Focus: Read the article on the back of this paper. Then answer this question: Should the Americans give it back? Why or why not? Student Objectives



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7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 25—Mexico-American War & War of the Reform

October 5, 2015
Focus: Read the article on the back of this paper. Then answer this question: Should the Americans give it back? Why or why not?

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Student Objectives:

1. I will analyze the Mexican-American War from the Mexican perspective.

2. I will analyze the War of the Reform.
Homework:

-Read and outline Chapter 2, Section 6, pgs. 22-24 (due 10/6)

-Read and outline Chapter 2, Section 7, pgs. 25-26 (due 10/7)

-Chapter 2 Test Thursday 10/8

-Current Events: Times Past: Wounded Knee (due 10/19)
Handouts:

1. The News-Gazette (Champaign, Illinois) March 30, 1998 Santa Anna's leg took a long walk


I. Annexation of Texas

II. Border dispute

III. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

IV. Impact of War on Mexico

V. The Reform

VI. Benito Juárez



VII. War of the Reform
Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Santa Anna James K. Polk Zachary Taylor Nueces River

Rio Grande Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Niños Héroes Chapultepec Castle

Juan Escutia Ley Juárez Ley Lerdo Ley Iglesias Constitution of 1857

Pope Pius IX War of the Reform Felix Zuloaga Benito Juárez


By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

What happened at Chapultepec Castle?

What two rivers were disputed as the border between the U.S. and Texas?

What was the impact of the war on Mexico?

What is the difference between the Constitution of 1824 and the Constitution of 1857?

Why was Benito Juárez so important to Mexican history?

The News-Gazette (Champaign, Illinois)


March 30, 1998

Santa Anna's leg took a long walk


By PAUL WOOD
 1998 THE NEWS-GAZETTE
 CERRO GORDO – Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna could be lucky in war, notably at the Alamo, but he had a problem with food He lost his leg in the so-called French Pastry War, fought between France and Mexico in 1838. Then in 1847, facing the United States at the Battle of Cerro Gordo in Mexico, he stopped paying attention to the
 war long enough to linger over a roast chicken His lunch was interrupted by an uninvited regiment of Illinoisans, who ate the general's chicken and carried off his cork leg. Santa Anna hobbled away to fight another day.
It was a huge victory for the 4th Regiment Illinois Volunteers, who also discovered a hoard of gold used to pay Mexican soldiers. Some of the soldiers returned to Piatt County, where the town of Griswold was renamed Cerro Gordo in commemoration of the battle. The Volunteers regiment would eventually become the Illinois National Guard, and its trophy of war, Santa Anna's cork leg, now resides in the Guard's museum, Camp Lincoln in Springfield. Over the years, the Mexican government has asked for Santa Anna's leg back. Not that it would do the general any good, though it might show a little sensitivity. Artificial legs aren't as funny as they were in the 1850s, when veterans charged a nickel or a dime for curiosity-seekers to handle the leg in hotel bars. Mark Whitlock of Camp Lincoln's Illinois State Military Museum says the leg is going nowhere, ever. "It's an important part of Illinois history," he said.
 Cerro Gordo's place in history is marked by an inscription on the shin of the leg: "General Santa Anna's cork leg, captured at the Battle of Cerro Gordo, Mexico, by Private A. Waldron First Sergeant Sam Rhoades, Second Sergeant John M. Gill April 18, 1847, all of the Fourth Regiment, Illinois Volunteers of the Mexican War."

Notes

Class 25—Mexico-American War & War of the Reform

October 5, 2015

James K. Polk (1844-1848)



  • Believes in and achieves Manifest Destiny-America should control from coast to coast

  • Tries to purchase land from Mexico; Mexico says no

Texas border dispute



  • Mexico-border is the Nueces River

  • U.S.-border is the Rio Grande

  • Polk sends General Zachary Taylor to the Rio Grande-skirmish=16 Americans killed

  • Polk asks Congress for war

Chapultepec Castle



  • Last Mexican stronghold in Mexico City

  • Niños Héroes

    • Defend the castle to the death

    • Juan Escutia-jumps to death wrapped in Mexican flag


Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo-ends war

  • Mexico lost half its territory

  • Mexico received $15 million

Impact of the war on Mexico



  • Mexico lost half its land

  • Gold found in CA-now U.S. territory

  • Hostility between the two nations

  • Stereotypes and prejudices

  • Yankeephobia

  • Asymmetrical relationship

  • National Humiliation

Revolution of Ayutla-Santa Anna out of power


Benito Juárez:

