Framework curricula for secondary schools


Prerequisites of moving ahead



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Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students are familiar with the atomic structure of matter. They can apply the correlation of mass-particle number-amount of substance. They can calculate molar weight, if addition formula if given. They can describe the electron structure of the discussed atoms with the help of Mendeleev’s periodic table. They can guess the charge number of a resultant ion, if the valence electron number of the atom is given. They can give examples of the application of radioactive processes, and they are also aware of the risks and hazards of these processes. They can work out the formula of simple compounds. They can prepare the molecule models of the discussed molecules, and are able to describe the shape of a molecule with the help of a model. They can describe student experiments on the basis of written instructions, and can use laboratory tools properly. They can interpret the completed or demonstrated chemical reactions. They know the name and formula of elements and inorganic compounds discussed in detail, and can explain their properties on the bases of composition. They can explain the difference between chemical reaction and physical change. They can recognise oxidation-reduction and acid-base reactions encountered in everyday life. They can give examples of the practical application of electrolysis and the galvanic cell. They are aware of the dangers and environment friendly applications of these. They can explain the composition of solutions encountered in everyday life. They can prepare the solutions of common chemicals needing solution or dilution according to the user’s instructions. They can construct simple chemical equations. They can interpret simple figures, diagrams and charts containing chemical information.

Year 10
Number of lessons per year: 74


New activities
Students are required to use, establish and practise the knowledge, activities and skills which they have already learnt in year 9 while learning about new compounds appearing in the various topics.

Explanation of new phenomena in the light of phenomena observed and explained earlier. Justification of physical and chemical properties of organic compounds with the help of the appropriate experiments. Designing and implementing experiments to answer simple and increasingly complex questions with help first, and then without help.

Preparing and describing the molecule models of the discussed organic substances; establishing what forces have an impact in the set of the compound and guessing reasonable physical properties.

Application of computer skills (e.g. internet, e-mail, word processor, function and diagram editor, spreadsheet application or graphic software) to collect, process and transmit information.

Skilful use of remote communication techniques (e-mail, telephone, fax).

Giving a presentation based on collected and edited information, using the terminology of chemistry correctly and relying on the audio-visual devices available at the school.

Listing hazardous organic substances encountered in daily life; explaining their effect on living organisms and the environment; studying the attached advice and instructions to find out their appropriate use.

Exploring the reasons and consequences of environmental problems in the global and the immediate local environment.

Application of what has been learnt in various lessons (not only science, but also other subjects) to analyse situations and find possible solutions.

Collecting information and forming a personal opinion on the chemical dimension of addiction, the narcotic and hazardous effects of oxygen and sodium compounds, their personal and social risks.

Finding colloidal systems in daily life, and analysing their components.

Using knowledge of atomic structure to explain the physical properties of organic substances: establishing a correlation between functional group, molar weight and three-dimensional molecule structure, polarity, melting and boiling temperature and solubility.

Recognising the functional group of a compound on the basis of the physical properties and the chemical behaviour of the substance. Identifying the type of isomerism on the basis of the addition formula.

Constructing simple organic chemical equations according to the discussed rules of creating equations.

Setting up the equation of perfect combustion for a compound made up of C, H and O atoms with any addition formula.

The investigation of the properties of plastics found in our environment. The explanation of possible applications and environmental hazards on the basis of composition. Collecting information on dangerous household waste and reusable material disposal centres in the neighbourhood.

Designing a study to survey the quantitative and qualitative aspects of household waste production. Analysing data.

Finding solutions on how to reduce the amount of household packaging materials in the household and on a national level.




TOPICS

CONTENTS


History of chemistry

The life, experiments and discoveries of outstanding scientists in connection with the discussed material. Milestones in the history of chemistry.




Our hydrocarbon resources,

hydrocarbon as a source of energy

Organic chemistry, the central role of carbon.

Natural gas and crude oil: their origin.

Methane (in detail), hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon combustion, / thermal decomposition / halogen substitution, household fuel gas (propane gas), environment friendly automobile fuel gas.

Petrochemical processing, petroleum distillates and their use, saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes, the explanation to the large number of organic compounds, addition formula and structural formula, homologous series,, general addition formula.

Constitutional isomerism, cycloalkanes, the basics of the theory of regular names, alkyl group.

