The Treaty of Fort Laramie was created at Fort Laramie on September 17, 1851. It was written by superintendant of Indian Affairs, D.D. Mitchell and Indian Agent, Thomas Fitzpatrick. Each of these commissioners was selected by the President of the United States. The treaty was also signed by representatives from the Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Shoshone, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara tribes. The purpose of the treaty was to gain permission from the Native Americans to build roads through their territories and to allow safe passage for those traveling on the Oregon Trail. In return, the American Indians gained control of the Great Plains and also received fifty thousand dollars for fifty years. The treaty includes eight articles that described the arrangements in further detail.
Article #1: The purpose of article one is an agreement to maintain peace between the Europeans and the Native Americans and to also form a friendship.
Article #2: States that the United States government has the right to build roads and military post in Indian territories.
Article #3: Says that the United States promises to protect the Indian nations mentioned in the treaty from United States citizens.
Article #4: Explains that Indian nations agree to pay restitutions for any wrongs committed against United States citizens by people of the mentioned Indian nations.
Article #5: States that the Indian nations must live in certain designated areas of land.
Article #6: Explains that the Indian nations must maintain leaders or representatives who will conduct national business with the United States.
Article #7: Says the United States will pay the Indian nations fifty thousand dollars every year for ten years and the President of the United States may decide if they will continue to be paid after ten years.
The Treaty of Fort Laramie of 1868 was a treaty between the Lakota nation, Yanktonai Sioux, Santee Sioux, and the Arapaho and the United States. The treaty was signed at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming territories in 1868. The main purpose of the treaty was to give the land of the Black Hills to the Lakota nation and allow them hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. This treaty created the “Great Sioux Reserve.” Also, this treaty included Articles that would require the Indian nations to assimilate into the white man’s culture and become more civilized.
South Dakota Standard: 9-12.US.2.1. Students are able to describe the causes and effects of interactions between the U.S. government and Native American cultures.