Focus: What is the significance of blood in Maya religious beliefs and practices? Student Objectives



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7th Grade Social Studies

Mexico & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 6—Mayan Society and Demise

September 3, 2013
Focus: What is the significance of blood in Maya religious beliefs and practices?

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Student Objectives:

1. I will identify the significance of the Mayan empire by analyzing the following about their civilization:



  • Social Structure

  • Religion

  • Other Achievements

2. I will identify some of the historical theories that attempt to explain the downfall of the Maya empire.
Homework:

1. Read and outline section 1.2 pgs 20-24 in The America’s text

2. Mexico, Central, and South America Geography Test Friday 9/6

3. Current Events due Monday 9/9

4. Maya, Aztec, Conquest, & Colonial New Spain Test Tuesday 9/17
Handouts:

None
I. Mayan Social Structure

A. Nobility (cahualo)

B. Commoners

II. Mayan Religion


  1. Beliefs and Values

  1. Symbol of the tree

III. Mayan Achievements

  1. Calendar

IV. Decline

  1. Theories


Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Cahualo Tribute Heaven Earth Underworld Human Sacrifice

Blood gods
By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who paid tribute to the nobility?

What symbol is used to represent the three different levels of the Mayan world?

Why did the Maya practice human sacrifice?

List three theories that historians think led to the demise of the Mayan empire.

NOTES

Class 6—Mayan Society and Demise

September 3, 2013

Mayan Society:



  • Cahualob (upper class/nobility)

  • Small Middle Class

    • Artisans, petty officials, soldiers, and merchants

      • Lived outside the core in complexes similar to apartment buildings

  • Lower Class


Middle Class

Lower Class

Cahualob (upper class)

Mayan Religion:



  • gods, people, animals, plants, mountains, and even cities were alive-movements could be timed-create calendar

  • Human events were divinely predetermined

  • Mayan world had three levels

    • Earth-where Mayans existed-sacred

    • Underworld


Branches = heaven
Heaven


Roots = underworld

Trunk = earth
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Mayan Achievements:



  • Calendar-365 days-dependent on rainfall-off by less than a minute after thousands of years

  • Number system with concept of zero

  • Recorded history with dates

Mayan Demise Theories (about 900 AD):



  • Warfare

  • Famine

  • Drought

  • Plagues

  • Hurricane

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Mexico & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 7—The Aztecs

September 4, 2013
Focus: Why did Aztec merchants make such good spies for the emperor?

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Student Objectives:

1. I will analyze how the Aztecs established an empire

2. I will identify the different levels of Aztec society.
Homework:

1. Mexico, Central, and South America Geography Test Friday 9/6

2. Current Events due Monday 9/9

3. Maya, Aztec, Conquest, & Colonial New Spain Test Tuesday 9/17


Handouts:

None
I. Tenochtitlàn

A. The Aztec Capital

II. Social Hierarchy



  1. Nobility

  2. High Status

  3. Commoners

  4. Slaves

III. Warrior creed

IV. Education



  1. Boys

  2. Girls


Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Tenochtitlàn Lake Texcoco Pipiltin Macehualtin Warrior

Eagle and Jaguar Knights Calmècac Telpochcallis
By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

What is the name given to the upper class in Aztec society? To the commoners?

Where did the Aztecs settle and begin to build their empire?

How could an individual move up a social class in Aztec society?

What were upper and lower class schools called in Aztec society?

Who went to school in Aztec society?

NOTES

Class 7—The Aztecs

September 4, 2013

Aztecs-Nomadic



  • Move from present day Texas/Oklahoma to central Mexico

  • Believe they are chosen people of gods

  • Superb Warriors

  • Cruel

  • Act as mercenaries

Coxcox (Pheasant)-scatters the Aztecs after they sacrifice his daughter


Tenochtitàn-located on the marshes of Lake Texcoco

  • 150,000-200,000 residents

  • Lake full of fish and fowl

  • Omen-Eagle perched on cactus with serpent in its beak

  • Intersection of 3 kingdoms

  • Clean-drainage, garbage disposal, street sweepers,

  • Conquered people pay tribute to the Aztecs

Aztec Society



  • Pipiltin-Nobility

    • Emperor and Royal Family

      • Emperor has one “legitimate wife” but can have many wives

      • Best candidate is chosen to rule

      • Serve as example for the people and lead warriors

    • High Priests/Military Officials/Judges/Tax Collectors

  • High Status, BUT NOT Nobility

    • Pochteca-merchants

    • Priests/scholars/artists/scribes

  • Macehualtin-Commoners

    • 90% of the population

    • Farmers/Laborers/servants/vendors

  • Slaves

    • Had some rights

    • Could marry a free person

    • Bondage not hereditary

    • Could gamble your freedom

  • Everyone was expected to bear arms-distinction in battle could elevate social standing

