Schaefer Dixon Associates (1982-1991)
In April 1982 Schaefer Dixon (BSCE ‘58, MS ‘62 UC Berkeley) departed Converse to form Schaefer Dixon Associates, based in Los Angeles. They moved to Irvine in 1984, to Santa Ana in 1986, and then built their own office building in Irvine in 1988. Ellis J. Jones was one of the principals when the firm launched. Robert J. Lynn, CEG joined as a principal a few years later, along with Paul Davis, CEG (BA Geol ’63 Berkeley; MA ’83 CSULA) as a partner, along with Ann Ogden Meeker, CEG (from with purchase of Medal-Worswick). Other partners included Jay Weaver, GE, Jeff Butelo, CEG and Gary Dupuy, CHG (from Calgary), and John Foster, CHG (BS Geol SDSU; went onto earn his PhD and taught at CSU-Fullerton). The firm specialized in geoenvironmental work.
In March 1986 they acquired Medall, Worswick & Associates and moved their headquarters to Santa Ana, maintaining branch offices in Los Angeles and San Diego. Bob Lynn and Paul Davis were their principal geologists at that time. Around 1987 the firm purchased Pioneer Consultants [profiled below] of Redlands, who operated their own Hogentogler CPT rig. In 1990 James R. Miller (MS Geol Eng ‘76 CSM; formerly with ERTEC) became the firm’s president. Schaff Dixon became board chair and served as president of the Consulting Engineers Assn of California in 1990-91. In March 1991 the firm was sold to the Huntingdon International Holdings (Group) of Great Britain, and Dixon retired.
In 2006 Schaefer Dixon (1936-2009) donated $800,000 to U.C. Berkeley to establish the H. Bolton Seed Professorship and the Schaefer J. Dixon Fund in Geotechnical Engineering, to support outstanding graduate students in geoengineering. He and his wife Sharon divorced and he never re-married, pursuing his passion for yachting. Schaff died of cancer in April 2009 at his home along Sugar Creek in Callahan, CA (near Mt. Shasta). Ellis Jones was with Converse’s SFO branch office, then Las Vegas, before joining SDA (he would know more about the firm).
Fugro, Inc. (1970-77)
Fugro was founded in September 1970 by Jaap “Jack”J. Schoustra, PE (1931-1997) (BS Netherlands Univ, MS Delft Tech Univ) and Jay L. Smith (BS Geol ‘58 UCLA), who were both partners at Converse-Davis in Pasadena. Schoustra emigrated from the Netherlands to Canada in 1956 to accept a position with Racey, McCallum & Associates in Toronto, where he became the senior member of their foundations division, working mostly on high-rise structures. In 1962 he moved to Pasadena to take a senior position with Converse-Davis, eventually becoming Chief Engineer and Chairman. In 1970 Schoustra had a falling out with Bob Davis at Converse, and left the firm. The Dutch Schoustra visited Holland in September 1970 to consult with Fugro, BV and they provided $200K in start-up funds for a new branch office in southern California.
Jay Smith was 1958 graduate of UCLA in geology, who had worked his way up to become the senior engineering geologist at Converse Davis. He was also a recent graduate of the Dale Carnegie course, and quickly became Fugro’s marketing genius. They set up an office in modest quarters on 7th Street in Long Beach, with just four employees. Their first Dutch Cone CPT rig arrived in Long Beach mid-March 1971. During their first year of operation they succeeded in luring about six of Converse’s more experienced people, including: Ken Wilson, CEG, Marshall Payne, CEG, RGp, Stanley B. Madson,CEG, PE, John Scott, CEG, Richard Fallgren, PE, and two native Scotsmen, soil technicians Angus McGregor (field sampling manager) and Bill Bryson (or Brightsman), who managed their soils lab. The firm also employed Caltech Professor Ron Scott as a frequent consultant (Schoustra co-authored the 1968 textbook Soil Mechanics & Engineering with Ron Scott).
