Forgettable Five



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History 102 Outline II

The Winds of Change
The "Forgettable Five": Rutherford B. Hayes, James A Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison
1877-1881: Hayes (Republican)

Withdrawal from the South & Reconstruction

Rocoe Conkling's (NY) Stalwarts ("Machinists")

James G. Blaine's (Maine) Reformers (“Half-Breeds”)

Patronage, Failed Civil Reform, "Lemonade Lucy"

1881- July 2, 1881 James A Garfield (Republican, Half-Breed)

V.P.: Chester A. Arthur (Stalwart / Conklingite)

Pendleton Act of 1883: Civil Service Reform

Republican Rift of 1884: James Blaine Nominated; "Mugwumps" bolt party

Democrats: Grover Cleveland, the "Veto Governor" of New York

Dr. Samuel Buchard, "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion" charge against Democrats

1888: The Tariff Issue: Democrats against protection, Republicans for protection

Election of 1888:

Cleveland gets 100,000 more popular votes, loses Electoral College 233 to 168

President Harrison: Sherman Antitrust Act (and interstate commerce)

McKinley Act of 1890

Democratic Sweep of 1892, return of Cleveland
The Agrarian Revolt
Wilson-Gorman Tariff Bill (added 2% income tax on all income over $4,000)

Supreme Court Response to Wilson-Gorman

(16th amendment in 1913)

1886: The "Wabash" Case: Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois

Narrowing of interpretations of interstate commerce

1887: Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

Long & Short haul equity, Publishing Rates
1867 National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, Oliver Kelley

The Granger's Goals:



  1. Scientific Agriculture

  2. Feeling of Community

  3. Marketing Cooperatives

  4. State Legislatures in Midwest, Railroad Rates

1875: Texas Farmers, others: Farmer's Alliance Movement



  1. Cooperatives

  2. Stores

  3. Banks

  4. Processing Plants

  5. Cooperation ("neighborly responsibility")

1889: Ocala, Florida: The Ocala Demands

Alliance Endorsements-12 state legislatures, 6 Governors, 50 representatives, 3 Senators
Birth of The People's Party (Populism) at Omaha 1892 Convention

1,500 local Populist officials in 1892, James Weaver gets 8.5% pop vote, 22 electoral

What did the Populists Want?


  1. Subtreasuries (warehouses)

  2. Abolish National Banks

  3. No more absentee land ownership

  4. Direct election of Senators

  5. Regulation or government ownership of Railroads, Telegraphs, Telephones

  6. Gradated Income Tax

  7. Inflation of Currency

  8. "Remonetization" of Silver*


Panic of 1893
Reading and Philadelphia Railroad Failure: Lasts until 1898

Jacob Coxey: Coxey's Army


The Silver Issue: What bases currency?

Bimetalism: The old way

1870: Official Mint Ratio 16:1 (silver: gold) ve Market Ratio (Rose above 16)

1873: Discontinues Silver Coins

Late 1870s: Silver drops below 16; the "Crime of '73"

Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1893: Cleveland calls for repeal


Election of 1896

Republicans: Gold Standard (European Agreement to silver): William McKinley

Democrats: Warring Platforms; final speaker in convention William Jennings Bryan

Bryan's "Cross of Gold" Speech; the Populist Plight

Bryan's political stumping; Republican outspend $7 million to $300,000

1897: President William McKinley

Dingley Tariff (return to protectionism)

Currency Act of 1900 (Gold)


Questions of the Populist Movement:

  1. Anti-Semitic?

  2. The interracial experiment / failure

  3. Populist Failure

  4. Who were Populists?

  5. Populism's Legacy


The Rise of Imperial America
The New Manifest Destiny: Racial Social Darwinism

Alfred Tahyer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)

Thesis: 2 coasts, reliance on colonies

1890: move to 5th largest navy; 1898: 3rd largest navy


1889: Secretary of State James Blaine, Pan-American Congress

1895: Venezuela and British Guiana border dispute: "Violation of Monroe Doctrine"

Hawaii: 1875 Duty-Free Sugar

1887 Pearl Harbor base on Oahu

Samoa: Pago Pago, the US, Germany, Britain
1895: Cuban Revolt against Spain (in part due to Wilson-Gorman Tariff, 1894, effect on sugar); Valeriano "The Butcher" Wayler: Hearst, Pulitzer
1895: McKinley more interventionist than Cleveland had been, conflict dying down