  • Education

    • Boys-learn art of war

    • Girls-take care of home and be good mothers

    • Upper class school-Calmècac

    • Lower class school-Telpochcallis

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7th Grade Social Studies

Mexico & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 8—Aztec Religion

September 5, 2013


Focus: Why was blood so significant for both the Mayans and Aztecs? What kind of people did the Aztecs sacrifice?

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Student Objectives:

1. I will analyze Aztec religion and identify why human sacrifice was practiced so prominently in Aztec society.


Homework:

1. Mexico, Central, and South America Geography Test Friday 9/6

2. Current Events due Monday 9/9

3. Maya, Aztec, Conquest, & Colonial New Spain Test Tuesday 9/17


Handouts:

None
I. Aztec gods

A. Huitzilopochtli (Hummingbird on the Left)

II. Aztec Religion/Beliefs

III. Human Sacrifice


  1. Who

  2. How

  3. Why


Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Huitzilopochtli (Hummingbird on the Left) Age of the Fifth Sun Human Sacrifice

Aztec Warfare Heart Decapitation


By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

What was the significance of Aztec human sacrifice?

Who was the god of war and sun?

How many times had the earth been destroyed according to the Aztecs?

NOTES

Class 8—Aztec Religion

September 5, 2013

Aztecs worshipped many gods



  • Huitzilopochtli (Hummingbird on the Left)

    • Aztec supreme deity-god of war and sun

Beliefs


  • Sun/earth destroyed and recreated four times

  • Currently living in the age of the 5th sun-felt destruction of the earth was imminent

  • Avoid end of the world-please Huitzilopochtli

  • Natural cycle-sun & rain nourished plant and human life so humans should give sustenance to the gods

  • If the gods had sacrificed themselves to the sun, than how could the Aztecs decline the same honor

  • Greatest expression of piety was giving of life itself

  • Need for blood also served Aztec military expansion

Human Sacrifice



  • Solemn, necessary religious ceremony—hope to avoid disaster

  • Considered an honor to be sacrificed

  • Most commonly done by the excision of the heart followed by decapitation

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7th Grade Social Studies

Mexico & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction Class Class 9—Geography Test and the Conquistadors

September 6, 2013


Focus: Take out your map of Mexico and of Central and South America. Review your maps and map formula.

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Student Objectives:

1. I will complete today’s geography test with at least 85% accuracy.

2. I will identify the arrival of Fernando Cortès and the Conquistadors as the beginning of the end for the Aztec Empire.
Homework:

1. Current Events due Monday 9/9

2. Maya, Aztec, Conquest, & Colonial New Spain Test Tuesday 9/17

Handouts:

None
I. Geography Test

II. Conquistadors


  1. Fernando Cortès


Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Fernando Cortès Jerònimo de Aguilar Doña Marina (Malinche) Moctezuma II


By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

What did the Conquistadors have that the Indians were afraid of?

Who was the leader of the Conquistadors?

What were the Conquistadors after?

How did Jerònimo de Aguilar and Doña Marina help Cortès?

NOTES

Class 9—Geography Test and the Conquistadors

September 6, 2013
Fernando Cortès


  • Sets sail from Cuba in 1519

  • Commanded 550 men

    • Some from Portugal, Germany, and Italy

  • 16 horses

  • A few small cannon

  • Seeking power and wealth

First Contact


Communication



  • Cortès has two interpreters

    • Jerònimo de Aguilar-speaks Mayan and Spanish

    • Doña Marina (Malinche-some consider her a traitor)-Cortès interpreter and advisor


Moctezuma II-Ruler of the Aztecs


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