Further Readings "Illusions of a Separate Peace,"



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A Fence Between Israelis and Palestinians Will Not Create Peace
Table of Contents: Further Readings

"Illusions of a Separate Peace," The New York Times, July 12, 2002. Copyright © 2002 by The New York Times Company. Reproduced by permission.

Responding to months of conflict and terrorist attacks, some Israeli leaders have proposed the option of "unilateral separation" between Israelis and Palestinians. They argue that by enforcing such a separation with walls, fences, and surveillance systems between Israel and areas under the limited self-rule of the Palestinian Authority, terrorist attacks could be prevented and conflict reduced. On June 17, 2002, construction began on a 217-mile fence between Israel and the West Bank. In the following viewpoint, Israeli author and peace activist David Grossman argues that although a secure border between Israel and Palestine is necessary, constructing this wall without first reaching a peace agreement with the Palestinians will provide only a temporary illusion of peace and security for Israel. The fence will only encourage those on both sides of the conflict to give up any efforts to reach a negotiated peace, and may cause increased unrest among Israel's Arab citizens, he contends.

As you read, consider the following questions:



  1. What military problems does Grossman foresee arising from the security fence?

  2. How is Israel hurting itself in peace negotiations by constructing a wall, according to the author?

  3. Why do many Israelis support a fence, according to Grossman?

As you read this [in July 2002], a fence is going up to separate Israel from Palestinians. For now, it is defined as temporary, for defensive purposes only. It encompasses, on its Israeli side, most of the settlements Israel has established in the occupied territories. It is not intended to determine the future border between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

"Good fences make good neighbors," wrote the poet Robert Frost. Israel and Palestine are certainly not good neighbors, and there is an urgent need, both in practice and in principle, to establish a border between them. I mean a border with defensive and barrier devices, open only at crossings established by mutual consent. Such a border will protect the two sides from each other, help stabilize their relations and, especially, require them to internalize, once and for all, the concept of a border. It's a vague, elusive and problematic concept for both, since they've lived for the last 100 years without clear boundaries, with constant invasion, each within, on top of, over and under the other.



A Temporary Illusion of Security

Yet it is very dangerous to establish such a border fence right now, unilaterally, without a peace agreement. It is yet another precipitate action aimed at giving the Israeli public a temporary illusion of security; its main effect will be to supply Israelis with a counterfeit replacement for a peace process.

There may well come a time—after both sides have attempted another serious and sincere move toward peace— when Israel will conclude that there really is no chance of peace in this generation. In such a case, Israel will have to withdraw from the occupied territories, evacuate almost all the settlements, shut itself behind a thick wall and prepare for an ongoing battle.

From my conversations with Palestinian leaders, however, I am convinced there still is a chance for peace. Most Israelis disagree. "There's no one to make an agreement with!" they say. "Even [former Israeli prime minister] Shimon Peres and the leaders of the left say that they are no longer willing to talk with [Palestinian leader Yasser] Arafat, and in the meantime Israel must defend itself against terror somehow!"

But even if we assume that Yasir Arafat is not a negotiating partner—by the way, it certainly hasn't been proved that [Israeli prime minister] Ariel Sharon is a partner—we need to examine the practical implications of building a barrier fence without an agreement. It is clear to everyone that such a fence will not prevent, for example, the Palestinians' firing rockets and mortars from their territory into Israel. The Israeli Army will have to operate beyond the fence, in order to defend isolated Israeli settlements that will remain on the other side. It takes little imagination to realize what military complications this will bring.

The fence will not provide an appropriate military response to the complex situation in Jerusalem, in which Jews and Arabs rub shoulders each day. Quite the opposite. An attempt to detach East Jerusalem from the rest of the Palestinian territories is liable to turn the Arab city's inhabitants to the use of terror, which they have mostly resisted so far.

The distress Israelis feel is plain and comprehensible. It derives from the inhuman cruelty of the suicide bombings and from the feeling that there is no way out, given the huge support for terrorism among Palestinians. But this distress cannot overcome my sense that the Israeli infatuation with the fence is the product of a psychological need. It is not a well-considered policy.

Sacrificing Negotiating Positions

In establishing a fence unilaterally, Israel is throwing away the best card it has. It will be discarding this trump without receiving anything in return from the Palestinians. Last month [June 2002] in London, I heard Yasir Abed Rabbo, the Palestinian information minister, say in a conversation with Israelis from the peace camp that if Israel withdraws behind a fence, Palestinians will spend a day celebrating that most of the occupation has ended, and the next day will continue the intifada, in order to obtain the rest of their demands.