1897: The Dupuy de Lome (Spanish Minister) incident

The destruction of the Maine

1898: Attempt at armistice and Peace, but Spain refuses to negotiate with rebels


April 25, 1898: Spanish-American War (Ends August 12, 1898; Armistice in Dec)

"Splendid Little War" vs. racial conflicts

Asst. Sec. Of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt: Commodore George Dewey, the Philippines
Charge of Kettle Hill (San Juan Hill) Rough Riders

Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam: Question of the Philippines

The unusual fight: Twain, Carnegie, Gompers: The role of William Jennings Bryan
1900 Election: Bryan vs. McKinley

Territorial Status: Hawaii 1900, Alaska 1912, Puerto Rice 1917

Cuba: The Platt Amendment (1901)

The Philippine War: 1898-1902 (Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo, Gen. Arthur MacArthur)


China: Sec. Of State John Hay, the "Open Door Notes"

Sent to Russia, Germany, Italy, England, Japan, France

"Spheres of Influence", the tariff

Boxer Rebellion of 1900


Elihu Root and the modern military (1900-1903)

Fort Levenworth Army Staff College, General Staff (Joint Chiefs of Staff)


PROGRESSIVISM


Traits:

  1. Optimistic

  2. Improvement and Perfection

  3. State Intervention


Flavors of Intervention:

  1. Anti-monopoly (Economic)

  2. The Social Order (Social)

  3. Efficient Organized Society (Political)

The Muckrakers: "Social Gospel"

Lincoln Steffans, McClure's, The Shame of the City

Religion and Reform: Salvation Army, Charles Sheldon In His Steps


Settlement House Movement

The question of "the Effects of the Environment"

1889: Hull House, Jane Addams Social Work, Eleanor Roosevelt
Scientific Management, love of expertise, "Taylorism"
Rise of the "New Middle Class":

The professions: Professional Societies

Genderization of Professions (Teachers)

Women's Clubs


Move for Progressive Political Reform
Strategies:

  1. Move from Australian to Secret Ballot

  2. Municipal Reform (Galveston, TX, 1900)

Nonpartisan Commissions

City Manager Models



  1. Turn to State Level, but not legislatures

Initiatives, Referendums

Primaries

The Recall Election


  1. National Reform: Slower: 1912-13 Seventeenth Amendment

(Direct Election of Senate)
Success Governors:

Woodrow Wilson (New Jersey, anti-trust)

Hiram Johnson (California, Southern Pacific)

Robert M. LaFollette of Wisconsin

Regulation of railroads, utilities, referendums, initiatives, workplace reform

Decline of Parties Starts; Rise of "Interest Groups"

Machine Bosses adopt some reform agendas

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in 1911, New York (146)



Social Progressives "Crusades"
Temperance: revival of power

1879 Francis Willard Women's Christian Temperance Union

1893 Anti-Saloon League

1917: Push for the Eighteenth Amendment; voted in effective Jan 1920


Nativism: The Closing of Immigration (by nationality: Assimilation argument)
Women's Suffrage:

Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Natural Rights vs Women's Sphere (Declaration of Sentiments)

National Women's Suffrage Association

New Approaches: Social Concerns

1910-1920 growth of state voting power; 1920 Nineteenth Amendment
Socialism: Eugene V. Debs (Socialist Party 1900-1912)

Who was attracted?



  1. Immigrants (Germans and Jews)

  2. Protestant Farmers (South, Midwest)

  3. Intellectuals: Lincoln Steffans, Walter Lippman (journalist) Frances Willard

Differing Goals: Some focused on Pacifism, some on Labour militancy

Industrial Workers of the World (Militant) "Wobblies"

William "Big Bill" Haywood
Economic Approaches: Regulation vs. Decentralization

1909, Herbert Çroly The Promise of American Life - Good versus Bad trusts

Nationalization of some trusts

1913, Louis Brandeis, Other People's Money - government breakup of trusts


National Progressivism: Teddy Roosevelt
1901: McKinley Assassinated September

Roosevelt's First Term vs. his Second

Sherman Antitrust invoked 1902 against Northern Securities; 39 more times

1902 United Mine Workers; Federal Arbitration; possible intervention for workers

1904: "The Square Deal"

Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act of 1906:

ICC - Interstate Commerce Commission may now see financial books of Railroads

Pure Food and Drug Act (FDA); Meat Inspection Act (response to The Jungle)

1907: New Initiatives


  1. Eight hour day

  2. compensation for accident victims

  3. inheritance & income taxes

  4. regulation of the stock market

  5. Conservationism: National Forest Service - Gifford Pinchot

1902 Newlands Reclamation Act

Roosevelt fights with conservative Republicans in his party

Panic of 1907: J. P. Morgan and New York

Okay to have US Steel buy TN Coal and Iron from NY Bank

Roosevelt Retires (Somewhat reluctantly)
1909: Republican President William Howard Taft (Unreadable at first, beats Bryan)

Shift to Conservatism: Leads to resounding defeat by 1912

Problems: The weak response to lowering protective tariff

Replacing Secretary of the Interior James Garfield with Richard Ballinger

Ballinger : corporate Lawyer, tries to invalidate protection on 1 million acres of land

Accusation brought to Pinchot that Ballinger sold Alaska land to coal syndicate for $$

Taft decides not to pursue the matter; Pinchot leaks to Press

Taft Fires Pinchot

1910: After return from Safari, Roosevelt returns to politics

New Nationalism Speech of September 1

Democrats begin to turn to progressive candidates

Election of 1912: Nomination of Roosevelt vs Taft after La Follette's breakdown

Chicago Convention of 1912: Progressives walk out

Progressive "Bull Moose" party


Intervention and War
Teddy Roosevelt: Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick

"Civilized vs. Uncivilized" Nations


China and Japan:

1904: Japan attacks Russian Fleet in Manchuria

1905 Peace Agreement: Teddy Roosevelt's Secret Promise

1906 Nobel Peace Prize

Same Time: San Francisco and Asian Segregation; Riots; "Yellow Peril"; Great White Fleet
"Roosevelt Corollary": The question of destabilization in Latin American Governments

1902: Venezuela blockaded by Germany, Italy, Britain; German Bombardment

The Era of American Latin American Intervention:

Dominican Republic (controlled import/exports)

1902: Cuba independent with Platt; 1906 "protected" again

The Panama Canal: Financed Revolt from Colombia (vs. Nicaragua)

Canal opens in 1914
Taft's "Dollar Diplomacy" : Change from Roosevelt

*Failure in China (banker pressure, failed railroad)

*1909 Nicaraguan revolution; financial and military

Dominican Republic, Haiti 1915-1934; purchase of Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands)



The Mexican Conundrum:

Dictator Porfirio Diaz

1910: Francisco Madero overthrows him (anti-American)

1913: Victoriano Huerta (about to be recognized by Taft; murder of Madero)

Wilson: Huerta is a butcher

New Government: Carranza and Pancho Villa (John J> Pershing)



The Great War

Triple Entente: Britian France Russia

Triple Alliance: Germany, Austrio-Hungary, Italy

1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Serbian Nationalists.


Wilson calls for impartiality: The true story of neutrality: Economics

The German U-Boat challenge

1915: The Sinking of the Lusitania

1916: Brief accord; Allies then arm trade ships

1916: The sinking of the French ship the Sussex

Wilson's 1916 campaign: "He Kept Us Out of War"

Slim lead for Democrats

"War for Democracy"

Feb 25, 1917: The Zimmerman Telegram

March 1917: Czarist government toppled by Republicans; November; Lenin's Bolshevik Revolution

April 1917: America Enters War: First by Sea, then by land

Selective Service (The Draft)

1918: General Pershing and the retaking of Belgium

Nov 11, 1918, Germany Surrenders

Domestic: Liberty Bonds, huge taxes, debt of $32 Billion when GNP was $35 billion

Ironies of “War for Democracy: Economic & Political


"War Boards": War Industries Board

National War Labour Board

Committee on Public Information, George Creel.

Espionage Act of 1917; 1918’s Sabotage and Sedition Acts




History 102 p. Outline II: Winds of Change


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