Alkane combustion, fire extinguishing possibilities.

Halogen substitution.

Aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene (in detail), substitution avidity, significance, toxic effect.

Environmental problems of oil industry and oil utilisation.




The most important synthetic materials


Unsaturated hydrocarbons:

Alkenes.


Ethylene (in detail), combustion, addition reactions (halogen-hydrogen-halogenide-water, hydrogen addition), polymerisation, polyethylene.

Conformation, polypropylene, styrene, polystyrene.

Industrial significance of alkanes, geometrical isomerism.

Dienes (butadiene, isoprene), caoutchouc, rubber, synthetic rubber.

Alkynes, ethyne, addition reactions, reaction with sodium, industrial significance.

Halohydrocarbons: The properties and significance of some major halohydrocarbons (freon, vinyl chloride, PVC, Teflon). Physiological and environmental impacts of freon and PVC.

Substitution and elimination.



Organic compounds from the chamber to the laboratory


Alcohol:

Functional group.

The general structure of alcohol.

Ethanol (in detail), set structure (hydrogen bond), main physical properties, significance, combustibility, slight oxidation, reaction with sodium, pH of its aqueous solution.

Ether synthesis, diethyl ether, flammability, significance.

Alcohol addiction, methanol, glycerine, phenol.

The first product of alcohol decomposition in the human body: aldehydes.

Formaldehyde (in detail), formalin, its reduction, oxidation, production and significance.


Acetone, ketone

Acetone (in detail), negative silver-mirror test and its significance.


Acetic carboxylic acids:

Proneness to hydrogen bond.

Formic acid and acetic acid (in detail), acid / base properties, significance.

Carboxylic acids with biological and chemical significance (fatty acids, lactic acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid).

Alcohol - oxocompound - carboxylic acid oxidation reduction transformations.
Fragrances, flavours, spices - carbolates:

Production with carboxylic acid and alcohol, main physical properties, occurrence, use.


Fats and oils - glycerides:

Fats and oils, margarine production, saponification, main properties.

Environmental problems related to used frying fats. Recycling.

Phospholipides and nitroglycerine.

Colloidal systems.
Soaps and detergents:

Soap production in the old and modern times. Soaps. The cleaning mechanism. Micella, sewage, eutrophication.


Sugar and flour in a paper bag - carbohydrates:

Monosaccharide, functional groups of monosaccharides, glucose (in detail), fermentation, fructose, biological significance.

Configuration, (the existence of) optical isomerism.

Disaccharide.

Maltose, brewing, cane sugar, biological significance. Reductive impact of monosaccharides and disaccharides (silver-mirror test, Fehling’s reaction).

Polysaccharide.

Cellulose, paper, recycling, starch, glycogen, lack of avidity.
Milk, egg, meat - proteins:

Amines, amino group, alkalinity.

Amides, amide group structure.

General composition of natural amino acids, dual ion, amphoteric property, amino acid bonds, polypeptides, proteins. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quadratic structure of proteins.

Denaturation and coagulation.



On the boundary of biology

Nucleic acids: ribose, 2-deoxiribose, pyridine (in detail), pyrimidine, proline, imidazole, purine, nucleotides, nucleotide links, RNA base order, DNA double helix.

The significance of nucleic acids, the outline of protein synthesis.

Modification of genetic matter, mutation, mutagenic substances.

Nucleic acid destruction as a result of radiation (A-bomb, ozone hole, sterilisation).

Reaction chains: biochemistry and chemical industry, similarities and differences.




From tea to heroin

Organic sodium compounds in relation with addiction, drugs (alcohol, nicotine, theine, caffeine, drugs). Effects, the process of getting addicted, addiction, impact on the level of society and on the individual level.




Environmental organic chemistry

Energy management: fossil, fissile and revolving energy sources, their advantages and disadvantages.

Other synthetic materials: synthetic and natural plastics, thermoplastic and thermoreactive plastics, polymerisation and polycondensation plastics (examples), degradation, waste combustion, dioxin.

Foodstuffs: plant cultivation, pesticides, animal husbandry, antibiotics, hormones, preservatives, E numbers, organic farming.

Is there a third path?: planned economy vs. market economy, consumer society, sustainable development and environment, where is ‘enough’ in personal and society level consumption.




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