Framework: Essential Knowledge ( denotes that the essential knowledge appears twice within this outline)



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Framework: Essential Knowledge

(*** denotes that the essential knowledge appears twice within this outline)


(BOLD – changes/additions from 2001 framework, ITALICS – deleted info)
Reconstruction Unit

USII.3a

Basic provisions of the Amendments

  • The 13th Amendment bans slavery in the United States and any of its territories

  • The 14th Amendment grants citizenship to all persons born in the United States and guarantees them equal protection under the law

  • The 15th Amendment ensures all citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude


These three amendments guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens.
USII.3b

Reconstruction policies and problems

  • Southern military leaders could not hold office.

  • African Americans could hold public office.

  • African Americans gained equal rights as a result of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which also authorized the use of federal troops for its enforcement.

  • Northern soldiers supervised the South.

  • The Freedman’s Bureau was established to aid former enslaved African Americans in the South.

  • Southerners resented Northern “carpetbaggers,” who took advantage of the South during Reconstruction.

  • Southern states adopted Black Codes to limit the economic and physical freedom of former slaves.


End of Reconstruction

  • Reconstruction ended in 1877 as a result of a compromise over the outcome of the election of 1876.

  • Federal troops were removed from the South.

  • Rights that African Americans had gained were lost through “Jim Crow” laws.


USII.3c

Abraham Lincoln:

  • Reconstruction plan calling for reconciliation

  • Preservation of the Union was more important than punishing the South


Robert E. Lee:

  • Urged Southerners to reconcile with Northerners at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to continue to fight

  • Became president of Washington College, which is now known as Washington and Lee University


Frederick Douglass:

  • Fought for adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights

  • Was a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties for all


USII.4c

Racial segregation



  • Based upon race

  • Directed primarily against African Americans, but other groups also were kept segregated

“Jim Crow” laws



  • Passed to discriminate against African Americans

  • Made discrimination practices legal in many communities and states

  • Were characterized by unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, govn’t

Western Expansion Unit


USII.2a


Physical features/climate of the Great Plains

  • Flatlands that rise gradually from east to west

  • Land eroded by wind and water

  • Low rainfall

  • Frequent dust storms

Because of new technologies, people saw the Great Plains not as a “treeless wasteland” but as a vast area to be settled


Inventions/adaptations

  • Barbed wire

  • Steel plows

  • Dry farming

  • Sod houses

  • Beef cattle raising

  • Wheat farming

  • Windmills

  • Railroads


USII.4a

Reasons for increase westward expansion



  • Opportunities for land ownership

  • Technological advances, including the Transcontinental Railroad

  • Possibility of obtaining wealth, created by the discovery of gold and silver

  • Desire for adventure

  • Desire for a new beginning for former enslaved African Americans


Impact on American Indians

  • Opposition by American Indians to westward expansion (Battle of Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull, Geronimo)

  • Forced relocation from traditional lands to reservations (Chief Joseph, Nez Perce)

  • Reduced population through warfare and disease (Battle of Wounded Knee)

  • Assimilation attempts and lifestyle changes (reduction of buffalo population)

  • Reduced their homelands through treaties that were broken


USII.4b

  • Discrimination against immigrants

- Chinese

- Irish
USII.4c



Racial segregation

  • American Indians were not considered citizens until 1924.

Growth of Industry Unit

USII.2b

Transportation of Resources



  • Moving natural resources (copper and lead) to eastern factories

  • Moving iron ore deposits to sites of steel mills (Pittsburgh)

  • Transporting finished products to national markets

Examples of manufacturing areas



  • Textile industry – New England

  • Automobile industry – Detroit

  • Steel industry – Pittsburgh


USII.4d

Inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth



  • Electric lighting and mechanical uses of electricity (Thomas Edison)

  • Telephone service (Alexander Graham Bell)

Reasons for rise and prosperity of big business

  • National markets created by transportation advances

  • Captains of industry (John D. Rockefeller, oil; Andrew Carnegie, steel; Cornelius Vanderbilt, shipping and railroads; Henry Ford, automobile)

  • Advertising

  • Lower-cost production

Factors that resulted in growth of industry



  • Access to raw materials and energy

  • Availability of work force due to immigration

  • Inventions

  • Financial resources

Examples of big business



  • Railroads

  • Oil

  • Steel

Postwar changes in farm and city life



  • Mechanization (the reaper) reduced farm labor needs and increased production.

