Fundamental criticisms



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Biography


Aristotle was born in 384. C. in the city of Stagira today not far from Mount Athos in Chalkidiki peninsula, then part of the Kingdom of Macedonia. His father, Nicomachus, was physician to King Amyntas III of Macedonia, 7, which explains its relationship with the royal court of Macedonia, which would have an important influence in his life.

At 367. BC when Aristotle was 17, his father died and his tutor Proxenus of Atarneus sent him to Athens, for to study at the Academy of Platón.Allí remained for twenty years.

After the death of Plato in 347. BC, Aristotle left Athens and traveled to Atarneus and Aso, in Asia Minor, where he lived for about three years under the protection of his friend and former fellow of the Academy, Hermias, who was governor of the city.

When Hermias was murdered, Aristotle traveled to the city of Mytilene, on the island of Lesbos, where he remained for two años.Allí continued his research by Theophrastus, a native of Lesbos, focusing on zoology and biology marina.7 also married Pythias, the niece of Hermias, who had a daughter the same name.

At 343. C., King Philip II of Macedonia called Aristotle to tutor his son was 13, which later became known as Alexander the Great. Aristotle then traveled to Pella, then the capital of the Macedonian empire, and Alejandro taught for at least two years until he started his military career.

At 335. BC, Aristotle returned to Athens and founded his own school, the Lyceum Unlike the Academy, the Lyceum was not a private school and many of the classes were public and free. Throughout his life Aristotle gathered a vast library and a number of followers and researchers, known as the Peripatetics.

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Aristotle for four fundamental criticisms of the theory of Plato's ideas:



  • He criticizes both worlds the sensible and intelligible world: for Aristotle is one; support two worlds complicates the explanation unnecessarily reduplicating realities.


  • Plato does not offer a rational explanation when talking about the two worlds. Limited to use myths and metaphors, rather than conceptually clarify their proposals.


  • There is no clear causal relationship of the ideal world about the sensible world. It explains how ideas are cause of sensible and mutable. It follows that an idea derived object.


  • April. Third Man Argument: Plato, the similarity between two things is because both share the same idea. According to Aristotle, a third party is required to explain the similarity between two things, and one quarter to explain the three, and so on. An infinite regress is therefore not explained at all. This argument had already been picked up by Plato himself in the Parmenides dialogue entitled.



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The Problem of change


Aristotle was an empiricist spirit thinker, he tried to base human knowledge on experience. One of the first concerns was to find a rational explanation for the world around him.

The pre-Socratic realized that what surrounds us is a different reality that is in continuous and perpetual transformation.


Heraclitus of Ephesus believes that everything is in constant change and transformation, the movement is the law of the universe.


Parmenides, on the contrary, believes that motion is impossible, since the change is the transition from being to not-being or vice versa, from not being to being. This is unacceptable, since there is not and nothing can come of it.


Plato, is a kind of synthesis, is a union or sum of these two opposing concepts: that of Heraclitus and Parmenides. On the one hand we have the sensible world, characterized by a constant process of transformation and, on the other, we have the perfect abstract world of ideas, characterized by eternity and incorruptibility.




Aristotle understood the change and movement as "the way of what is potentially reduced to act" by the action of causes. There are four causes: formal is the essence and form of the substance, material and support form and formlessness is pure power to be (properly, having no determination, nothing); efficient, producing the movement, the end that directs the movement to an end, the perfection of form. Nature therefore explained by a teleology of the way towards the perfection of its content.

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Who was him?


It was a polymath: philosopher, logician, and scientist of ancient Greece whose ideas have had an enormous influence on Western intellectual history for more than two millennia.

Aristotle wrote about 200 treaties of which only 31 have come on a huge variety of topics, including logic, metaphysics, philosophy of science, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, rhetoric, physics, astronomy and biology. Aristotle transformed many, if not all, areas of knowledge he touched. It is recognized as the founding father of logic and biology, because although there are reflections and previous writings on both subjects, is in the work of Aristotle where the first systematic investigations on the matter.

Among many other contributions, Aristotle formulated the theory of spontaneous generation, the principle of contradiction, the notions of class, substance, act, power, etc.. Some of his ideas, which were new to the philosophy of his time, now part of the common sense of many people.


Aristotle Wrong Opinions
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Spontaneous generation of organisms. He observed flies coming out from cow dung even after he carefully excluded other flies of laying down their eggs on the dung. That the eggs already were in the abdomen of the animal he did not consider. It took again almost 2000 years to revise this wrong opinion.

He considered sponges to be animals an idea that was revised in 1765.

Aristotle was a , a great mistake, believing that the heart is the seat of the soul and reason, whereas for Hippocrates a century before it was the brain. And for what do we need the brain? According to Aristotle for reducing the heat of the body!



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ARISTOTLE

A gREAT MAN


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QUOTES




  • Every art and every inquiry and similarly every action and pursuit is thought to aim at some good, and for this reason the good has been declared to be that at which all things aim. c:\users\kuem\desktop\parthenon-on-acropolis-in-athens-greece.jpg



  • If there is some end in the things we do, which we desire for its own sake, clearly this must be the chief good. Knowing this will have a great influence on how we live our lives.



  • Politics appears to be the master art for it includes so many others and its purpose is the good of man. While it is worthy to perfect one man, it is finer and more godlike to perfect a nation.



  • It is the mark of an educated man to look for precision in each class of thing in so far as its nature admits.



  • Each man judges well the things he knows.



  • If there is an end for all we do, it will be the good achievable by action.



  • Is happiness to be acquired by learning, by habit, or some other form of training? It seems to come as a result of virtue and some process of learning and to be among the godlike things since its end is godlike and blessed.



  • The man who fears the right things for the right motives in the right way at the right time and feels confidence is brave.



  • We think young people should be prone to shame because they live by feeling and commit many errors and are restrained by shame.


Self-Evaluation
Self

When was Aristotle born?

Who was one of the first students of Aristotle?

How were the followers of Aristotle called?

What is polymath?

What are some of Aristotle formulated theories?

Aristotle is recognized as the founding father of ?

Aristotle base the knowledge in what ?





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