Gained in chinese soviet republic



Download 19.54 Kb.
Date31.05.2016
Size19.54 Kb.
MAO’s CHINA – Legacy of the Yenan Years
GAINED IN CHINESE SOVIET REPUBLIC


  1. Importance of Guerilla Warfare

  2. How to achieve political and social mobilization of peasants

    1. Red Army gave them protection

    2. Social leveling could be counter productive

    3. Lasting land reform would not be imposed from above but by organization of peasants in each village

GAINED FROM THE LONG MARCH




  1. Mao emerged as leader – Comintern influence thrown off

  2. Secure geographical position achieved

  3. Sense of hope and confidence even in desperate conditions “Yenan Spirit” “Cult of Mao”

JAPANESE OCCUPATION


Without this, conditions essential to communist victory may never have occurred


  1. Undermined foundation of the KMT – driven from cities

  2. KMT suffered economic chaos and bureaucratic corruption

  3. Destroyed KMT influence in countryside

BUT
Increase in Communist influence


  1. Access to vast areas of countryside, with KMT collapse

  2. Expanded military and political influence

  3. Gained support of millions of peasants – organizing guerilla warfare behind Japanese lines

These factors decisive when Civil War resumed


ALSO
KMT unwillingness to defend country had weakened support
To Chinese, Yenan became a symbol of Chinese nationalism. Communists created a nation wide resistance movement and imbued it with a sense of mission


  1. War intensified horrendous economic burden of peasants

SINCE 1949

Idea of continuous Revolution

Forestall the process of “Bureaucratic institutionalism”
PROBLEMS CONFRONTED


      • exploitive socio economic policy

      • no transport or communication

      • warlords – armies

      • foreign invaders

      • corrupt and inefficient KMT

      • agricultural production primitive

      • ruinous inflation

TO CONTROL THESE CCP ADOPTED READY MADE SOVIET METHOD OF ORGANISATION


“PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC DICTATORSHIP” – to eliminate all bourgeoisie
WORK TO – Classless society – “withering away” of all forms of political

power and realization of communism


MUST

      • Strengthen the people’s state apparatus – Peoples army, peoples police, peoples courts, to consolidate national defense and protect the peoples interests

      • Economic Construction (LAND REFORM CAMPAIGN 1950-52)



POLITICAL ORDER FIRST ESSENTIAL

SOMBRE REALISTS NOT REVOLUTIONARY VISIONARIES



YEARS OF CHANGE 1950-53





  1. POLITICAL




      • Country divided into 6 regions

      • S
        PARTY VERY DISCIPLINED
        eries of councils set up in each

      • At each level CCP committee to ensure CCP policies

      • CCP run on “Democratic Centralism”. Party members MUST obey. 5 million members

      • CCP leaders took all important government positions

P.L.A:


      • 5 million men

      • Commanders shared all tasks of government

      • Troops used in rebuilding the economy

      • Used extensively




  1. RIGHTS OF WOMEN

April 1950 Marriage Law



      • no arranged marriages

      • could own property

      • divorce by mutual consent




  1. LAND REFORM

June 1950 Agrarian Reform Law

        1. decide which social class you belong to – rich or poor

        2. land taken from those who had more than they needed for their own use – about 40% of all cultivated land redistributed

        3. “Speak bitterness” meetings could get out of control

        4. did not have equipment nor money




  1. GENERAL ECONOMY

        1. nationalized all banks, railways, 1/3 heavy industry profits paid to state

        2. 1951 Peoples’ Bank – got rid of inflation

        3. farmers had to sell 15-20% of their grain to government at fixed low price. Also had to pay Agricultural tax




  1. ORGANISATION OF PEOPLE

        1. rid reactionaries – Japanese collaborators (1 million executed)

        2. 1951 “Thought Reform” – movement to study Mao’s thoughts – SELF CRITICISM

        3. Mass Party organized campaigns (re-unification)

3 separate PLA armies sent to Tibet, Xianjing, Mongolia – this allowed CCP to direct its attention to administrative reform and social re-construction. Mao, in particular, wanted to focus on corruption. Result?

against corruption, waste, red tape

          1. FIVE ANTIS

Against bribery, tax evasion, fraud, theft of government property and spying

      • People found guilty sent to labour camps to be re-educated

d) Party interest groups formed eg Womens League for Democracy, Young Pioneers (Swat the Fly Campaign: Kill at least 10 flies per day)
People encouraged to ‘dob on each other’. People risked being labeled a ‘class enemy’. Such a label could condemn entire families, particularly if they cam from middle class families. Workers had to report on colleagues, children on parents. China became a society of informers – conformity maintained by fear of being exposed as deviating from social norms. System supported by terror. CCP used gangsters to consolidate rule. Mass executions – 28,000 in Shanghai. Propaganda also used.


  1. How to bring the entire country under CCP control?

Used RED ARMY – Lin Biao in control




  1. USE OF REPRESSION AND TERROR

Army and Police

Secret Police – Public Security Police

Military Rule until 1954


In 1949 the goal was “Three years of recovery, then ten years of development


Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page