  • Zapotec Indian

  • Able to work his way through law school

  • Fights against Santa Anna

The Reform



  • Purpose-create a more modern, democratic, secular, and capitalist nation

Reform Laws



  • Ley Juárez-made the military and church stand trial in civil court-equality before the law

  • Ley Lerdo-cut back on the amount of land the church could own

  • Ley Iglesias-church couldn’t charge high fees for giving sacraments-poor get for free

Constitution of 1857



  • Like Constitution of 1824 except one house legislative branch

  • Ley Juárez

  • Ley Iglesias

  • Ley Lerdo

  • Freedom of speech, press, and education

Church and military upset at new laws



  • Mexicans were in a pickle…if they didn’t follow the constitution they were considered traitors, if they did they were considered heretics in the eyes of the church. Civil servants that didn’t take their oath lost their jobs, soldiers couldn’t be treated in Catholic hospitals, which meant they couldn’t receive last rights. The Reform laws and the constitution divided the Mexican people into two camps and once again there is a war. The War of the Reform (1858-1861) was the most horrific civil war to date.

    • There were two governments in Mexico with Juárez at the head of one and Felix Zuloaga at the head of another. Juárez will emerge victorious and will win the presidential election of 1861.

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 26—French Intervention & Restored Republic

October 6, 2015
Focus: Why do people celebrate Cinco de Mayo?

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Student Objectives:

1. I will analyze the period in Mexican history known as the French Intervention.

2. I will identify the reasons why the French were not successfully able to maintain a Mexican Empire.

3. I will analyze Mexico in the era that is known as the Restored Republic (1867-1876


Homework:

-Read and outline Chapter 2, Section 7, pgs. 25-26 (due 10/7)

-Chapter 2 Test Thursday 10/8

-Current Events: Times Past: Wounded Knee (due 10/19)


Handouts:

None
I. French Intervention



  1. Cinco de Mayo

  2. Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian

II. Mexico after the French Intervention

III. Change in Juárez

IV. Another Coup
Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Napoleon III Porfirio Díaz Cinco de Mayo Puebla



Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian Carlota Benito Juárez Monroe Doctrine

Abraham Lincoln Rurales Positivism Benito Juárez Porfiriato

Porfirio Díaz Plan of Tuxtepec Sebastian Lerdo
By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who was chosen to rule Mexico for the French?

How did the French ruler die?

Why could France not hold onto Mexico?

Why did the U.S. not stop the French invasion under the Monroe Doctrine?

What was so amazing about Sebastian Lerdo being elected president?

Why did Porfirio Díaz think he should be president?

Who were the rurales and what function did they perform?

Notes

Class 26—French Intervention & Restored Republic

October 6, 2015

Mexico was greatly dependent on foreigners’ money and capital. The War of the Reform had cost Mexico quite a large sum, a sum they were forced to borrow from Great Britain, France, and Spain. Well once again, Mexico does not have the money to pay off their loans. Great Britain, France, and Spain all send troops to Mexico to collect their money.


Napoleon III of France

  • wanted a French Colony

  • Spain and Great Britain pull out of Mexico

Battle of Puebla



  • May 5, 1862 (Cinco de Mayo)

  • Porfirio Díaz helps defeat the French

  • French still reach Mexico City a year later


Mexican Monarchy

  • Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian and Carlota

  • Don’t make a lot of friends

  • Benito Juárez fights guerrilla war against


Monroe Doctrine

  • U.S. can’t do anything because fighting Civil War at home

  • The North had to be careful not to push the France into an alliance with the Confederacy

  • After War is over, U.S. supports Mexico and puts pressure on France to leave


Napoleon III removes troops from Mexico=Maximilian’s death

  • U.S. involvement

  • Issues brewing in Europe


Why French fail

  • Liberal Nationalism-Juárez and his ideas

  • U.S. involvement

  • French troops pulled out



French Intervention’s impact on Mexico

  • Shows Mexico is a sovereign nation

  • Mexican nationalism grows

  • Victory for the Constitution of 1857

  • Mexico will continue to lack political stability and economic growth

Benito Juárez is once again back in power after the French Intervention
Issues facing Mexico:

  • No money

  • Federal government has little authority

  • Caudillos still holding power

  • Poor infrastructure/Communication systems

  • Silver mines unproductive

  • 1874-95% of children do not attend school-can’t read or write

Benito Juárez turns away from his liberal philosophy of safeguarding people’s liberties, and becomes more of an aggressive authoritarian ruler. He does the following:



  • Rigged elections to get his favorites into power

  • Tried to curtail the powers of the Congress and states by amending the Constitution

  • Creates the rurales

    • Heavily armed military guards on horseback

    • Former bandits hired to work for the government

    • Answered only to the Secretary of the Interior-eluded the system of checks and balances

Positivism emphasized the economic development and the building of a strong, authoritarian central state. Positivists believed all problems had a scientific and rational solution. This kind of scientific politics argued that scientists and engineers, not politicians, should shape a nation’s destiny.