  • Industrial development in cities created increased labor needs.

  • Industrialization provided new access to consumer goods (mail order).


USII.4e

Negative Effects of industrialization



  • Child labor

  • Low wages, long hours

  • Unsafe working conditions



Rise of organized labor


  • Formation of unions – Growth of American Federation of Labor

  • Strikes – Aftermath of Homestead Strike


USII.6a

Invention of the airplane – The Wright Brothers


Use of the assembly line***

  • Henry Ford, automobile

  • Rise of mechanization

Ways electrification changed American life***



  • Labor-saving products (washing machines, electric stoves, water pumps)

  • Electric lighting

  • Entertainment (radio)

  • Improved communications


Immigration Unit

USII.4b


Reasons for the increase in immigration

  • Hope for better opportunities

  • Desire for religious freedom

  • Escape from oppressive governments

  • Desire for adventure

Reasons why cities grew and developed



  • Specialized industries, including steel (Pittsburgh) and meat packing (Chicago)

  • Immigration to America from other countries

  • Movement of Americans from rural to urban areas for job opportunities

Rapid industrialization and urbanization led to overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements.
Efforts to solve immigration problems

  • Settlement houses, such as Hull House founded by Jane Addams

  • Political machines that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (jobs, housing)


Discrimination against immigrants***

  • Chinese

  • Irish

Challenges faced by cities



  • Tenements and ghettos

  • Political corruption (political machines)


USII.9d

  • Changing immigration patterns (Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans)***

  • More people want to immigrate to the United States than are allowed by law***

Progressive Reforms Unit

USII.4b

Efforts to solve immigration problems***



  • Settlement houses, such as Hull House founded by Jane Addams

  • Political machines that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (jobs, housing)

Challenges faced by cities***



  • Tenements and ghettos

  • Political corruption (political machines)

USII.4c


African American response

  • Booker T. Washington – believed equality could be achieved through vocational education; accepted social separation

  • W.E.B. Du Bois – believed in full political, civil, and social rights for African Americans


USII.4e

Progressive Movement workplace reforms



  • Improved safety conditions

  • Reduced work hours

  • Placed restrictions on child labor

Women’s suffrage***



  • Increased educational opportunities

  • Attained voting rights

- Women gained the right to vote with the passage of the 19th Amendment to the

Constitution of the United States of America

- Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked for women’s suffrage
Temperance Movement ***


  • Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol

  • Supported 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages



Spanish American War Unit

US11.5a


Reasons for the Spanish American War

  • Protection of American business interests in Cuba

  • American support of Cuban rebels to gain independence from Spain

  • Rising tensions between Spain and United States as a result of the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana Harbor

  • Exaggerated news reports of events (Yellow Journalism)

Results of the Spanish American War



  • The United States emerged as a world power.

  • Cuba gained independence from Spain.

  • The United States gained possession of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.


US11.5b

The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine:

  • Asserted the United States’ right to interfere in the economic matters of other nations in the Americas

  • Claimed the United States’ right to exercise international police power

  • Advocated Big Stick Diplomacy (building the Panama Canal)

WWI Unit

USII.5c

Reasons for US involvement in WWI


  • Inability to remain neutral

  • German submarine warfare – sinking of Lusitania

  • US economic and political ties to Great Britain

  • The Zimmermann Telegram


Major Allied Powers

  • British Empire

  • France

  • Russia

  • Serbia

  • Belgium

  • United States

Central Powers



  • German Empire

  • Austro-Hungarian Empire

  • Bulgaria

  • Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

US leadership as the war ended



  • At the end of WWI, President Woodrow Wilson prepared a peace plan known as the Fourteen Points that called for the formation of the League of Nations, a peace-keeping organization

  • The US decided not to join the League of Nations because the United States Senate failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.

