Freie wissenschaftliche Arbeit zur Erlangung des Grades eines Diplom-Verwaltungswissenschaftlers an der



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APPENDIX



Guiding Questions
General information about the interviewee, such as:

  • What is your official status?

  • What is your ethnic identity?

  • What is your gender?

  • What is your age?

  • What is your family status?

  • What is your party membership/ affiliation?


Commune Council

  • How many members of the Council are members of an indigenous group?

  • How many constituents’ first language is Khmer? How many constituents’ first language is not Khmer? What is their first language?

  • How many indigenous villages are in the constituency of the commune?

  • How are they represented in the meetings?

  • How do you ensure that interests of minorities are considered in the Council?

  • Are members of cultural minorities approaching the Commune Councils?

  • How many and for what reasons?

  • Are members of those groups’ members of the Commune Council, district or provincial authority, DFT/PFT?

  • Do members of those groups participate in Council affairs?

  • How? How often? Differently compared to Khmer constituents?

  • Are languages other than Khmer used in Council meetings? Which?

  • How does the Council respond to needs articulated by members/organizations of indigenous groups?

  • Suggestions or recommendations?

  • To what extend did the master training include training on the specific needs and rights of indigenous peoples?

  • How are Village Chiefs determined?

  • Do Chiefs of indigenous villages participate in Council meetings?

  • Does the Commune Council invite elders of indigenous groups? What is their role in Council affairs?


Do decentralized institutions work for members of cultural minority groups?

  • Do constituents attend Commune Council meetings? Do members of minority groups attend Council meetings?

  • Why or why not?

  • What is done to ensure their participation/ voice in the process (invitations, dissemination of knowledge and information …)?

  • What are the costs of participation in terms of time and money?

  • Do members of indigenous groups face additional cost/specific disadvantages due to them being member of a cultural group distinct from the Khmer mainstream society?

  • Do citizens know what is being discussed in the Commune Council?

  • Do citizens approach members of the Commune Council to voice their concerns and get information? Do they have a voice in the process?

  • Suggestions or recommendations?


Community

  • What are the most pressing needs in the commune?

  • What are the development priorities in the commune?

  • What is the Commune Council doing since election?

  • Do elected officials discuss with you about development and services provision?

  • Do you have participated in any meeting organized by the Commune Council? What was discussed and resolved?

  • What is the Commune Council doing?

  • What should the Commune Council be doing?

  • How can you contribute to any development activity and services through the communes?

  • Do you know members of the Commune Council personally?

  • Are you interested in what is being discussed in the Commune Council?

  • What benefits has it brought to you?

  • What do you think your friends and relatives think about the Commune Council?

  • Suggestions or recommendations?


Additional questions

  • What is the ethnic composition of the commune?

  • What is the ethnic composition of the Council?

  • What are settlement patterns?


Participation and Dissemination

  • What is on the agenda?

  • How does dissemination of information work?

  • Who gets information/invitations? Are elders addressed?

  • Where do get citizens their information from?

  • How does participation work? Which channels are used and how often?

  • How do you approach the Commune Council?

  • Ranking of level of participation?

  • What about interest and understanding? Ranking?

  • What are the most urgent needs for the group?

  • District Integration Workshop: language problems?

  • Who speaks Khmer? Women? Children? Old? Young?

  • Ranking?

  • Do Commune Councilors come down, explain and discuss? How often do they come down? What languages do they speak?

  • Who attends meetings?

  • Do you feel you have enough information to participate?

  • Do you feel confident enough to participate?

  • Do you feel you have a voice in the Commune Council? Who speaks for you?

  • Do you feel the Commune Council is a chance for improvement of your groups’ situation?

Access

  • What about access to the Commune Council?

  • How about the access to participation? How far is it from the village to the Council office? Ranking? Any specific difficulties?

  • How about access to education? How far is the school? Ranking? Specific difficulties? School attendance? Ranking?

  • Do teachers speak local language? Are teachers members of local communities?

  • How about access to health service? Ranking? Specific difficulties?

  • Do the Clerk and PFT/DFT speak for you? Do you know them? Do they assist you? Do they understand? How often do they show up?

  • Do you feel your needs and concerns are being addressed?

  • Suggestions?


Culture and Changes

  • What characterizes the traditional way of life?

  • What changes have been taking place?

  • What has not changed?

  • Way of life? Music? Dress? Dance? Religion? Language?

  • How do you judge those changes?

  • Do people judge changes differently? Young? Old? Men? Women?

  • What about religion?