The Feb 1971 San Fernando Earthquake created an increased demand for cone penetrometer (CPT) work in southern CA, to evaluate liquefaction potential of hydraulic fill dams (some 30 dams were replaced in CA over next 20 years) and many low lying sites thought to be susceptible to liquefaction. Schoustra and Smith invested in a SMC dynamic triaxial soil test bed and marketed themselves to perform soil dynamics, which offered little competition and was suddenly in great demand. Fugro initiated a “hire for the moment” policy, and began accumulating work at an unprecedented pace, growing to 200 employees in their first four years (1970-74). They quickly gained an impressive stable of clients, including: LA Dept of Water & Power, Southern Cal Edison, San Diego Power & Light, Southern San Joaquin MUD, Arizona Public Service, US DoD MX missile complexes, etc.
In 1973 Fugro purchased an entire office building on Long Beach Boulevard, where they sported the largest group of engineering geologists ever assembled by a consulting firm, including such notables as Roy Shlemon, CEG (BA ’57 CSU Fresno; MS ’58 Wyoming; PhD ’67 Berkeley) and Allen Hatheway, PE, CEG (AB Geol ’61 UCLA; MS GeoE ’66, PhD GeoE ’71; PD ‘82 Arizona). Other senior personnel included structural engineer C. B. Crouse; Manager of Geology Paul Davis, CEG (1973-79), who was succeeded by Ray Moresco, CEG (from MWD). Other senior staff included Geoff Martin, GE (PhD ’65 Berkeley), J. Carl Stepp (from the NRC-their best marketer), Hudson Matlock, PE, Kenneth Wilson, CEG, Bob Lynn, CEG, Carl Johnson, CEG, Ricardo Guzman, GE., Carlos Espana, GE (BSCE ’68; MS ‘69 Berkeley), who established Espana Geotechnical in Roseville in 1989, which was purchased by Fugro West in Dec 2005; Dean Gregg, CHG (head of hydrogeology dept), Robert Stoller, CHG, etc., etc. Around 1975 Fugro, acquired a career marketing person in Diane Creel, who had been working for CH2M-Hill. She went on to become the successor firm’s President and CEO in 1988 (see write-up on ERTEC, below).
Fugro marketed their services for seismic risk assessments, preparing seismic safety elements for municipal general plans (required by a new State law, passed in wake of the 1971 earthquake) and NRC-mandated Preliminary Safety Analysis Reports (PSARs) for nuclear power plants. They also marketed their services aggressively for conventional geotechnical services, such as foundation engineering, offshore drilling platforms, and pipelines. They operated the first electronic recording CPT rigs in the United States, mounted on 5-ton ex-Army Signal Corps van-bodied trucks, using the electronically-recording Dutch cones manufactured in The Netherlands. See the rest of the Fugro thread under “Firms in Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties.”
ERTEC, INC. (1980-2008)
Earth Technology Corporation (ERTEC) succeeded Fugro in a buy-out scheme in 1980-81. It later became Earth Technology Resources Corporation, and then, ERTEC-Western. Last known address is 100 West Broadway, Suite 5000, in Long Beach. The original President and CEO was Jack Schoustra, GE who started Fugro after leaving Converse in 1970. They entered the geoenvironmental market in 1980s, with high-visibility clients, like International Technologies, etc. Geoffrey R. Martin, PhD, GE (PhD ’65 Berkeley) managed the earthquake engineering group, then served as Vice President of Engineering, between 1977-90. Paul Guptill, CEG was their senior geologist in the mid-1980s. Nicholas R. Hild was Vice President and Principal-in-Charge of Western Regional Operations between ~1986-91. In 1988 Diane Creel succeeded Schoustra as President of Earth Technology Corp. They also acquired Aqua Resources of Berkeley in 1990. Ray Moresco, CHG was Chief Hydrogeologist in the 1990s. The firm then merged with Tyco International, Ltd. in Nov. 1995.
Earth Technology was originally founded around 1980, and performed technical consulting on environmental and engineering projects for Southern California Edison, General Motors and eight of the 10 largest oil companies. Leighton and Associates purchased the geotechnical testing lab from ERTEC in 1996-97.
In 2008, ERTEC was absorbed by AECOM, owners of ENSR: Environmental Consultants and Engineers, an 1800-person firm headquartered in Westford, MA. Jim Miller was President of ERTEC-Western (now president of Brown & Caldwell in Walnut Creek). He and Steve Scott may be the best people to ask.
