French Revolution Study Guide Matching



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French Revolution Study Guide

Matching

Match the terms to the descriptions.

a.

Robespierre

f.

bourgeoisie

b.

Napoleonic Code

g.

guerrilla warfare

c.

Marquis de Lafayette

h.

guillotine

d.

Continental System

i.

Olympe de Gouges

e.

ancien régime

j.

plebiscite

____ 1. executed for demanding equal rights for French women

____ 2. French middle class

____ 3. war tactic in which Napoleon closed European ports to British goods

____ 4. popular vote by ballot

____ 5. war tactic involving hit-and-run raids

____ 6. group of laws that reflecting Enlightenment principles

____ 7. head of the French National Guard who fought alongside George Washington

____ 8. one of the main leaders in the Reign of Terror

____ 9. the old order in which France was divided into three social classes

____ 10. method for carrying out executions during the Reign of Terror

Short Answer

11. Identify Point of View The cartoon above features Napoleon. The objects on each side of him are a scepter, or staff, and an orb--all symbols of monarchy. The orb and scepter are falling from Napoleon’s hands. What does this mean? The buildings on the right are Russian. The buildings on the left are British. Why did the cartoonist include these buildings? Write a title for this cartoon that reflects its meaning.

12. Recognize Cause and Effect Describe how social, economic, and political conditions before the French Revolution affected ordinary citizens. How were these conditions related to the storming of the Bastille?

13. Make Comparisons Compare and contrast the Jacobins and the sans-culottes. How were they similar? How were they different?

14. Draw Conclusions Do you think that actions of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette contributed to their own downfall? Explain.

15. Recognize Cause and Effect What is nationalism? In what ways did nationalism help Napoleon? In what ways did it work against him?

“To propose the trial of Louis XVI is to question the Revolution. If he may be tried, he may be acquitted [cleared of wrongdoing]; if he may be acquitted, he may be innocent. But, if he be innocent, what becomes of the Revolution? If he be innocent, what are we but his calumniators [those who tell lies about someone]? . . . his imprisonment is a crime; all the patriots are guilty; and the great cause which for so many centuries has been debated between crime and virtue, between liberty and tyranny, is finally decided in favour of crime and despotism!”

—Maximilien Robespierre

16. Identify Point of View In the quotation above, what was Robespierre arguing for or against? Explain Robespierre’s point of view. Did Robespierre get his way? Explain.

Position A: Napoleon was “the revolution on horseback.”

Position B: Napoleon was a traitor to the revolution.

17. Demonstrate Reasoned Judgment Which position stated above do you think best describes Napoleon’s legacy? Support your answer.

18. Express Problems Clearly Why were many nobles dissatisfied with the French monarchy before the revolution? Why did the nobles want the king to call the Estates-General?

19. Draw Conclusions Before the French Revolution, Catherine the Great of Russia was an enlightened despot. Early in her reign she read the works of the philosophes, exchanged letters with Voltaire, and implemented some reforms. However, as the French Revolution progressed, Catherine’s views changed. She burned Voltaire’s letters and locked up her critics. Why do you think Catherine’s views toward Enlightenment ideas changed?

20. Summarize What was the status of the Church in French society before the revolution? How did this status change through the different phases of the revolution?

French Revolution Study Guide

Answer Section

MATCHING

1. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 580

OBJ: 18.2.2 Summarize the moderate reforms enacted by the National Assembly in August 1789.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: French reforms

2. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 573

OBJ: 18.1.1 Describe the social divisions of France’s old order.

STA: 4.01.c | 6.01 TOP: French society

3. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 594

OBJ: 18.4.2 Explain how Napoleon built an empire and what challenges the empire faced.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: Napoleon

4. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 593

OBJ: 18.4.1 Understand Napoleon's rise to power and why the French strongly supported him.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: Napoleon

5. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 597

OBJ: 18.4.3 Analyze the events that led to Napoleon's downfall.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: Napoleon

6. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 593

OBJ: 18.4.1 Understand Napoleon's rise to power and why the French strongly supported him.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: Napoleon

7. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 579

OBJ: 18.2.1 Explain how the political crisis of 1789 led to popular revolts.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: French politics

8. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 587

OBJ: 18.3.2 Explain why the Committee of Public Safety was created and why the Reign of Terror resulted.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: Reign of Terror

9. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 572

OBJ: 18.1.1 Describe the social divisions of France’s old order..

STA: 4.01.c | 6.01 TOP: French society

10. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 588

OBJ: 18.3.2 Explain why the Committee of Public Safety was created and why the Reign of Terror resulted.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: Reign of Terror

SHORT ANSWER

11. ANS:

Possible response: The scepter and orb falling from Napoleon’s hands indicate that Napoleon is losing his power over the world and the Church. The buildings on the right and left represent two nations that Napoleon was unable to defeat: Britain and Russia. They also represent two of the allies who combined to defeat Napoleon at the Battle of Nations. Possible titles could be “Napoleon Losing His Grip” or “The Corsican Ogre About To Plunge.”

