Over 100,000 interned by executive order beginning in 1942 (no German or Italian-Americans were interned)
Motivation for internment:
Security: Fear of spies and saboteurs
Economic: Elimination of competition for other California farmers (but also contributed to food shortages)
Impact of internment:
Harsh conditions in camps.
Property sold at a loss before internment or found vandalized/stolen after the war.
Limited compensation ($37 million) provided in 1948 by American Japanese Claims Act; apology and larger reparations ($1.2 billion) issued in 1988.
Japanese Canadians faced similar discrimination:
Over 20,000 interned, and of these, around 10,000 stripped of their citizenship and deported to Japan near the end of the war.
Property confiscated by government and sold at auction.
Similar compensation policy ($1.3 million in 1950 and $12 million in 1988).
Over 1 million served in armed forces (including over 600 Tuskegee Airmen).
Over 300 killed in Port Chicago naval disaster (contributed to navy becoming first US military branch to desegregate in 1946).
In 1948, President Truman desegregated entire armed forces by executive order.
A. Philip Randolph’s March on Washington Movement pressured President Roosevelt in to creating by executive order the Fair Employment Practices Commission, which investigated claims of employment discrimination.
Despite the work of the FEPC, blacks still faced racism and unequal pay in the workplace.
Organizations both old (NAACP) and new (CORE) led a renewed effort for civil rights, although major gains were not made until the 50s and 60s.
With large-scale African-American migration to the North for jobs, anti-black race riots broke out in Detroit, Harlem, and other major cities.
Yalta (Feb 1945) - Roosevelt
Held during the war, on the surface, the Yalta conference seemed successful. The Allies agreed a Protocol of Proceedings to:
divide Germany into four ‘zones’, which Britain, France, the USA and the USSR would occupy after the war.
bring Nazi war-criminals to trial.
set up a Polish Provisional Government of National Unity 'pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible'.
help the freed peoples of Europe set up democratic and self-governing countries by helping them to (a) maintain law and order; (b) carry out emergency relief measures; (c) set up governments; and (d) hold elections (this was called the 'Declaration of Liberated Europe').
set up a commission to look into reparations.
At Yalta, the negotiations went very much in Stalin's favor, but this was because Roosevelt wanted Russian help in the Pacific, and was prepared to agree to almost anything as long as Stalin agreed to go to war with Japan. Therefore, Stalin promised that:
Russia would join the war in the Pacific, in return for occupation zones in North Korea and Manchuria.
Russia also agreed to join the United Nations.
Although the Conference appeared successful, however, behind the scenes, tension was growing, particularly about reparations, and about Poland.
After the conference, Churchill wrote to Roosevelt that ‘The Soviet Union has become a danger to the free world.’ And on their return home both he and Roosevelt were criticized for giving away too much to the Soviets
Potsdam (July 1945)
At Potsdam, the Allies met after the surrender of Germany (in May 1945) to finalize the principles of the post-war peace – Potsdam was the Versailles of World War II. Three factors meant that the Potsdam Conference was not successful:
Relations between the superpowers had worsened considerably since Yalta. In March 1945, Stalin had invited the non-Communist Polish leaders to meet him, and arrested them. Things had got so bad that, in May 1945, the British Joint Planning Group had drawn up plans for 'Operation Unthinkable' - a 'total war ... to impose our will upon Russia'.
Meanwhile, Roosevelt had died, and America had a new president, Truman, who was inclined to ‘get tough’ with the Russians.
Also, soon after he had arrived at the Conference, Truman learned (on 21 July) that America had tested the first atomic bomb. It gave the Americans a huge military advantage over everyone else. It also meant that Truman didn't need Stalin's help in Japan. Instead, Truman's main aim at the conference was to find out from Stalin what date the Russians intended to enter the war in the Pacific - something which (unlike Roosevelt) he did NOT want
The Conference agreed the following Protocols:
to set up the four ‘zones of occupation’ in Germany. The Nazi Party, government and laws were to be destroyed, and 'German education shall be so controlled as completely to eliminate Nazi and militarist doctrines and to make possible the successful development of democratic ideas.
to bring Nazi war-criminals to trial.
to recognize the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity and hold 'free and unfettered elections as soon as possible'.
