Framework curricula for secondary schools


Developmental requirements



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Developmental requirements
Teachers should raise their students interest in biological phenomena and processes. Students should obtain knowledge through the investigation of the phenomena and processes of their biological environment. Students should be made able to observe biological phenomena and to make simple investigations or experiments. In order to do this they should be trained to use teaching aids, tools and materials for tests and experiments by observing safety rules.

Students should be taught to use equipment, such as printers and electronic information storage devices, for learning purposes, and they should be able to understand information appearing in connection with biology in popular scientific books, articles and the electronic media on a level which can be expected at their age and intellectual development. Students should be able to compare the information obtained from the various sources.

With respect to studying biology students should be made able to distinguish between important and unimportant information, and they should have some experience in classifying or systematising biological objects, phenomena and processes according to similarities or differences in their properties or characteristics. When making experiments students should be able to establish how certain factors change, organise the data obtained from measurements and experiments, and interpret the results of investigations and experiments with the teacher’s help. In order to do these they must be familiar with the units of measurable quantities and their multiples occurring in the syllabus of biology.

Students should be assisted in formulating and recording the information obtained by observation, investigation and experiments in writing or in a simple diagram. Students must be taken to a level where they can read diagrams, graphs and figures of biological phenomena or processes, and interpret the information obtained from them.

Students should be made able to explain phenomena and processes which are similar to the discussed ones, and to use the knowledge, abilities and skills acquired during the study of biology to solve tasks and problems in daily life.

Our objective should be to make students consider the preservation of their physical and mental health as a value.

Students should be made familiar with the properties of living matter and the basic features of substances and living organisms with different levels of organisation found in their narrow and broader environment or in the syllabus.

Our objective should be to make students understand and apply the main principles of environmental protection and nature conservation. Students should also be made able to play an active role in preventing the accumulation of pollutants in their micro-environment reaching a level which is hazardous.

Teachers should make students aware of the beauty of nature and make them able to notice its manifestation. Teachers should make an attempt to shape students’ values in a way that it can include the beauty of nature.

Students should be made aware that time is a determinant of biological phenomena and processes, and living organisms change with the passing of time. Teachers should provide an overview of the periodical changes of life on Earth, the characteristics of the main stages of human life and the irreversibility of vital processes.

Students should have a picture of the typical flora and fauna of the different continents and the various regions of Hungary, as well as the magnitude of sizes occurring in the syllabus.

Teachers should make students convinced it is evident that there are no differences among various kinds of people in the human race in terms of their ability for emotional and mental development.

Teachers should reveal that learning about biological objects and phenomena is a process, an approximation to reality. Students should be made aware that the development of biological knowledge is the result of the joint efforts of scientists and researchers from various countries representing various peoples, and that Hungarian scientists and researchers have played a significant role in this work..
Year 10
Number of teaching hours per year: 55
New activities
The general properties of the most characteristic groups of living organisms.

Identifying and describing the major vital processes of animals and plants without the teacher’s help.

Describing the body structure of living organisms with the help of figures and models.

Explaining the vital functions of living organisms with the help of figures, flow charts and models.

Highlighting the essence of the various vital processes.

Establishing and explaining the correlation between the body structure and vital functions of living organisms.

Comparing the body structure and vital functions of different living organisms. Establishing and explaining similarities and differences.

Understanding the taxonomy of plants, fungi and animals based on the differences of their metabolic processes.

Independent research and making a presentation on the correlation between the structure and functions of living organisms.

Using an optical microscope, describing and interpreting the image seen.

Making simple experiments, organising, recording and evaluating observations.

Applying information from other natural scientific subjects for the interpretation of biological phenomena.





TOPICS

CONTENTS







The diversity of body structure and vital functions in living organisms


Viruses, prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes

The life cycle and medical significance of viruses.

The structure of prokaryotic cells.

Autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the medical significance of bacteria and cyanobacteria and their role in the biosphere.

Unicellular eukaryotes: properties and metabolism of pseudopods, flagellate and ciliate, the significance of unicellular eukaryotes.



The body structure and vital functions of animals

The general characteristics of the body structure and vital functions of animals.

The various levels of animal organisation.

The characteristics of animal cells and major animal tissue types.

Animals as heterotrophic organisms. Their role in the biosphere.

The correlation of self-sustaining vital functions.

The characteristic body structure and vital functions of specimens from the major animal phyla.

Comparing the relationship of self-sustaining functions, environment, lifestyle and body organisation in the following groups of animals: invertebrates: phylum of porifera; phylum of coelenterata; phyla of worms; snails, shellfish and cephalopoda from the phylum of mollusca; insects, crayfish and spiders from the phylum of arthropods.

Cartilaginous and bony fish, amphibia, reptiles, birds and mammals from the phylum of vertebrates.

Animal behaviour.

Inherited and learned behaviour patterns in animals.

The social behaviour and communication of animals.

The sexual behaviour of animals, the various forms of progeny care.