Earth Mechanics, Inc. (1989 - present)
Earth Mechanics, Inc. (EMI) was founded in 1989 by Lino Choi-Chi Cheang, GE (BSCE ‘78 and MS ’79 Texas) and Ignatius Po-Cheung “Po” Lam, GE (BSCE ‘73 Ohio State; MS ’74 and EngD ‘76 Caltech) after working several years at Earth Technology Corporation in Long Beach under Geoff Martin and Hudson Matlock. In the early 90's the firm specialized in seismic retrofits of bridges for Caltrans following the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. The new firm drew upon their experience from designs of offshore platforms during their days at ERTEC and applied this to seismic retrofits.
In 1995, Hubert K. Law, PE (BS MinE ‘85 Nat’l Cheng Kung Univ-Taiwan; MS GeoE ’87 Alaska; PhD GeotE ‘91 Colorado-Boulder) joined the firm and Arul K. Arulmoli, GE (BSCE ‘77 Univ Sri Lanka; MS ’80 and PhD ‘82 UC Davis) in 1997. The firm landed their first major geotechnical contract in 1997 for the Replacement of East Span San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge, with Fugro as a joint venture partner. The firm worked on seismic retrofit and replacement projects of most of the toll bridges in California; which led to further work on geotechnical seismic problems for other long span bridges on Oregon, Washington, Vancouver, and New York.
In 2004, Arul and Hubert assumed the positions of president and vice president, respectively, and have run the company's day to day operations, while Po and Lino have remained working as project managers. Arul has a strong hold in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach providing on-call geotechnical services 24/7 for wharfs and container terminals, while Hubert focuses on tunnels and design-build projects in transportation. Key senior staff include: Andrew Korkos, GE (BSCE ’85 and MS ‘89 CSULB), Andrew Lee, GE (BSCE ’86 Illinois; MS ’88 USC), Eric Brown, GE (BSCE ‘93 CPSU SLO; MS ‘95 Colorado- Boulder), and Mike Kapuskar, GE (Dipl CE ‘86 Univ Stuttgart; MS ‘92 USC). In late 2013 they started working on the first segment of the California High Speed Rail Program, known as the Design-Build Package CP-1, with Tutor Perini. Their firm is located in Fountain Valley, with branch offices in Hayward and San Marcos.
Geotechnical Professionals Inc. (GPI) (1989-present)
Full-service geotechnical consulting and testing firm established in 1989 in Cypress, CA. The firm was originally fpounded by James E. Harris, GE (BSCE and MS CSULB) and Byron Konstantinidis, GE (BSCE ’71 Robert College; MSCE ’72 New Mexico). Prior to founding GPI, Konstantinidis worked for Geofon and Fugro/Ertec. Other principals include Paul Schade, GE (BSCE 1989 CPSLO; MS CSULB) came to the firm in 1998 from Law/Crandall; and Donald A. Cords, GE (BSCE Wisconsin-Madison; MS 1986 Texas A&M).
Geothermal Surveys, Inc. (1961-present) dba GSi/water
Consulting firm founded by Occidental College Geology & Geophysics Professor Joe Birman, CEG, RGP, CHG, where he taught between 1950-84. Birman was trained as a hydrogeologist (AB Brown ’48; MS Caltech ’50; PhD UCLA ‘57). In 1961 Birmin established Geothermal Surveys working out of South Pasadena, after spending the previous four years supervising the first thermal survey of a ground water basin. Birman pioneered the use of water temperature profiling to track seepage and percolation conduits in Lake Isabella along the lower Kern River (widely cited in the professional literature).
Birman wrote landmark chapters in Handbook of Groundwater Development, such as “Geologic Formations as Aquifers” and “Exploration for Groundwater.” Another classic, but brief article, was “Thermal Exploration for Ground Water and Related Problems,” in Geology, Seismicity, and Environmental Impact (AEG, 1973). Joe Birman worked across much of the United States, and in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. Tom H. Hibner, CEG (BS Geol ’89 CSPU-Pomona) was their senior geologist throughout the 1990s, and Eric Gorman (BS Geol 2001 CSLA) have served as their senior geologists in the 2000s.