1920’s Unit



US11.4e

Temperance Movement ***



  • Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol

  • Supported 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages


USII.6a

Results of improved transportation brought by affordable automobiles



  • Greater mobility

  • Creation of jobs

  • Growth of transportation – related industries (road construction, oil, steel, automobile)

  • Movement to suburban areas

Use of the assembly line***



  • Henry Ford, automobile

  • Rise of mechanization

Communication changes



  • Increased availability of telephones

  • Development of the radio (role of Guglielmo Marconi) and broadcast industry (role of David Sarnoff)

  • Development of the movies


USII.6b

Prohibition was imposed by a constitutional amendment that made it illegal to manufacture, transport, and sell alcoholic beverages


Results of Prohibition

  • Speakeasies were created as places for people to drink alcoholic beverages

  • Bootleggers made and smuggled alcohol illegally and promoted organized crime

  • Repealed by the 21st Amendment

Great Migration north and west



  • Jobs for African Americans in the South were scarce and low paying.

  • African Americans faced discrimination and violence in the south

  • African Americans moved to cities in the North and Midwest search of better employment opportunities

  • African Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the North and Midwest


USII.6c

Cultural climate of the 1920’s and 1930’s



  • Art – Georgia O’Keeffe, an artist known for urban scenes and later paintings of the Southwest

  • Literature – F. Scott Fitzgerald, a novelist who wrote about the Jazz Age of the 1920’s; John Steinbeck, a novelist who portrayed the strength of poor migrant workers during the 1930’s

  • Music – Aaron Copland and George Gershwin, composers who wrote uniquely American music

Harlem Renaissance:

African American artists, writers, and musicians based in Harlem revealed the freshness and variety of African American culture


  • Art – Jacob Lawrence, painter who chronicled the experiences of the Great Migration north through art

  • Literature – Langston Hughes, poet who combined the experiences of African and American cultural roots

  • Music – Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong, jazz composers; Bessie Smith, blues singer

Popularity of these artists spread beyond Harlem to the rest of society.

Great Depression Unit

US11.6d

Causes of the Great Depression



  • People overspeculated on stocks, using borrowed money that they could not repay when stock prices crashed

  • The Federal Reserve failed to prevent the collapse of the banking system

  • High tariffs discouraged international trade

Impact on Americans



  • A large number of banks and businesses failed

  • One-fourth of workers were without jobs

  • Large numbers of people were hungry and homeless

  • Farmers’ incomes fell to low levels

Major features of the New Deal



  • Social Security

  • Federal work programs

  • Environmental improvement programs

  • Farm assistance programs

  • Increased rights for labor

WWII Unit



US11. 7a

Causes of WWII

Political instability and economic devastation in Europe resulting from WWI


  • Worldwide depression

  • High war debt owed by Germany

  • High inflation

  • Massive unemployment

Rise of Fascism



  • Fascism is a political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied and nationalism and, often, racism are emphasized

  • Fascists dictators included Adolf Hitler (Germany), Benito Mussolini (Italy), and Hideki Tojo (Japan)

  • These dictators led the countries that became known as the Axis Powers

The Allies

Democratic nations (the US, Great Britain, Canada) were known as the Allies. The

Soviet Union joined the Allies after being invaded by Germany.

Allied leaders included Franklin D. Roosevelt and later Harry S. Truman (US), Winston

Churchill (Great Britain), Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)


Gradual change in American policy from neutrality to direct involvement

  • Isolationism (Great Depression, legacy of WWI)

  • Economic aid to Allies

  • Direct involvement in the war

War in the Pacific



  • Rising tension developed between the US and Japan because of Japanese aggression in East Asia

  • On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the US at Pearl Harbor without warning.

  • The US declared war on Japan

  • Germany declared war on US


USII.7b

Major events and turning points of WWII



  • Germany invaded Poland, setting off war in Europe. The Soviet Union also invaded Poland and the Baltic nations.

  • Germany invaded France, capturing Paris.

  • Germany bombed London and the Battle of Britain began.

  • The US gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean (Lend Lease).

  • Japan bombed Pearl Harbor.

  • After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor Germany declared war on the US.

  • The US declared war on Japan and Germany.

  • The US was victorious over Japan in the Battle of Midway. This victory was the turning point of the war in the Pacific.

  • Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union defeated Germany at Stalingrad, marking the turning point of the war in Eastern Europe.