Russia was allowed to take reparations from the Soviet Zone, and also 10% of the industrial equipment of the western zones as reparations. America and Britain could take reparations from their zones if they wished.
President Truman presented it as a 'compromise', but in fact the Allies had disagreed openly about:
the details of how to divide Germany.
the size of reparations Germany ought to pay.
Russian influence over the countries of eastern Europe.
War criminals were tried and executed in both Germany (Nuremberg Trials) and Japan.
2/3 killed were civilian
Poland lost 1/5 of population
55 million people died
Over 90% of the Polish-Jewish community were killed
Hitler expelled Polish peasants and replaced them with Germans in his wish to colonize and Germanize the East.
The Jewish survivors were sent to Palestine.
Fighting in the war devastated both cities and the countryside.
In Europe, 70% of industrial infrastructure was destroyed, and food production declined by 50%.
Diplomatic and Geopolitical Changes
The US and USSR emerged as superpowers Cold War
Communist regimes were established within the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, while parliamentary democracy became the dominant system in Western Europe and Japan (although the emperor remained in place as a figurehead).
The Chinese Civil War resumed and eventually resulted in a Communist victory.
The European powers were greatly weakened and were eventually forced to relinquish control of their empires (decolonized nations became battlegrounds in the Cold War).
The Axis Powers were stripped of all occupied territories and imperial holdings.
Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia became part of the USSR.
Poland’s borders shifted westward (lost territory to the USSR and gained territory from Germany).
12-16 million Germans were expelled from Central and Eastern Europe and forced to resettle in Germany’s new borders (over 500,000 died in the process).
Germany lost its Polish territory and itself was divided into four parts among Britain, US, France and USSR. Later the allies merged their portions into Western Germany and USSR retained its part, Eastern Germany. This led to the later rise of the Berlin Wall in 1961.
Great differences in wealth and class – millionaires v poverty
Private medicine, houses, etc (health care is very good, but very expensive)
Poor standard of living – ‘producer’ goods (goods made are good for the producer, not necessarily good for the consumer) / empty shops
Fewer very poor people
Free health care / state-provided housing (health care is poor, but available to everyone)
Free Press v Censorship
Freedom of speech
Newspapers, books, radio / tv / films not censored
Media openly criticize government (Washington Post , New York Times)
No freedom of speech
The media are owned and run by the government
Censorship and propaganda (Pravda, Izvestia)
Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
Attlee, Truman and Stalin
Germany to be split into four zones.
Arguments about the details of the boundaries between the zones.
Germany will pay reparations.
Disagreements about the amount of reparations Russia wanted to take. It was agreed that Russia could take whatever it wanted from the Soviet zone, and 10 per cent of the industrial equipment of the western zones, but Britain and the US thought this was too much.
A government of 'national unity' to be set up in Poland, comprising both communists and non-communists.
Truman was angry because Stalin had arrested the non-communist leaders of Poland.
Free elections in the countries of eastern Europe. This part of the agreement was called the Declaration of Liberated Europe.
America and Britain were alarmed because communists were coming to power in the countries of Eastern Europe.
Russia would help against Japan when Germany was defeated.
Truman dropped the atomic bomb so that Japan would surrender before Russian troops could go into Japan. America had the bomb in July 1945, but Truman did not tell Stalin about it. When he saw how he had been tricked, Stalin was furious.
Nature and Development of the Cold War
The Communists immediately took power.
In the 1945 elections, a Communist-led coalition was elected, but the Communists executed the non-Communists.
East Germany was the Soviet zone of Germany. In 1949, they set up a Communist-controlled state called the German Democratic Republic.
In the 1945 elections, a Communist-led coalition was elected to power. The Communists gradually took over and in 1947 they abolished the monarchy.
Stalin had promised to set up a joint Communist/non-Communist government at Yalta, but then he invited 16 non-Communist leaders to Moscow and arrested them. Thousands of non-Communists were arrested, and the Communists won the 1947 election.
The non-communists won the 1945 elections with Zoltan Tildy as president. However, the Communists' leader, Rakosi, took control of the secret police (the AVO), and executed and arrested his opponents. Tildy was forced to resign and Cardinal Mindzenty, head of the Catholic Church, was imprisoned. By 1948, Rakosi had complete control of Hungary.