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 598

OBJ: 18.4.3 Analyze the events that led to Napoleon's downfall.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: Napoleon

12. ANS:

Possible response: Before the French Revolution, the nation was on the brink of bankruptcy from years of deficit spending. The clergy and nobles fiercely resisted any attempt to make them pay taxes. The majority of French people formed the Third Estate. Though the Third Estate was a diverse group, peasants and urban workers composed most of it. They were the lowest class in society and had little money or political power. They resented the privileges enjoyed by those above them in social status. They especially resented having to pay taxes while the privileged classes did not. Enlightenment ideas led many ordinary citizens to question such inequalities. The Third Estate wanted meaningful voting rights in the Estates-General. Delegates of the Third Estate formed a National Assembly to try to force the king to allow them to participate in government. However, rumors spread that the king planned to dissolve the National Assembly. These social, economic, and political abuses led the French people to storm the Bastille, which they saw as a symbol of these abuses.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: pp. 573-577

OBJ: 18.1.4 Understand why Parisians stormed the Bastille. STA: 4.01.c

TOP: Bastille

13. ANS:

Possible response: Both the Jacobins and sans-culottes were French radicals. Both supported a republican form of government. The sans-culottes, however, were working-class men and women who were not in the Legislative Assembly. The Jacobins were a revolutionary political club of mostly middle-class lawyers and intellectuals. They had members in the Assembly.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 583

OBJ: 18.2.3 Identify additional actions taken by the National Assembly as it pressed onward.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: French radicals

14. ANS:

Possible response: Yes, their actions did contribute to their downfall. When faced with critical national problems, Louis XVI gave in to the nobles and called an Estates-General. This led to the formation of the National Assembly, diminishing the power of the monarchy. Marie Antoinette led an extravagant lifestyle while ordinary citizens were starving. This fueled public unrest. The royal family tried to escape their virtual imprisonment at their palace in Paris. Many believed that Louis’s failed attempt to escape the country showed him to be a traitor to the revolution.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: pp. 576-577 | pp. 580-582

OBJ: 18.3.1 Understand how and why radicals abolished the monarchy.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: French radicals

15. ANS:

Possible response: Nationalism is a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. Nationalist fervor that spread through France urged many young men to join Napoleon’s army. As a result, Napoleon had a large supply of motivated troops to wage his war of conquest. However, the people of conquered nations felt nationalism, too. To them, Napoleon represented a foreign oppressor, not a liberator. Nationalism sparked revolts against French rule in many countries. The resistance occupied French troops that Napoleon needed elsewhere. French attempts to crush the revolts merely fueled further nationalism and resistance.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 590 | pp. 596-597

OBJ: 18.4.2 Explain how Napoleon built an empire and what challenges the empire faced.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: Napoleon

16. ANS:

Possible response: Robespierre was arguing against putting Louis XVI on trial. He argued that if he goes to trial, Louis could be cleared of wrongdoing. If this happens, then the conclusion must be that the revolutionaries are criminals, and the long debate between tyranny and the ideals of the revolution will be decided in favor of tyranny. In the beginning, Robespierre did not get his way. Louis XVI was put on trial. But Louis XVI was convicted and executed, so Robespierre got what he wanted in the end—the monarchy was abolished.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 586 | p. 587

OBJ: 18.3.1 Understand how and why radicals abolished the monarchy.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: French radicals

17. ANS:

Possible response: Arguments supporting Position A: Napoleon’s armies spread the ideals of the revolution across Europe. They backed liberal reforms and installed revolutionary governments in lands they conquered. They ended titles of nobility, Church privilege, and feudalism in conquered lands. The Napoleonic Code put many of the changes of the revolution into law. Napoleon’s France had a constitution, held elections, expanded property rights, and increased educational opportunities. Napoleon opened jobs to all, based on talent. Arguments supporting Position B: Napoleon was a tyrant whose primary goal was world domination. He was not true to the principles of the revolution which was about freedom, equality, and individual rights. He conquered and intimidated other nations, forcing French culture on them. His laws took away rights that women had gained earlier in the revolution. Napoleon valued order and authority over individual rights. He cared more about power than about the people.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: pp. 592-594 | p. 596 | pp. 598-599

OBJ: 18.4.2 Explain how Napoleon built an empire and what challenges the empire faced.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: Napoleon

18. ANS:

Possible response: Many nobles hated the absolute control of the monarchy. They resented the fact that the royal bureaucracy gave government jobs to middle-class men that were once reserved for them. They also feared losing their traditional privileges, especially their freedom from paying taxes. As it became clear that something had to be done about the nation’s mounting economic troubles, the nobles wanted the king to call the Estates-General. This would give the nobles a say in any changes to be made. The nobles hoped that they could use the Estates-General to bring the absolute monarch under their control. This would enable the nobles to safeguard their own privileges.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 573 | pp. 575-576

OBJ: 18.1.1 Describe the social divisions of France’s old order.

STA: 4.01.c | 6.01 TOP: French society

19. ANS:

Possible response: Revolutionaries in France enacted reforms inspired by Enlightenment ideas. As a result, nobles and the monarchy in France lost much of their power and privilege. Catherine, like other absolute rulers in Europe, heard accounts of the revolution from French émigrés. These accounts told of French radicals physically attacking the privileged classes. Catherine realized that the revolution posed a threat to her. If these revolutionary ideas spread to her people, she could lose power and possibly her life.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 554 | p. 582

OBJ: 18.2.4 Analyze why there was a mixed reaction around Europe to the events unfolding in France.

STA: 4.01.c TOP: French radicals

20. ANS:

Possible response: Before the revolution, the clergy enjoyed much wealth and political power as members of the First Estate. In the moderate phase of the French Revolution, the National Assembly placed the Church under state control. The clergy became paid public officials. Convents and monasteries were dissolved, and Church lands were sold to pay the government debt. In the radical phase, the National Convention tried to de-Christianize France. It created a secular calendar and banned many religious festivals. The third or Directory phase saw a rising resentment against the limits placed on the Church. In the final phase, Napoleon made peace with the Catholic Church. The Concordat of 1801 kept the Church under state control but recognized religious freedom for Catholics.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: pp. 572-573 | p. 581 | p. 590 | p. 593

OBJ: 18.3.4 Analyze how the French people were affected by the changes brought about by the revolution.



STA: 4.01.c TOP: French society


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