Benito Juárez dies in his second term in office. His VP, Sebastian Lerdo replaces him and even will be elected to his own four year term-the first time in history that two consecutive administrations have not been overthrown by revolution.
Porfirio Díaz, the hero at Puebla on Cinco de Mayo, had grown come of age during the civil wars and the French Intervention. He thus felt that the presidency should be his. He had lost two elections to Benito Juárez and on two other occasions had attempted to overthrow the government by force. Díaz approached U.S. investors in South Texas. He knew Lerdo was afraid of building railroads to the U.S. border (He is believed to have said, “Between weakness and strength, let there be the desert!”). With the help of the South Texans money, he staged yet another coup under the Plan of Tuxtepec. Díaz argued under this plan that Lerdo had committed widespread voter fraud and that Lerdo was seeking yet another term despite a provision in the Constitution that forbade reelection.
Mexico will thus enter a 35 year long dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. Between 1876-1911 the era is known as the Porfiriato.
____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 27— Porfiriato

October 7, 2015
Focus: What kind of tactics do you think a dictator uses in order to stay in power for 35 years?

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Student Objectives:

1. I will analyze the era in Mexican history known as the Porfiriato (1884-1911).


Homework:

-Chapter 2 Test Thursday 10/8

-Current Events: Times Past: Wounded Knee (due 10/19)
Handouts:

None
I. Porfiriato

A. Positivism

B. Científicos

C. Foreign investment

II. Negatives of the Porfiriato



  1. Pan o palo?


Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Porfirio Díaz Porfiriato “order and progress” Positivism Científicos

tienda de raya debt peonage Pan o Palo Rurales




By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who were the Científicos?

Why was the slogan “order and progress” chosen to for the Porfiriato?

What role did foreigners play in the Mexican economy?

What was positivism?

What was pan o palo?

How did Díaz stay in power for so long?
Notes

Class 27— Porfiriato

October 7, 2015
The catch phrase for the Porfiriato is “order and progress”-positivist thinking
Positivists admired:



Díaz surrounded himself with Científicos. In fact, this group of people would serve as his

cabinet. They believed in the scientific management of the state and that political stability would bring foreign investment. Científicos were a circle of positivist advisors that would rise to great political and financial importance during the Porfiriato. They believed politics were a practice of scientific and practical application. They would control the power with Díaz and he maintained their loyalty through clientelism. Científicos harbored a profound disdain for the rural illiterate masses. They blamed the masses for Mexico’s failure to progress. Científicos believed the future was with the criollo elite-this creates a bigger gap between rich and poor.
modernization from without”

  • 80% of the money for the RR comes from the U.S.

  • U.S. has $12 million invested in mining

  • U.S. and G.B. control 96% of the mining

  • 22% of Mexico’s land surface controlled by U.S.

  • By 1911, $1 billion invested in Mexico total, 40% is foreign

  • This is good initially but bad in the long run

    • Capital flight

    • Foreigners driving economy

    • Bad for national pride- Díaz sold out

When Díaz leaves office:



  • Oil-one of the largest exporters in world

  • Volume of manufactured goods doubled

  • Balanced the Mexican budget and even has a surplus

  • Foreign credit good in the world

  • Self-confidence among elite

Díaz left out common man:

  • 1911-2 million Indians not speaking Spanish

  • Land consolidation

    • 1894-134 million acres of land owned by a few hundred people

    • By 1910, ½ the Mexican population lived/worked on a hacienda-peones

Peones were 12 times poorer than a U.S. famer. They worked from sunrise to sunset seven days a week. They were paid in metal discs that could only be redeemed at the tienda de raya-an all purpose company store on the hacienda. The store would extend credit freely and charge high prices. You could never leave the hacienda as long as you owed money. This is called debt peonage.


How did Díaz stay in power?

