctor says that both Russ Hood and Bill Schmidt went to Grove Springs, Missouri to raise Angus cattle, and that Russ also taught at a local community college (around 1967-68).
E.D. Michael & Associates (1961-66; 1970-present)
Eugene Donald “Don” Michael, CEG, CHG (1928- ) earned his BA in geology from Occidental in 1953. After two years working as an engineering geologist for the State of California and a year with the Monolith Portland Cement Co. in Tehachapi, he enrolled in grad study at UCLA under Profs U. S. Grant, IV, Bill Putnam, John Rosenfeld, and David T. Griggs, in the latter's high-pressure laboratory. He received is MS in 1960 and opened his first office as a consulting engineering geologist in Santa Monica between 1961-66. During this time Paul Merifield worked for Don. In 1966 he joined Pope, Evans, and Robbins, Int’l Ltd., and engineering firm, though maintaining a one man consultancy out of his home in Malibu. He became head of their hydrology section at the firm’s office in Saigon, where they developed the water resources for the various military bases being constructed in South Vietnam.
Don returned to California in late 1970 and reopened his consulting office in Malibu. His work included preparation of reports related to real estate development and transfer of title, reviews of the geological aspects of environmental impact reports, and studies relating to geologic hazards and ground-water. He also taught courses for the UCLA Extension Program and Santa Monica College, and found time to write twenty papers published in various professional journals. He also earned a law degree at night from Mid-Valley College. Don was also a pioneer in recognizing the importance of rainfall incidence on magnification of effective precipitation along coastal bluffs. He has earned an enviable reputation as “Mr. Geology of Malibu,” which incorporated in 1991 as a 17-mile long strip along the coast.
Earth Science Research Corp (1961-69)
Founded by Donald L. Lamar, CEG, RGP and his wife Jeannine, while Don was working for the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, from 1961-64. Don worked under renowned engineering geologist William R. Judd, PE, CEG (former Chief Geologist of the US Bureau of Reclamation, who went onto an academic career at Purdue). An international conference on "State of Stress in Earth's Crust" was convened on June 1963 in Santa Monica, under the Judd’s leadership. It was the first symposium on stresses and related rock mechanics principles in North America. Don Lamar and Paul Merifield were listed as the firm’s “consulting geologists” after 1965. The office address in Santa Monica was the same used by Lamar-Merifield. Earth Science Research was formed to perform research contracts, mostly for government agencies, such as the Department of the Navy, NASA, NSF, and the US Geological Survey.
In 1965 Donald L. Lamar, CEG, RGP formed a partnership with Paul M. Merifield, PhD, CEG, which they christened Lamar-Merifield, and settled themselves into Lamar’s Santa Monica office. The firm was unusual in that they or their subsidiary, Earth Science Research, secured research contracts with agencies such as: the USGS, NASA, US Navy, Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. One of these was a nine-year telemetry project funded by the USGS in the late 1970s-early 1980s performing ‘Water level monitoring along San Andreas and San Jacinto Faults in Southern California.’
Don Lamar (1930-2009) grew up in Glendale and did his undergrad work in geophysics at Caltech, Class of ’52. He then served in the US Army (1954-56), before enrolling in grad studies at UCLA, earning MS (’59) and PhD (’61) degrees in structural geology. His PhD dissertation was on evolution of the northern margins of the Los Angeles Basin, released as “Geology of the Elysian Park, Repetto Hills area, Los Angeles, CA” published as CDMG Spec Rpt 101 in 1970. This was followed by work with Don Michael in Malibu in 1964-65, before starting Lamar-Merifield. Don Lamar taught engineering geology part-time at USC for many years and served as City Engineering Geologist for Palmdale, between 1979-88. Lamar began suffering from bipolar disorder and took an early retirement in 1990, moving to Eugene, Oregon. He lived his later years in Reno, Nevada.