The body structure and vital functions of plants

The general characteristics of the body organisation and metabolism of plants.

Types of plant organisation.

The structure of plant versus animal cells.

The essence of autotrophic metabolism. The role of plants in the biosphere.

Autotrophic versus heterotrophic metabolism.

Thallophytes: the body structure and metabolism of bryophyta.

The body structure and metabolism vascular plants.

Types of plant tissues, and their characteristics and functions.

The role of the root and shoots in the uptake and secretion of substances.

Gas exchange and transpiration.

The structure and functions of vascular bundles.

Different types of organs modified for storage.

The correlation of nutrient storage and the environment.

The forms of plant excretion.

The movements of vascular plants, plant hormones.

Types of plant movement and their characteristics.

The correlation of plant movement and the environment.

Reproduction in vascular plants.

Sexual and asexual reproduction.

The structure of the reproductive organ of angiosperms.

The ontogenesis of angiosperms.

The correlation of reproduction, ontogenesis and environment.



The body structure and vital functions of fungi

The properties of fungi.

The specific characteristics of the body structure of fungi.

The life of fungi, their practical and medical significance and their interaction with plants and animals.

The most common edible and poisonous mushrooms, and how to recognise them.




Prerequisites for moving ahead
Students are familiar with the typical body structure of the major groups of living organisms.

They can highlight the most important aspects of the vital functions of various living organisms and to explain them. They realise that various body structures may result in the same vital functions.

They are able to compare and classify living organisms on the basis of their body structure and vital functions.

They can distinguish self-sustaining and reproductive functions in living organisms.

As a result of the comparison of the human body structure and vital functions with the body structure and vital functions of the various animals, student should understand that, from a biological perspective, humans are just one form of living organisms.

On the basis of their knowledge of the body structure and the metabolic processes, they understand why plants, fungi and animals represent distinct worlds within the natural system of living organisms.

They understand the difference between autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism.

They understand why the photosynthetic process is vital for the living world of the Earth.

They are familiar with the fundamental characteristics of plant cells and tissues.

They can give examples on how the various vital functions are realise by means of various ways of body organisation in vascular plants.

They are familiar with the major phases of the reproductive process, seed formation and yield production in angiosperms.

They are familiar with the fundamental characteristics of animal cells and tissues.

They can give examples on how body organisation assures the various vital functions in animals.

They are familiar with the major phases of embryonic development and the various types development with transformation.

They know a few examples of the different forms of progeny care.

They are familiar with the fundamental properties of fungi, and be able to recognise the deadly Amanita.

They can make simple investigations and experiments, and notice and interpret change.

They have an experience in using microscopes and interpreting the image seen.

Year 11
Number of teaching hours per year: 74
New activities
Explaining the components of cells, and understanding intracellular processes with the help of figures and microscopic images.

Recognising the close connection between the structure and functioning of cell components. Understanding the correlation between vital processes on the level of the cell and on the level of the organism.

Making simple investigations and experiments in the field of cytology. Properly documenting and evaluating these investigations and experiments.

Linking knowledge of chemistry and knowledge of biology.

Explaining the process of cell division with the help of diagrams.

Knowing the most important human vital functions, and discovering links between the various vital functions.

Making simple investigations and experiments in connection with the functioning of the human body. Documenting and evaluation these investigations and experiments.

Illustrating the control mechanism of most important vital functions with a few examples.

Understanding the importance of a healthy lifestyle and a conscious diet.

Admitting the disadvantages of unhealthy habits with respect to the individual and the society.

Understanding the necessity of regular exercise.

Recognising values strengthening a healthy lifestyle, and establishing habits conducive to the preservation of health.

Understanding the personal and collective/social benefits of prevention, medical screening and vaccination.

Accepting abstinence from substances which are hazardous to one’s physical and mental health.

Doing independent research for presentations and debates in connection with the topic of healthy living.

Understanding the biological and social-ethical dimensions of human sexuality.

Developing the acceptance of responsibility in sexual behaviour.

Analysing indices referring to the health condition of the Hungarian population, identifying risk factors, understanding the necessity of prevention and familiarity with the preventive practices.

Critical analysis of pseudo-scientific and commercial press-cuttings.

TOPICS

CONTENTS







The structure and metabolism of the cell


Cell structure

Biogenic elements.

The biologically important properties of water.

The major properties of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.

The function of membranes, pigments, mitochondria and nucleus.

Comparison of prokaryote and eukaryote cells.




Th metabolic processes of the cell

Material flow, passive and active transport.

Enzymes and enzyme catalysis.

The role and correlation of building and break-down processes.

The essence of the biological process of photosynthesis, fermentation and biological oxidation.

Energy flow in the cell.




The cytological basis of reproduction and genetics

The coding and transcription of information, protein and nucleic acid synthesis.

The concept of gene and allel.

The chemical basis of genetic information: DNA  RNA  protein  feature.

Chromosomes, chromosome number, haploid and diploid cells.

The concept and biological significance of mitosis and meiosis.

