Framework curricula for secondary schools


Number of teaching hours per year: 64



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Number of teaching hours per year: 64
New activities
Highlighting and explaining the essence of genetics.

Understanding that the constant change of the living world and living organisms is a necessary and natural process.

Recognising that less genetic diversity would endanger life on Earth.

Solving simple problems in the field of genetics.

Making brief presentations arguing for the importance of the protection of the environment and nature conservation.

Arguments for the importance of nature conservation areas and against activities polluting and destroying the environment.

Analysing an preparing simple graphs and figures in the field of ecology.

Making diagrams of nutrition chains and the quantitative features of biomes. Interpreting such diagrams.

Describing the material and energy flow of a biome with the help of diagrams and flow charts.

Observing living organisms and their space of living. Recording observations.

Knowing the typical associations and species within the immediate surroundings.

Using the available printed and electronic sources of information for learning about as many aspects and details of the biological environment as possible.

Orientation in the natural system of the living world. Accepting that the system of evolution is a natural system.

Finding the place of man in the system of the living world on Earth.

Recognising the phenomena which may endanger the biosphere and the global environment. Naming some social and economic strategies and alternatives.

Understanding that only a conscious individual and collective environmentalist attitude may prevent human activities which cause extreme alterations in the global environment or accelerate changes to an extent which evolution is unable to keep up with.

Reviewing the chronology of the major events of evolution.

Becoming aware that the differences developed in the course of human evolution are not qualitative differences; the biological and cultural heritage should be the shared value of mankind, and each group of people have made their contribution to it.




TOPICS

CONTENTS







Genetics


Qualities determined by a single gene

The meaning of the expressions phenotype and genotype, homozygote and heterozygote.

Intermediate and dominant-recessive processes and the essence of co-dominance.

The inheritance of certain human traits and diseases.




Inheritance of several traits simultaneously

Independent inheritance of genetic information which affect traits.

Inheritance of sex and traits related to sex.

Genital development in humans.




The interaction of genes affecting traits

The effect of the environment, the constraints of the manifestation of genetic information.

The development of quantitative traits.



Practical aspects of genetic knowledge

The significance of genetic research in agriculture and medicine.

Genetic erosion in the cultivation of plants and animal husbandry.








Populations and associations


The properties and changes of populations

The ethical dimension of achievements and research in the field of genetics.

Ideal and real populations.

Individual number, density, and the alteration of these parameters. Age distribution.

Survival strategies.



Inanimate environmental factors and their alterations

The characteristics of the most important inanimate environmental factors. Water, air and soil protection.

The effect of inanimate environmental factors on the living world. Tolerance in the living world. Low and high tolerance.



Ecological systems

Interaction within and between populations.

Nutritional relations, nutrition chains.

Producers, consumers, decomposers.

The circulation of the various vital substances in nature.

The impact of human activities on the flow of materials.

The correlation and quantitative relations of the metabolic cycle and energy flow of biomes.



Natural and artificial biomes

The concept and characterisation of biomes.

Natural biomes as self-regulating systems.

The importance of diversity in the living world.

The advantages and disadvantages of monocultures.








The evolution of the living world and the present biosphere


The basis and evidence of evolution

The essence of evolution and the most important evolutionary factors.

The theory of evolution: adaptive and inadaptive processes; the evolution of species.

Evolutionary evidence.




The process of evolution

Dating methods.

Theories on the origin of life. Pre-biological evolution.

The correlation between the major changes in the global environment and the evolution of the living world.

The evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

The evolution of multi-cellular plants and animals.

The evolution of tissue forming animals in the sea.

The evolution of continental thallophytes and vascular plants.

The evolution of the phyla of flowering plants.

Animals’ adaptation to life on dry land.

The conquest of the air.

The evolution of the living world in its present state.




Human evolution

The evolution of early humans.

The evolution of the genus Homo.

The evolution of big races and cultural evolution.




The present and future of the biosphere

Economies built around one product and short-term objectives.

Effects contaminating the soil, water and the atmosphere. The consequences of contamination.

Global processes on the Earth. The global problems of mankind.

Human ecology, the effect and harms of civilisation.

The significance of genetic diversity.

The effect of human activities on man’s own evolution and the evolution of other living organisms.

The effect of human activities on man’s own health and the environment.

The alternatives of development.

The future of the biosphere.





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