Gender in Western Art, Literature and History: An Interdisciplinary Bibliography, Ja

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Torgovnick, Marianna, Primitive Passions, 1997

Torgovnick, Marianna, Savage Intellects, Modern Lives, Chicago: Un. of Chicago Pr., 1990

Van Wagner, Judy, Lines of Vision: Drawings by Contemporary Women, Rizzoli, 1989

Vance, Carole, "Feminist Fundamentalism - Women Against Images," Art in America, Sept. 1993, 35-39 [censored exhibition on prostitution at Univ. of Michigan Law School]

Wagner, Anne, "Lee Krasner as L.K.," ; repr. in Norma Broude and Mary Garrard, eds., The Expanding Discourse: Feminism and Art History, New York: HarperCollins, 1992

Waller, S., ed., Women Artists in the Modern Era: A Documentary History, London, 1991

Wallis, Brian, "Power, Gender and Abstraction," in Holliday Day, ed., Power: Its Myths and Mores in American Art, 1961-1991, Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1991, 100-113

Weeks, Jeffrey, Sex, Politics and Society. The Regulation of Sexuality Since 1800, New York and London: Longman, 1981

Weinberg, Jonathan, "'Some unknown Thing': the Illustrations of Charles Demuth", Arts Magazine, 61, December 1986, 14-21

Weinberg, Jonathan, "Cruising with Paul Cadmus," Art in America, Nov. 1992, 102-110 [gay painter of the 30s]

Weinberg, Jonathan, "Demuth and Difference", Art in America, 76, April 1988, 188-94

Werkner, Parrick, Art, Sexuality and Viennese Modernism, Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1994

Werth, Margaret, "Engendering Imaginary Modernism: Henri Matisse's 'Bonheur de vivre'", Genders, 9, November 1990, 49-74

White, John, "Sexual Mecca, Nazi Metropolis, City of Doom," in Berlin: Literary Images of a City, ed. Derck Glass, Dietmar Rösler, and John White, Berlin, 1989

Whiting, Cecile, "Pop Art Domesticated: Class and Taste in Tom Wesselmann's Collages", Genders, 13, Spring 1992, 43-72

Williams, Linda, "Power, Pleasure and Perversion: Sadomasochistic Film Pornography,": Representations, Summer, 1989, 37-65

Williamson, Judith, "Images of Woman," Screen, 24, Nov-Dec, 1983, 102-106 [on Cindy Sherman's interchangeable gender roles]

Williamson, Judith, "Woman is an Island: Femininity and Colonization," in T. Modleski, ed., Studies in Entertainment: Critical Approaches to Mass Culture, Bloomington, 1986, 99-108

Withers, J., intro., "Musing about the Muse: an Art Essay", Feminist Studies, 9, Spring 1983, 26-32

Withers, Josephine, "Judy Chicago's 'Dinner Party': A Personal Vision of Women's History," ; repr. in Norma Broude and Mary Garrard, eds., The Expanding Discourse: Feminism and Art History, New York: HarperCollins, 1992

Wolverton, Terry, "Generations of Lesbian Art (All but the Obvious: A Program of Lesbian Art)", High Performance, 14/10-11, 1991

Wright, Barbara, "'New Man,' Eternal Women: Expressionist Responses to German Feminism", German Quarterly, 60, 4, 1987, 582-599

Zamora, Martha, Frida Kahlo: The Brush of Anguish. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1990

Zemel, Carol, "Postmodern Pictures of Erotic Fantasy and Social Space," Genders, spring, 1989, 26-49
The Politics of Gender, exibition catalogue, 1988, [museum??]

Feminist Studies

Gender and History (1989-)

Gender and Society,


Heresies, 1977- (art and politics)

History Workshop

Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion

Journal of Homosexuality,

Sage: A Scholarly Journal of Black Women (1982-)


Women and Literature,

Woman's Art Journal

Women in the Renaissance Newsletter, (Margaret Mikesell, John Jay College, Eng Dept.
Susan Searing / University of Wisconsin, Madison, Women's Studies Reference Librarian

1 Wood's article discusses the 1627 rape cycle of Jupiter and Europa, Pluto and Proserpina, and Neptune and Amphitrite painted for the Roman palace of Marchese Enzo Bentivoglio and Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio. As Wood initially suggests (and as the title of her article proclaims), this is an excellent example of rape as absolutist government and cosmic harmony. She shows that the same three rapes figured in the theatrical festivities planned by Enzo Bentivoglio for a Bentivoglio wedding. And the same three gods offer their crowns to the Bentivoglio coat of arms in a print by Cantarini. In an adjoining room, Giovanni da San Giovanni even painted a Perseus and Medusa. Despite all this evidence, Wood suddenly claims that absolutist power is not key to the Bentivoglio rapes. She correctly notes that these three gods divided the cosmos into three dominions but claims this dominion was never connected in classical literature to rape. This neglects Ovid's account of Pluto raping Proserpina, a narrative which begins by describing how the dominions of the three gods are surpassed by the universal rule of Venus secured by inflaming Pluto with love for Proserpina.

Wood suggests absolutism is not key, in part because no explicit reference to the Bentivoglio family appears in the room with the rape cycle. Here she strangely neglects the glaring connection with the Bentivoglio family established by the appearance of these rape frescoes in their private residence. And while she contrasts the lack of Bentivoglio insignia in the room with the rapes to the presence of such insignia in the nearby room where the same artist painted Perseus with the Head of Medusa, she misses the smoking gun she thinks she needs to connect rape with absolutist power. In the illusionistic frame of the Perseus and Medusa, Giovanni da San Giovanni painted two small scenes of mythological rape attempts, Apollo and Daphne and Pan and Syrinx. Clearly visible in her own illustration, this rape narratives, and the more violent, misogynist image of absolutist rule shown in the Perseus, underscore the absolutist ideology of the three rape frescoes Giovanni painted in the adjoining rooms.

Wood also suggests that territorial dominion and absolutism are not central to the Bentivoglio rapes because Jupiter is shown presiding over the waters, with a rape of Europa, not over his proper domain of the heavens, as might have been clear in a Rape of Ganymede. This argument overlooks the intensely problematic nature of the raped Ganymede in the Roman palace of a Post-Tridentine cardinal.

In my view, every representation of a rape committed by Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune, or Apollo which appears in court art between 1550 and 1700 works to represent absolutist power, among other things. Perhaps the Bentivoglio princes chose the rape of Europa because it was already used in Roman imperial literature to signify the divinely-ordained rule of Europe and, by implication, of Rome. Horace's Venus rebuked a tearful Europa in such terms.

Cease thy sobs! Learn to bear becomingly thy great destiny! A region of the earth shall take thy name." (Odes, 3.27)
Such thinking was widespread after 1550 when secular and Catholic princes made the global rule of Europa and Rome (or the "new Romes" of Madrid, London, and Paris) into a commonplace of absolutist geography. The global dominion of Europa was particularly important to Roman Catholic imperial discourse. The Bentivoglio may also have chosen Europa alongside the watery triumph of Pluto to represent papal naval victories, real, or divinely ordained, over the Turkish fleet.

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