Variation of genetic information during meiosis and fertilisation.

Types of mutation and their consequences.

Mutagenic effects affecting humans and their consequences.


Self-sustaining functions and their control in humans


Review of self-sustaining functions

The internal environment of an organism.

The role of various vital functions in maintaining the stability of the internal environment.



Neural and hormonal control

The concept of regulation and control.

The structure of the neuron. Nervous tissue.

The generation and function of action potential and rest potential.

Synapsis.

The principle of the reflexive.

Sensing changes in the internal and external environment.

The structure and functioning of the eye.

The structure and functioning of the hearing organ.

Sensing balance.

Tasting and smelling.

The sensitive functions of the skin.

Protecting the sense organs. The diseases of the sense organs.

The structure of the nervous system: peripheral and central nervous system.

The structure of the central nervous system, parts of the brain.

The somatic and vegetative functions of the nervous system.

Some medical information in connection with the nervous system.

The principles of hormonal control.

Hypotalamus - hypophysis system.

The major hormones of the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland and the pancreas, and their effects.




The blood circulation

system

The composition of blood, blood components.

The function of red blood cells and blood platelets. Blood coagulation.

The comparison of the different types of blood vessels. The functioning of capillary vessels.

The structure and functioning of the heart. The function of the large and small blood circles.

The essence of blood circulation control.

The risk factors and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.



The immune system

The essence of immunity. The function of the immune system.

The function of phagocytes and lymphocytes. The outline of immune reaction bound to the cell, immune response to antigens.

Vaccination.

Blood groups.

Some medical information in connection with the immune system.




Nutrition

The essence of digestion. The digestive function of the saliva, the gastric juices, the pancreatic juice, the bile and the intestinal juice..

The initial sections of the intestines and their functions.

The function of the central intestines. The absorption of organic and inorganic substances.

The function of the final section of the intestines.

The control of the nutrition process.

Healthy diet.



Respiration

The sections of the air passages and their functions. Sound formation.

The structure of the lungs. The process of gas exchange.

Respiratory movements.

The control of the respiration process.

Some medical information in connection with respiratory organs.




The skin and the movement of humans

The structure of the skin, healthy skin.

The role of the skin in maintaining the heat balance of the body.

The structure and connection of the bones.

The major parts of the skeleton.

The structure and function of muscles. The connection of muscles to the skeleton.

The conscious and unconscious control of the system of motor organs.

The diseases and injuries of motor organs. The importance of regular exercise.




Excretion

The structure and function of the kidney.

The urinary system.

The control of secretive functions.

Some medical information in connection with the secretive organs.








Human reproduction and ontogenesis


Human reproduction

Spermatozoa.

Male sexual organs: the parts and functioning of testicles, the functions of genital glands, genital paths.

The hormonal control of male sexual functions.

Female sexual organs: the structure and functioning of the ovaries, oviducts, the menstrual cycle.

The hormonal control of the menstrual cycle.

Human sexuality.

Methods of contraception.




Human ontogenesis

Pregnancy. The period and hormonal control of pregnancy. Childbirth.

The physical and psychological features of embryonic and post-embryonic development.




General health care


Hygiene and health care

Everyday hygiene, first aid, using medical services.

Risk factors, hazards of civilisation.

Addiction.

Child birth, family planning, genetic counselling and prenatal care.

Environmental hygiene.

Mental health.




Prerequisites for moving ahead
Students know the correlation of the structure and functions of cell components, and they are able to establish a connection between life processes on the level of the cell and on the level of the organism.

They can make simple tests and experiments in the field of physiology and cytology, and to record and interpret the results of these appropriately.

When explaining biological phenomena, they use the concepts learnt in chemistry properly.

They know the correlation between the nutrition content and value of foodstuffs, as well as the effect substances hazardous to healthy vital functions can make on the human body.

They have a need for a healthy lifestyle and a conscious diet. They are aware of the personal and social disadvantages of unhealthy habits.

They recognise the values which strengthen one’s health.

They understand that regular exercise is a fundamental need for every human being.

They admit that the prevention of diseases, screening tests and vaccination are for the benefit of the individual and the society alike.

They consciously restrain from substances hazardous to their physical or mental health.

They are familiar with the functions of self-sustaining organs and the correlation of their functions.

They can distinguish the morphological and functional components of the nervous system, and are able to highlight the main functions of the various parts.

They can enumerate the glands which produce hormones, know their location as well as the main effects of their hormones.

They have a general view of the functioning, the vital functions and the control mechanisms of the various systems of organs.

They can enumerate the male and female reproductive organs, know their structure and the principles of their functioning.

They understand and accept that human sexuality is not a purely biological process. They are able to assume responsibility in their sexual behaviour.

They are familiar with the most common ways of preventing undesirable pregnancy.

They are familiar with the main physical, psychological and behavioural characteristics of the various phases of human life.

They consider the preservation of health the result of harmonic co-existence with the inanimate and living environment, and illness as the termination of this harmony.

Year 12




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