Lindvall-Richter, and Associates (1971-90); Lindvall, Richter & Benuska Associates (1990-95); Harza Engineers-Los Angeles office (1995-97)
In 1971, Caltech emeritus Professor of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Frederick C. Lindvall, NAE (1903-89) (BS ’24 Illinois; PhD ’28 Caltech) asked his retired colleague, seismologist Charles F. Richter (1900-85) (AB ’20 Stanford; PhD ’28 Caltech) if they should form a company specializing in seismic engineering and earthquake hazards. They incorporated as Lindvall-Richter, and Associates and enlisted Caltech geotechnical engineering Professor Ronald F. Scott, PE, NAE; former Caltech geology professor Richard H. Jahns, CEG (then Dean of Earth Sciences at Stanford); Berkeley structural engineering professor Ray W. Clough, SE, NAE, and Prof. Lindvall’s son, Stanford geology graduate C. Eric Lindvall, PG (MS Geol ’58 Stanford). These six were the principals of the firm, with Eric Lindvall serving as the firm’s president.
In the late 1970s, two Associates (consultants) were added: structural engineers J. Brent Hoerner, SE (PhD CE ’71 Caltech) and Roy C. Van Orden, SE (BSE ’42 Caltech; 1918-2011). In 1980 engineering geologist Richard J. Proctor, CEG (BA ’54 CSLA; MS ’58 UCLA), recently retired from the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) joined the firm, serving as an associate until 1985. Famed Caltech structural earthquake engineer Prof. George W. Housner, SE, NAE, NAS (BSCE ’33 Michigan; MS ’34 and PhD ’41 Caltech; 1910-2008) often consulted to LRA.
Owing to Richter’s prestigious name, three of LRA’s biggest clients were local public agencies then planning or constructing tunnels: MWD, the LA Department of Water and Power, and the Southern California Rapid Transit District (SCRTD, later MTA), builders of the LA Metro subway.
In 1978 Richard Gallagher , the L.A. Metro Chief Engineer, hired the nine LRA Principals and Associates to form their Geotechnical Consulting Board, along with tunnel engineers Ron E. Heuer and P.E. “Joe” Sperry. The Board was active until 1985, and was responsible for all preliminary borings, soils and hazardous gas testing, seismicity, geology, and route alignments, etc. The Board asked for proposals, and hired the joint venture of Converse Consultants (Pasadena)/Geotechnical Consultants (Glendale)/Earth Science Associates (Palo Alto) to perform the field and lab work, and prepare a baseline report (1982, 2 volumes). Of note is the Appendix on Tunnel Seismic Design, prepared by LRA and George Housner, SE, which became a benchmark document for tunnel design and construction in seismically active areas. In 1983 the L.A. Metro design consultants were hired, and Chief Engineer Gallagher took early retirement because of in-house politics. Soon afterward the new Chief Engineer replaced the entire Board!
All of the principals died in the 1980s, except Eric Lindvall and Ronald Scott. In 1981, owing to failing health, Frederick Lindvall hired Dames & Moore principal N. F. ‘Jack’ Yaghoubian (BSCE ’61 Illinois) to replace him as president of LRA. In 1983, Eric Lindvall became president. Around 1989 civil engineer Kalman Lee Benuska (BSCE ’60; MS ‘61 Berkeley) was brought from Converse Consultants as a partner, and the name was changed to Lindvall-Richter-Benuska & Associates (LRBA). Lee Benuska was diagnosed with a brain tumor about 1996-97, but he survived. His son Van Benuska is also an SE, who worked for the firm.
Harza Engineers of Chicago bought LRBA in 1995, and possibly due to poor long distance upper management decisions, LRBA was dissolved in 1997. Eric’s son Scott C. Lindvall, CEG (BS Geol ’84 Stanford; MS ’88 SDSU) joined the firm in 1985, after receiving his MS in engineering geology at San Diego State working with Prof. Tom Rockwell. After the firm closed, he joined William Lettis & Associates in 1998.