A coalition government was set up and led by the non-Communist Benes. However, the Communists' leader Gottwald made sure they controlled the radio, the army and the police. Gottwald became prime minister and set up a secret police force. Non-Communists were arrested. In 1948, Communist workers went on strike, the non-Communist minister Masaryk committed suicide and Gottwald took over the government.
He was angry that he wasn’t consulted about decisions – such as the new Deutschmark
Stalin may have thought the US and its allies were planning to reunite Germany
June 24, 1948 Stalin ordered all road, rail and canal routes between West Germany and West Berlin to be closed
He hoped to force the US and her allies into submission
US reacted strongly, claiming this was Stalin’s first step in a take-over of Western Europe
Allied Reaction – Berlin Airlift
The Allies didn’t want to force their way into Berlin for fear of sparking a war, so they began to fly supplies in
Flights began on June 26, reaching a peak of one every 3 minutes by September 1948
Consequences for USSR
Stalin couldn’t just shoot the planes down
He had to eventually back down – on May 12, 1949 he ended the blockade – it was a major embarrassment
Stalin realized the USSR needed the atom bomb to stand up to the US. Atomic testing was increased
Consequences for USA
Seen as ‘proof’ that the USSR had plans to take over Europe
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) formed in April 1949 as a result
Stalin saw this as a deliberate threat
In 1955 when West Germany joined NATO, the USSR-led ‘Warsaw Pact’ was formed
April 4th 1949
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed with member states Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States
May 12, 1949
End of Berlin Blockade
Russia ended the blockade of Berlin.
Russians Have Atomic Bomb
Communists are in control of China
Russians explode 1st atomic bomb
McCarthy’s Witch hunt
Containment w/ force and not diplomacy
June 25th 1950
The Korean war began when North Korea invaded South Korea.
The Korean War
The decade after the Second World War saw communism spread to the Far East. In 1950, communist North Korea invaded South Korea and within three months, had conquered most of their land. Following their policy of containment, the USA got UN backing to send troops into Korea to re-take the south, and if possible take the north too. The war lasted three years and peace was only achieved when the use of the atomic bomb was threatened.
In 1945, Korea was split along the 38th parallel between a communist north led by Kim IL Sung, and a non-communist south led by Syngman Rhee.
But communism was growing in the Far East. In 1949, the Communists had taken power in China. The US developed the 'domino theory' - the idea that, if one country fell to communism, others would follow like a row of dominoes. Then, in 1950, a report by the American National Security Council ('NSC68') recommended that the US stop containment and start to roll back communism.
In 1950, after getting the support of Russia and China, Kim IL Sung invaded South Korea.
The North Korean People's Army (NKPA) easily defeated the Republic of Korea's army (the ROKs).
By September, the NKPA had conquered almost the whole of South Korea.
The USA went to the United Nations and got them to send troops to defend South Korea.
The Russians couldn't veto the idea because they were boycotting the UN at the time.
In September, UN troops, led by the US General MacArthur, landed in Korea and drove the NKPA back.
By October, the UN forces had almost conquered all of North Korea.
In November 1950, Chinese People's Volunteers attacked and drove the Americans back.
They recaptured North Korea, and advanced into South Korea.
The Americans landed more troops and drove the Chinese back to the 38th parallel, where Truman ordered General MacArthur to stop and sacked him when he disagreed.
The war went on as border clashes until 1953 when America's new president, Eisenhower, offered peace, but threatened to use the atomic bomb if China did not accept the offer.
Recently, historians have shown that the Korean crisis almost led to a third world war - many US advisers wanted to use the atomic bomb.
March 5th 1953
Death of Stalin
Joseph Stalin died at the age of 74. He was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev.
Khrushchev’s Soviet Union 1953-1964
Feb 1956 – Secret Speech (report to govt criticizing Stalin’s purges and cult of personality)
Attacked image and reputation of Stalin
More freedom for writers and artists
Size and power of secret police reduced
Political prisoners released
Aim was to produce more food
Virgin Land Scheme – take fallow land and cultivate it using govt resources
Small collective farms became independent
Bigger, more efficient Collective Farms were created
Khrushchev thought he was an expert, but was not
Virgin Land Scheme failed
Maize was unsuitable (climate, soil, etc)
New collective farms did not work well
Sovnarkhozy – Regional Economic Councils
Controls on workers relaxed
Decisions to be taken at a more regional level
Ordered more luxury goods
Developed Space program
“What sort of Communism is it that cannot produce a sausage?”