  • How are conflicts resolved?

  • Are you proud to be members of your group?

  • If so because of what?

  • Proud to be Cambodia citizen? Why?

  • Are you Khmer?

  • Do you want to be Khmer?

  • Are you first member of your group and than Khmer or the other way around?

  • Do you feel your culture is respected?

  • What are the major occupations?

  • Do you use money? Do you interact/ participate in the market?

  • What about the level of authority and respect for the Village Chief, Elders, Commune Council? Ranking?


Interaction and Relationship

  • How is the relationship to Khmer?

  • How is the relationship with other groups?

  • What languages are used in interaction?

  • Are there interethnic issues?

  • Do you have friends from other ethnic groups?

  • Are there intermarriages? What combinations? Ranking? What ceremony? What music?

  • Would you mind marrying your son/daughter to members of other group?

  • Would you mind having members of other groups as your neighbors?

  • Do you feel members of other group understand your culture? Do you feel they respect your culture?


What are the indigenous power structures?

  • How are conflicts solved locally?

  • Where do people go if conflicts arise?

  • How does the community make decisions?

  • How does participation works?

  • Do women participate? Do they have a voice?

  • Do youngsters participate? Do they have a voice?

  • What support is being given to the neediest members and how?


District Structures

  • What is done to give members of cultural minorities a voice in the deliberations at the district integration workshop?

  • What language(s) are used in the district integration workshop?

  • Have there been linguistic problems during the previous integration workshop?

  • Suggestions or recommendations?


Provincial Structures (Seila, DoLA)

  • Does the system of communal, provincial and district governance and the associated legal framework entails any provision for members of cultural minorities? Is there any mechanism to incorporate specific demands and needs of members of cultural minorities?

  • Percentage of indigenous Commune Council Chiefs?

  • Percentage of indigenous Commune Council members?

  • Percentage of indigenous Village Chiefs?

  • Are there any human, material and financial resources to acknowledge the specific needs of indigenous groups?

  • What language(s) are used in the provincial integration workshop?

  • Have there been linguistic problems during the previous integration workshop?

  • Suggestions or recommendations?


Provincial and District Facilitation Teams (DFT/PFT)

  • What is being done to ensure that members of the DFT/PFT understand indigenous constituents in their area?

  • Is there any encouragement/incentive for them to learn the local language?

  • Are there any endeavors to recruit DFT/PFT from local constituencies?

  • Suggestions or recommendations?

Statistics

Ethnic Group

Population

Percentage of Total

Chams

195.215

65.01

Lao

21.649

7.21

Phnong

19.000

6.33

Kui

15.771

5.25

Tampuan

13.556

4.51

Kreung

9.368

3.12

Prov

5.286

1.76

Thai

3.976

1.32

Stieng

3.571

1.19

Kraveth

3.012

1.00

Kraai

2.677

0.89

Mil

2.076

0.69

Pear

1.294

0.43

Kachac

1.282

0.43

Jorai

977

0.33

Lun

464

0.15

Loemoun

355

0.12

Poang

260

0.09

Kaning

150

0.05

Arach

100

0.03

Kachrouk

100

0.03

Saoch

71

0.02

Kola

31

0.01

Khmer Khe

10

0.00

Anang

na

na

Arab

na

na

Chong

na

na

Kachaing

na

na

Kayong

na

na

Mon

na

na

Nong

na

na

Rhade

na

na

Samre

na

na

Sispre

na

na

Thnal

na

na

Total

300.271

100.00*

*Total Percentage by calculation less than 100.00% because of rounding

na = not available

Illustration 9: Ethnic Groups in Cambodia according to the Department of Ethnic Minorities of the Ministry for Religious Affairs (MoRA 1992)


Ethnic Group

Population

Percentage of Total

Chams

203.881

46.05

Vietnamese

95.597

21.59

Chinese

47.180

10.66

Lao

19.819

4.48

Tampoun

15.861

3.58

Kuy

14.186

3.20

Jorai

11.549

2.61

Kreung

7.854

1.77

Phnong (Mnong)

5.323

1.20

Kraveth

3.585

0.81

Stieng

3.234

0.73

Prov

2.585

0.58

Thai

2.454

0.55

Kraol

1.962

0.44

Robel

1.640

0.37

Pear

1.440

0.33

Thmaum

453

0.10

Loemoun

280

0.06

Saoch

72

0.02

Kachac

6

0.00

Other

3.708

0.84

Total

442.669

100.00*

*Total Percentage by calculation less than 100.00% because of rounding
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