Dames & Moore Thread (in Caltech threadline)
Dames and Moore (1938-present)
The history of Dames & Moore parallels the development of a new discipline in engineering, the science of soils and foundation engineering. Before the birth of Dames & Moore, little was known of soil mechanics and foundation engineering, and what was known rested in the minds of the company's pioneering founders, Trent R. Dames (1911-2000) (BSCE ’33; MS ’34 Caltech; RCE 5381) and William W. Moore (1912-2002) (BSCE ’33; MS ’34 Caltech). Dames was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1911 and at age seven moved with his family to southern California, where he attended San Diego High School and developed an abiding interest in civil engineering. Moore was a native Californian, born in Pasadena three months after his future business partner. Dames and Moore met for the first time at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), where each earned their Bachelor of Science degrees in civil engineering in 1933 and master’s degrees in 1934. Both Dames and Moore had developed an affinity for a particular aspect of civil engineering--the study of soil mechanics and foundation engineering--but their chosen academic paths led to uncharted territory. Much like the pair would be forced to do in the business world, Dames and Moore had to break new ground just to get started.
Their main obstacle--and it was a formidable one, was that Caltech did not offer any courses in soils and foundation engineering. Few engineering schools included such courses in their curriculum, but Dames and Moore were undaunted and, along with several of their classmates, they lobbied Caltech officials to include soil mechanics as part of the university's post-graduate engineering studies. Dames and Moore prevailed, but without any textbooks on the subject in existence, the first students of the course had to search for available research on soil mechanics and pool their discoveries. Pursuing their academic studies in this manner, Dames and Moore were scientific pioneers early in their careers. When they left Caltech in 1934 with master's degrees in civil engineering, each possessed expertise in a field few others had ever heard of. As they had done at Caltech, Dames and Moore would share their knowledge in the business world; the resultant joint effort materialized as Dames & Moore.
It took several years before Dames and Moore realized that their best chance to put their academic training to work in the business world was to form their own company. After leaving Caltech, Moore worked as a staff member of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey organization, while Dames joined the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation as a junior engineer. The two were friends, however, and remained in contact with each other, eventually working together for both R. V. Labarre and Fred Converse between 1935-37, two of the West Coast's first soil mechanics consultants. Because of the infancy of their shared specialty, Dames & Moore found little opportunity to use their skills in the existing marketplace; the obstacle that had confronted them at Caltech assumed a similar form outside the confines of academia. Consequently, in August 1938 they decided to form a partnership, but Moore kept his job with the Corps of Engineers LA District office, working on weekends and during the evenings, while Dames worked out of his home in Pasadena. When their book of business was sufficient to keep Moore busy full-time, he quit his job with the Corps. Dames’ principal role would always be in growing the business, while Moore’s was more focused on the firm’s technical capabilities. Though cautiously optimistic when they began, a dependable business clientele did not emerge until, like Lebarre, the two budding entrepreneurs began developing their own technical innovations, which could be marketed through articles.
When they patented their Dames & Moore Type U underwater sampler, the young partners began to imagine a future filled with a more steady flow of business. Prior to the development of the Type U, soil exploration was conducted either by drilling a large hole or a number of small holes. The large-diameter borings were big enough to permit an individual to descend into the opening and record findings gleaned from the exposed strata, while the much smaller drillings offered loose or disturbed samples. Neither method was satisfactory: the former was impractical; the latter was inaccurate, creating a great need for an efficient, reliable method of determining soil dynamics. Dames & Moore had developed such a method. The Type U drove the sampler ahead of the boring, enabling engineers to obtain undisturbed samples taken from below the water table, which only rarely had been achieved. As a result, the partnership could point to its first advantage over the paltry few competitors it faced, the realization of which instilled a consistent commitment to technical research in the decades ahead. For rest of story, see separate document titled
“Dames & Moore: Corporate History” (2005).
Their first branch office was established in San Francisco in 1941, with Bill Moore moving to San Francisco a short while later. This office was joined a short while later by a third office in Seattle, doing war-related infrastructure work. By 1950 Dames & Moore had offices in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Portland, and New York.
Dames & Moore - Los Angeles office – senior personnel
The first generation of partners, as of 1950, included: Trent Dames, Bill Moore, William W. Brewer, L. LeRoy Crandall, Vernon Allen “Al” Smoots, and William Enkeboll. Bill Brewer joined the San Francisco office during World War II and LeRoy Crandall the Los Angeles office in 1945. They became the first junior partners with Dames and Moore in November 1947. Al Smoots received his BSCE degree from the University of Kansas in 1944 and served as a Navy Seabee officer in the Pacific before joining the LA office in 1946. He went onto manage their New York office when it opened, but moved back to the firm’s Los Angeles headquarters in 1954 as Managing Consultant, when LeRoy Crandall departed (Smoots remained with D&M until 1985). Smoots co-authored the text Construction guide for soils and foundations, along with Gordon A. Fletcher (of Raymond International) in 1974. A Second Edition appeared in 1988, co-authored by Fletcher and Richard G. Ahlvin (of USACE-WES Vicksburg). Bill Moore and Bill Enkeboll transferred to the San Francisco office in the mid-1950s.