  • American and Allied troops landed in Normandy, France, on D-Day to begin the liberation of Western Europe.

  • The US dropped two atomic bombs on Japan (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) in 1945, forcing Japan to surrender and ending WWII.

The Holocaust



  • Anti-Semitism

  • Aryan supremacy

-Boycott of Jewish stores

-Threats


-Segregation

-Imprisonment and killing of Jews and others in concentration camps and death



camps

  • Liberation by Allied forces of Jews and others who survived in concentration camps



USII.7c

American involvement in WWII brought an end to the Great Depression. Factories and

workers were needed to produce goods to win the war.
Thousands of American women took jobs in defense plants during the war (Rosie the

Riveter)
Americans at home supported the war by conserving and rationing resources.


The need for workers temporarily broke down some racial barriers (hiring in defense plants) although discrimination against African Americans continued.
While many Japanese Americans served in the armed forces, others were treated with distrust and prejudice, and many were forced into internment camps.

WWII Follow-up



USII.8a

Much of Europe was in ruins following WWII. Soviet forces occupied most of Eastern

and Central Europe and the eastern portion of Germany. The US felt it was in its best

interest to rebuild Europe and prevent political and economic instability.


Rebuilding efforts

  • The US instituted George C. Marshall’s plan to rebuild Europe (the Marshall Plan), which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and prevent the spread of communism.

  • Germany was partitioned into East and West Germany. West Germany became democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of American, British, and French occupation. East Germany remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions.

  • Following its defeat, Japan was occupied by American forces. It soon adopted a democratic form of government, resumed self-govn’t, and became a strong ally of the US.

Establishment of the United Nations



  • The United Nations was formed near the end of WWII to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars.


USII.8b

Reasons for rapid growth of American economy following WWII:



  • With rationing of consumer goods over, business converted from production of war materials to consumer goods

  • Americans purchased goods on credit

  • The workforce shifted back to men, and most women returned full time to family responsibilities

  • Labor unions merged and became more powerful; workers gained new benefits and higher salaries

  • As economic prosperity continued and technology boomed, the next generation of women re-entered the labor force in large numbers


USII.8d

Factors leading to changing patterns in US society***



  • “The Baby Boom” which led to changing demographics

Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities***



  • G.I. Bill of Rights gave educational, housing, and employment benefits to World War II veterans

The Cold War Unit



USII.8c

Cold War: state of tension without actual fighting between the US and the Soviet Union

which divided the world into two camps
Origins of the Cold War


  • Differences in goals and ideologies between the US and the Soviet Union (the two superpowers) – the US was democratic and capitalist; the Soviet Union was dictatorial and communist

  • The Soviet Union’s domination over Eastern European countries

  • American policy of containment (to stop the spread of communism)

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) versus the Warsaw Pact

Major conflicts in the post-World War II era



  • South Korea and the US resisted Chinese and North Korean aggression. The conflict ended in a stalemate.

  • The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred when the Soviet Union placed missiles in Cuba. The Soviets removed the missiles in response to a US blockade of Cuba.

  • The US intervened to stop the spread of communism into South Vietnam (Domino theory). Americans were divided over whether the US should be involved militarily in Vietnam. The conflict ended in a cease-fire agreement in which US troops withdrew.

Collapse of Communism in Europe



  • Breakup of the Soviet Union into independent countries

  • Destruction of the Berlin Wall

Civil Rights Unit


USII.9a

Some effects of segregation:



  • Separate educational facilities and resources for white and African American students

  • Separate public facilities (restrooms, drinking fountains, restaurants)

  • Social isolation of races

Civil Rights Movement



  • Opposition to Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but equal”

  • Brown v. Board of Education – desegregation of schools

  • Martin Luther King, Jr. – passive resistance against segregated facilities; “I have a dream…” speech

  • Rosa Parks – Montgomery bus boycott

  • Organized protests, Freedom Riders, sit-ins, marches

  • Expansion of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

  • Voting Rights Act of 1965


USII.8d

African Americans’ aspirations for equal opportunities***


Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities

  • Truman desegregated the armed forces

  • Civil Rights legislation led to increased educational, economic, and political opportunities for women and minorities