Those other demands are well known: Israeli withdrawal from 100 percent of the territories Israel occupied in the 1967 war; evacuation of all the [Jewish West Bank] settlements; Arab Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine; and acceptance of the principle of the Palestinian refugees' right of return within Israel proper.

Yet there is today a good chance of resolving all these issues in negotiations .... But if the demands of Palestinians are not resolved in negotiations, the fighting will continue. In fact, Palestinians may fight more fiercely if they feel their terror has forced Israel into a new ghetto.

Because it is so important, let me say it again: the establishment of a fence without an agreement means Israel will give up most of the occupied territories without the Palestinians giving up the right of return.

Palestinians in Israel

The establishment of a fence without peace also means that the fence will have to extend into the West Bank to encompass most of the settlements. But in building the fence to include the settlements, Israel will have to take in many Palestinian towns and villages that lie close to the settlements and to the roads that lead to them. According to some estimates, this will involve about 150,000 Palestinians. If we add the Arabs of East Jerusalem, the number of Palestinians on the Israeli side of the fence may well reach 400,000.

These people will not be Israeli citizens. Israel does not want them. They will have no clear legal status and will not be able to participate in elections. Does anyone seriously believe they will not turn to terrorism? When that happens, they will be inside the fence, not outside it, and they will have unobstructed passage to Israel's city centers. Or will Israel confine them behind yet another, second fence?

Israel correctly fears giving Palestinians the right of return to within its borders. So it is hard to understand how Israel could be prepared to take in hundreds of thousands of hostile Palestinians by building a fence.

Another question: How will Israel's Arab citizens feel? They are about a sixth of the population. Many have ties to families in the Palestinian Authority lands. Will these ties be severed by the fence? Will Israel not be increasing the bitterness and frustration of this one-sixth of the citizenry, and will not this lead Israeli Arabs to adopt even more extreme positions at a time when their connection to their country has been growing more tenuous?

The fence's major drawing power for most Israelis is that it has never been tried. So it can be believed in, for a while.



The Luxury of Despair

But the border between Israel and Palestine can be set only through full agreement by both sides. Such an agreement seems impossible today, but we cannot allow ourselves the luxury of despairing of it. I think it's better to wait and live for a few more years without this fence of illusions. This wall will declare our absolute despair of reaching a peace agreement in our generation, of integrating a normal Israel into the region around it.

A wall will allow the extremists—who are all too numerous—to argue that there will be no one to talk to in the future. Putting the other out of sight will only make dehumanization easier and justify a more extreme struggle.

Israel must not be tempted by the fiction of security behind a wall. Instead, it must invest its energy in the recommencement of negotiations. If Mr. Arafat is unacceptable to Mr. Sharon and Mr. Bush, let those leaders explain to us how they can create a better situation. Until they can do so, they bear the responsibility—no less weighty than Mr. Arafat's responsibility—for the immobility, the insensibility and the despair on both sides.


FURTHER READINGS


Books

  • Lila Abu-Lughod, ed. Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

  • Gilbert Achcar The Clash of Barbarisms: September 11 and the Making of the New World Disorder. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2002.

  • Karen Armstrong Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York: Knopf, 1996.

  • Naseer Aruri, ed. Palestinian Refugees: The Right of Return. London, UK: Pluto, 2001.

  • Christiane Bird Neither East nor West: One Woman's Journey Through the Islamic Republic of Iran. New York: Pocket Books, 2001.

  • Yossef Bodansky The High Cost of Peace: How Washington's Middle East Policy Left America Vulnerable to Terrorism. Roseville, CA: Prima, 2002.

  • Daniel Brumberg Reinventing Khomeini: The Struggle for Reform in Iran. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

  • Roane Carey, ed. The New Intifada: Resisting Israel's Apartheid. New York: Verso, 2001.

  • Noam Chomsky The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel and the Palestinians. London, UK: Pluto Press, 2000.

  • Toby Dodge and Steven Simon, eds. Iraq at the Crossroads: State and Society in the Shadow of Regime Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

  • John L. Esposito and John O. Voll, eds. Islam and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

  • Norman G. Finkelstein Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict. New York: Verso, 2001.

  • Deborah J. Gerner, ed. Understanding the Contemporary Middle East. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, 2000.

  • Victor Davis Hanson An Autumn of War: What America Learned from September 11 and the War on Terrorism. New York: Anchor, 2002.

  • Birthe Hanssen Unipolarity and the Middle East. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Curzon, 2000.