  • Pan o Palo (bread or stick/beating)

    • Pan-keep elite happy buy buying support to create political stability to prevent foreign intervention; allow elite to maximize wealth through the control of labor

    • Palo

      • Brute force

      • Intimidation

      • Army and rurales-spends a ¼ of budget on military-need forced peace for modernization

  • Rigged elections

  • Political maneuvering

  • No freedom of press

  • Moves general and governors around so they don’t get a loyal following

  • Supports the church

  • Congress was a rubber stamp

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 28—Test

October 8, 2015



Homework:

-Current Events: Times Past: Wounded Knee (due 10/19)

-Read and outline Chapter 3, Section 1, pgs. 27-28-stop @ the Constitution of 1917(due 10/9)

-Read and outline Chapter 3, Section 1, pgs. 28-29-start @ the Constitution of 1917 (due 10/12)

-Read and outline chapter 3, Section 2, pgs. 30-31 (due 10/13)

-Read and outline Chapter 3, Section 3, pgs. 32 (due 10/14)

-Read and outline Chapter 3, Section 4, pgs.33 (due 10/15)

-Read and outline Chapter 3, Section 5, pgs. 34-35 (due 10/19)

-Chapter 3 Test Tuesday 10/20

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 29—Mexican Revolution

October 9, 2015


Focus: Explain the meaning of the following quote: “It is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees.”

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Student Objectives:

1. I will identify the reasons why the various social classes are tired of the Porfirio Díaz dictatorship.

2. I will identify the many leaders of the Mexican Revolution.
Homework:

-Read and outline Chapter 3, Section 1, pgs. 28-29-start @ the Constitution of 1917 (due 10/12)

-Read and outline chapter 3, Section 2, pgs. 30-31 (due 10/13)

-Read and outline Chapter 3, Section 3, pgs. 32 (due 10/14)

-Read and outline Chapter 3, Section 4, pgs.33 (due 10/15)

-Read and outline Chapter 3, Section 5, pgs. 34-35 (due 10/19)

-Chapter 3 Test Tuesday 10/20

-Current Events


Handouts:

none
I. The end of the Porfiriato

II. Fiesta of Bullets
Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Francisco Madero guerrilleros Pablo Orozco Cuidad Juárez Emiliano Zapata



Victoriano Huerta Pancho Villa Alvaro Obregón Venustiano Carranza

Columbus, NM
By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who overthrew Madero?

Where was the only attack on the U.S. mainland in the 20th century?

What did Emiliano Zapata wanted?

Why do you think the first half of the revolution was called the fiesta of bullets?

Notes

Class 29—Mexican Revolution

October 9, 2015


  • the most important event that happens in 20th century Mexico

  • first social revolution of the 20th century

  • 10% of the Mexican population will die

Who’s upset with Díaz:



  • Economic new rich

    • Glass ceiling

    • Díaz selling out-foreign investment/resources

  • Middle Class

    • Looks at U.S. middle class-not similar in lifestyle

    • Expands, but not enough

    • Nationalistic and democratic- Díaz regime not democratic

  • Lower class/peones

    • Land consolidation-gets rid of communal tribal lands

    • Debt peonage

    • Workers-no strike, no unions, no collective bargaining

    • Mexicans not paid the same as foreigners- Díaz is racist-Indians can only drink & gamble-shouldn’t be trusted with land



Guerrilleros-differently armed, had no uniforms, no military discipline, but lived off the land and attacked local authorities and small military outposts

Francisco Madero issued the Plan de San Luis Potosí-get rid of Díaz



Battle of Cuidad Juárez

  • Madero had ordered Orozco not to attack because the city was so close to the U.S. border

  • Orozco attacked anyways and took the city


Madero made an enemy of Orozco, Villa, and in the South he made an enemy of another revolutionary Emiliano Zapata. Zapata demanded land reform-wanted all land lands seized to be returned to the people.
Zapata rebelled against Madero as did Orozco. Madero sends Victoriano Huerta after Orozco. Now fighting with Huerta was Pancho Villa and Alvaro Obregón. They defeat Orozco.
Madero will be assassinated by Huerta’s men when he is moved from one jail to another
Huerta made enemies of Villa, Zapata, Obregón, and a man by the name of Venustiano Carranza. They agreed on nothing except they wanted to get rid of Huerta.
Villa, Zapata, Obregón, and Carranza get rid of Huerta and now Carranza becomes president. Both Villa and Zapata do not like Carranza now. President Woodrow Wilson supports Carranza and this upsets Villa. He attacks the town of Columbus, NM in the only attack on the U.S. mainland in the 20th century.
Carranza has a problem with Zapata so he has him assassinated.
Carranza will be ambushed and assassinated by men loyal to Obregón. This is the last assassination of a sitting Mexican president.
Pancho Villa will also be assassinated


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