By the mid-1960s the LA office included partners Trent Dames, Al Smoots, and Donald V. N. Roberts (BSCE ’50 Stanford; and President of ASFE in 1985-86). In the mid-1950s Don Roberts and Dave Lieu formed the Quality Control team that provided in-house peer review of all reports before they went out of the office. Hank Klehn (BSCE ’59, MS ‘60 Berkeley) joined the firm in 1960 after completing his graduate degree in soil mechanics at Berkeley. Structural engineer Bill Gates (BSCE ’61, MS ‘63 Berkeley) also came from Berkeley, focusing on dynamic analysis of soil-structure systems in earthquakes. Wolfgang H. Roth, GE (PhD ’67 Graz Austria) joined the firm in 1978 after working several years as a postdoctoral researcher with Prof. Ken Lee at UCLA. Gates and Roth became VP’s, while Klehn became managing partner of the LA office in the mid-1970s. Nejde F. ‘Jack’ Yaghoubian (BSCE ’61 Illinois) became a partner in the early 1970s, after managing the firm’s office in Tehran in the late 1960s.
In the late 1980s Klehn was named Executive VP and Chief Operating Officer of the firm, taking over role of VP for Corporate Development and joining D&M’s managerial board in 1993. Caltech grad George D. Leal GE, NAE (BSCE '56 Santa Clara; MBA ’57 Chicago; MSCE ‘58 Caltech) joined the firm in 1959 and became CEO in 1981, serving till 1994, then as Chairman of the Board (COB) from 1991-98. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1995. It was Leal who took the firm into the lucrative geoenvironmental market in the 1980s, greatly expanding the firm’s market share and prestige.
In 1952 the firm hired Russell G. Hood (BA Geol 1952 UCLA) as their their first full-time geologist in the Los Angeles office (he departed in 1959 to found his own firm (profiled in the UCLA threadline). From the late 1950s, D&M engineering geologists have included John F. Stickel, David Bramwell, Roy Eastman, Richard Richards, Austin G. Schroter, and Arthur C. “Art” Darrow, CEG (BA Geol ‘63, MA ’68 UCSB). Darrow joined the firm after serving two tours in Vietnam as a Marine Corps officer. In Aug 1993 he was named President and Chief Operating Officer, CEO in Jan 1995, and COB in 1998, succeeding George Leal. Geological engineer Gary E. Melikian (BSGE ‘62 CSM), worked out of the LA office between 1962-80 (he moved to D&M’s Technical Services Branch in Washington DC). G. A. “Andy” Reti and J. Russell Mount were a few of the staff engineers. Mount was the first to employ computer codes to model dewatering systems, in the late 1960s. Robert M. Moline was a senior geotechnical engineer who worked on earth dams.
In 1960 D&M was the first geotechnical firm to hire an “engineering seismologist.” In fact, this was the first time the term was ever used. David J. Leeds, CEG, RGP (1917-2011) (BA Geol ’39 Texas; PhD Geophy ’66 UCLA) had originally worked for the US Coast & Geodetic Survey, from an office at UCLA. At D&M he pioneered the assessment of techniques to measure the shear wave velocity of soils, then compute theoretical site amplification spectra. The first such project was for the proposed San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant in 1962. D&M led the charge in this arena until other forms began emulating their efforts after the 1971 Sylmar Earthquake. Jeff Keaton, PE, CEG (BS GeolE ’71 Arizona; MSCE ’72 UCLA; PhD 1983 Texas A&M) was a senior geologist from 1971-79. After Paul Baumann PE retired from the LACo FCD in 1959, he was retained by Dames & Moore as a consultant on the retrofit of Puddingstone Dam, Little Santa Anita Canyon Dam, and Eaton Canyon Dam.