  • Nathanial Harris Israel and Arab Nations in Conflict. New York: Raintree/SteckVaughan, 1999.

  • Dilip Hiro Iraq: In the Eye of the Storm. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2002.

  • Dilip Hiro Neighbors, Not Friends: Iraq and Iran After the Gulf Wars. New York: Routledge, 2001.

  • Laurel Holliday Children of Israel, Children of Palestine: Our Own True Stories. New York: Pocket Books, 1999.

  • Albert Hourani A History of the Arab Peoples. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1997.

  • Mehran Kamrava Democracy in the Balance: Culture and Society in the Middle East. Chappaqua, NY: Chatham House, 1998.

  • Martin Kramer Ivory Towers on Sand. Washington, DC: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2001.

  • Walter Laqueur and Barry Rubin, eds. The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict. New York: Penguin USA, 2001.

  • David W. Lesch, ed. The Middle East and the United States: A Historical and Political Reassessment. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2003.

  • Bernard Lewis The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2000 Years. New York: Scribner, 1996.

  • Bernard Lewis What Went Wrong: The Clash Between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East. New York: Harperperennial, 2003.

  • Philip Mattar, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts On File, 2000.

  • Mahmood Monshipouri Islamism, Secularism, and Human Rights in the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998.

  • Benny Morris Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. New York: Vintage, 2001.

  • Michael B. Owen Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Novato, CA: Presidio, 2003.

  • Kenneth M. Pollack The Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq. New York: Random House, 2002.

  • Milan Rai War Plan Iraq: Ten Reasons Against War with Iraq. New York: Verso, 2002.

  • Edward W. Said The End of the Peace Process: Oslo and After. New York: Vintage, 2000.

  • Elaine Sciolino Persian Mirrors: The Elusive Face of Iran. New York: Free Press, 2000.

  • David K. Shipler Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land. New York: Penguin, 2002.

  • Avi Shlaim The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. New York: W.W. Norton, 2001.

  • Charles D. Smith Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000.

  • Shibley Telhami The Stakes: America and the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002.

  • Harlan Ullman Unfinished Business: Afghanistan, the Middle East and Beyond—Defusing the Dangers That Threaten American Security. New York: Citadel Press, 2002.


Periodicals

  • Hady Amr "How Can Bullets and Bombs Bring Peace? Palestinians Have Cause for Grievance, but the World Won't Listen Until They Return to Nonviolent Protest,"Newsweek, March 11, 2002.

  • David Arnow "Voices of Reconciliation in a Time of Hatred," Tikkun, March/April 2001.

  • Shlomo Avineri "Irreconcilable Differences: The Best Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Might Be No Solution at All," Foreign Policy, March 2002.

  • Mubarak Awad and Abdul Aziz "The Road to Arab-Israeli Peace," Tikkun, January/February 2001.

  • Aluf Benn "The Last of the Patriarchs," Foreign Affairs, May/June 2002.

  • Current Events "Mideast Meltdown: Fighting Intensifies Between Israelis and Palestinians," April 5, 2002.

  • Economist "The Dangers of Leaving It to Sharon; America, Israel, and the Palestinians," February 2, 2002.

  • Yuval Elizur "Israel Banks on a Fence," Foreign Affairs, March/April 2003.

  • Mordechai Gafni "Do Not Ask Israel to Atone," Tikkun, January/February 2001.

  • Ronald L. Hatchett "The Importance of the Saudi Peace Plan," World & I, June 2002.

  • Tony Judt "The Road to Nowhere," New York Review of Books, May 9, 2002.

  • James Kitfield "The Ties That Bind, and Constrain: The Mideast," National Journal, April 20, 2002.

  • Anthony Lewis "Is There a Solution?" New York Review of Books, April 25, 2002.

  • Johanna McGeary "The Four Sticking Points: Peace Will Never Be Achieved Unless Israel and the Palestinians Compromise on Some Extremely Tough Issues,"Time, April 22, 2002.

  • Jerome Slater "What Went Wrong?" The Collapse of the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process," Political Science Quarterly, Summer 2001.

  • Time "Israel's Last-Ditch Peace Plan: Exhausted by Violence, Israel's Politicians Consider a Radical Move. Is It Time for Economic Separation?" November 6, 2000.

  • James M. Wall "Numb About Israel," Christian Century, March 27, 2002.

Source Citation:

Grossman, David. "A Fence Between Israelis and Palestinians Will Not Create Peace." Opposing Viewpoints: The Middle East. Ed. William Dudley.San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Scotch Plains Fanwood High School. 27 Feb. 2013.


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