G. R. A. P. E. S. Theme Chart for Mesopotamia / Sumer, Chapter 3



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Mesopotamia / Sumer, Chapter 3


Geography

  • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flooded so the used levees to help with the flooding – to water crops

  • Poked holes in levees to water crops – canals

  • No stone or timber – used mud bricks for building

  • Desert – modern day Iraq


Religion

  • Ziggurat – home of the gods

    • So tall to get them closer to heaven

  • Only priests could enter the top level of the ziggurat

  • Had over 3000 gods – to represent forces of nature

  • Only on earth to serve gods

  • Each city-state had own god

  • Thought there were only male gods at first but then female gods


Achievements

  • City states were a city with a wall around and then farmland on the outside

  • Ziggurat was in the middle, then upper, middle, and on the edge the lower class houses

  • Made statues, pottery,

  • Had bronze gates (bronze a new metal)

  • Cuneiform (writing

  • Invented the wheel

  • 360 degree circle

  • 60 min hour, 60 sec. min.

  • Calendar based on moon

  • Invented sailboat

  • Invented plow

  • Cradle of Civilization (first civilization)

  • Oldest written records were Sumerian

  • Their ideas were copied and improved by others

  • Rise:

    • Neolithic Revolution caused villages to start because people could stay in one place – then villages developed into civilizations (Sumer)

    • Specialization (jobs) started

    • Writing developed

    • Sargon I – pushed the civilization to become larger

    • Hammurabi – pushed it even farther and wrote down laws (Code of Laws)


Politics

  • Hammurabi was best known for Code of Laws – given to rule each city-state

  • Priests were kings, hereditary (parent to child)

  • At the beginning each city-state had an independent government

  • Sargon I (from Akkad)– ruled for 50 years – he united city-states – worlds first EMPIRE

  • Hammurabi (Babylon) – ruled for 40 years

    • Golden Age of Babylon

    • Improved city-states

    • Made judges to give punishments

    • Upper class punished harsher

    • Increased trade

    • When he died Mesopotamia fell and divided into small city states


Economy

  • Fisherman/ farmers

  • Government officials / priests

  • Merchants / shop keepers

  • Artisans / metal workers

  • Scribes / teachers (went to school to learn to be one)

  • Pottery makers (artisans)

  • Traders with the rest of the world

    • Cuneiform (writing) – keep track of trade


Social Systems

  • Upper class – priests and merchants (trader)

  • Middle class – government officials, shop keepers, artisans (skilled workers)

  • Lower class – farmers, unskilled workers, fisherman





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