Women’s Rights Unit



USII.4e

Women’s suffrage***



  • Increased educational opportunities

  • Attained voting rights

- Women gained the right to vote with passage of the 19th Amendment to the

Constitution of the United States

- Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked for women’s suffrage
USII.8b

Reasons for rapid growth of American economy following WWII:***



  • The workforce shifted back to men, and most women returned full time to family responsibilities

  • As economic prosperity continued and technology boomed, the next generation of women re-entered the labor force in large numbers


USII.8d

  • Evolving role of women (expected to play supporting role in the family, while increasingly working outside the home)***

  • Role of Eleanor Roosevelt in expanding women’s rights***


USII.9a

Changing role of women

Workplace disadvantages


  • Discrimination against women in hiring practices

  • Lower wages for women than for men doing the same job

Improved conditions

  • National Organization for Women (NOW)

  • Federal legislation to force colleges to give women equal athletic opportunities

  • The Equal Rights Amendment, despite its failure, and a focus on equal opportunity employment created a wider range of options and advancement for women in business and public service

Late Twentieth Century (Miscellaneous)



USII.8c

New Challenges



  • Role of US military intervention

  • Environmental challenges

  • Global issues, including trade, jobs, diseases, energy


USII.8d

Factors leading to changing patterns in US society



  • Strong economy (healthy job market, increased productivity, increased demand for American products)

  • Greater investment in education

  • “The Baby Boom” which led to changing demographics

  • Interstate highway system

  • Evolving role of women (expected to play supporting role in the family, while increasingly working outside the home)***

  • Role of Eleanor Roosevelt in expanding women’s rights***

  • African Americans’ aspirations for equal opportunities***

Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities



  • G.I. Bill of Rights gave educational, housing, and employment benefits to World War II veterans


USII.8e

Globalization is the linking of nations through trade, information, technologies, and

communication.
Globalization involves increased integration of different societies.
Impact of globalization on American life

  • Improvement of all communications (travel, telecommunications, Internet)

  • Availability of a wide variety of foreign-made goods and services

  • Outsourcing of jobs


USII.9b

Industries benefiting from new technologies



  • Airline industry – jet engine

  • Automobile industry and interstate highway system

  • Entertainment and news media industries

  • Exploration of space

  • Computer Industry

  • Satellite systems, telecommunications (pagers, cell phones, television)

  • Internet

Impact of new technologies on American life



  • Increased domestic and international travel for business and pleasure

  • Greater access to news and other information

  • Cheaper and more convenient means of communication

  • Greater access to heating and air-conditioning improved the quality of life and encouraged population growth in certain areas of the country

  • Decreased regional variation, resulting from nationwide access to the same entertainment and information provided by national television and radio programming, Internet services, computer games


USII.9c

Science

  • Charles Drew: Medicine (plasma)

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer: Physics (Manhattan Project team)

Culture

  • Frank Lloyd Wright: Architecture

  • Martha Graham: Dance

Academics

  • Henry Louis Gates: History

  • Maya Angelou: Literature

Economics

  • Bill Gates: Computer technology (Microsoft)

  • Ray Kroc: Franchising (McDonald’s)


USII.9d

Foreign policy

  • Increase in terrorist activities

  • Conflicts in the Middle East

  • Changing relationships with nations


Immigration

  • Changing immigration patterns (Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans)***

  • More people want to immigrate to the United States than are allowed by law***


Global environment


Other issues

  • Energy issues (dependence on foreign oil)

  • World health issues (global pandemics)

Geography Unit

USII.2c

A state is an example of a political region. States may be grouped by region.
Northeast: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania

Southeast: Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas

Midwest: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota
Southwest: Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona
Rocky Mountains: Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho
Pacific: Washington, Oregon, California
Noncontiguous: Alaska, Hawaii

Cities serve as centers of trade and have political, economic, and cultural significance
Cities grouped by regions:

_ Northeast: New York, Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia

_ Southeast: Washington, D.C., Atlanta, New Orleans

_ Midwest: Chicago, St. Louis, Detroit

_ Southwest: San Antonio, Santa Fe

_ Rocky Mountains (Western): Denver, Salt Lake City



_ Pacific: San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle

_ Noncontiguous: Juneau, Honolulu


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