Sovnarkhozy didn’t work
Managers and workers were not used to the freedom
Led to more bureaucracy
Consumer goods sacrificed for space program
1961 slogan “Turn Khrushchev into sausage meat”
“Whilst Gagarin orbited the earth, we counted on abacuses” – housewife, 1990
Why did he Resign?
Prices rose by 30%
Agricultural policies had failed
Industrial policies had failed
Failed foreign policies – Cuba
Embarrassment – UN shoe stamping incident during a speech
Criticism of Stalin had gone too far for many
Forced to resign in 1964
Khrushchev said that he wanted ‘peaceful co-existence’
By ‘peaceful co-existence’ he really meant ‘peaceful competition’
Khrushchev had a sense of humor and was always laughing and smiling
He was NOT gentle and easy-going – Stalin had used him to run the terror purges after WWII
In 1956, Khrushchev said that Stalin was a murderer, and he began to ‘destalinize’ Russia. Political prisoners were set free and Beria (responsible for Stalin’s Great Purge) was executed
‘Destalinization’ did not mean a change back to capitalism, or freedom from Russia
Khrushchev often met western leaders at ‘summit’ meetings
Khrushchev loved to argue. This often caused tension between leaders
In 1955 Khrushchev told Tito of Yugoslavia ‘there are different roads to communism’. Western leaders thought this meant an end to the Iron curtain
When communist countries went too far in their reforms, Khrushchev sent in the army (eg Hungary 1956)
At first, the western powers hoped that this would be the start of a ‘thaw’ in the Cold War
Khrushchev gave countries like Burma and Afghanistan economic aid if they supported Russia
July 27th 1953
The Korean war ended. North Korea remained affiliated with Russia while South Korea was affiliated with the USA. 38th parallel.
Iran and Guatemala
US helps overthrow unfriendly regimes
Ended the French war with the Vietminh & divided Vietnam into North and South. The communist leader of North Vietnam was Ho Chi Minh while the US friendly south was led by Ngo Dinh Diem.
May 14th 1955
Communist Pact: East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Albania, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union.
October 23rd 1956
In 1945, USSR installed puppet government in Hungary
Designed to remove opposition and enforce loyalty
Soviet propaganda everywhere and protest groups emerged wanting democracy
In February 1956, Khrushchev criticized parts of Stalin’s rule, suggesting that Soviet policy might be changing
Those who heard about the speech thought this might mean countries like Hungary would be allowed to have self-determination
In October 1956 the Communist dictatorship was overthrown
Opposition groups unite and support ex-Prime Minister Imre Nagy
November 4, 1956 – Khrushchev orders Red Army to take control
Bitter street fighting, but Communist leader Rakosi was restored
Pleas for Help
Opposition group leaders were all captured and executed
Desperate pleas over the radio for US assistance – but there was on US intervention
Imre Nagy was imprisoned and then executed
Around 30,000 Hungarians died including 20 opposition group leaders and Imre Nagy
Showed Soviet policy – countries in her sphere of influence would stay in her sphere of influence
USA showed no desire to get involved (this must have made USSR happy)
October 30th 1956
Following military bombardment by Israeli forces, a joint British and French force invaded Egypt to regain control of the Suez Canal which had been nationalized by the Egyptian leader Nasser. The attack was heavily criticized by World leaders, especially America because Russia had offered support to Egypt. The British and French were forced to withdraw and a UN peace keeping force was sent to establish order.
January 5 1957
United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States.
Countries that took stances opposed communism would be given aid in various forms
Russia Launched…1st in space
November 1st 1957
USSR Sputnik II carried Laika the dog, the first living creature to go into space.
Khrushchev demands withdrawal of troops from Berlin
Cuba taken over by Fidel Castro
Khrushchev visits United States; denied access to Disneyland
Talks between Nikita Khrushchev and Dwight Eisenhower concerning the fate of Germany broke down when a USA U2 spy plane was shot down over Russian airspace.
“Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”
April 12th 1961
Russian cosmonaut Yuri Alekseyvich Gagarin became the first human being in space.
April 17th 1961
Bay of Pigs Invasion
A force of Cuban exiles, trained by the CIA, aided by the US government attempted to invade Cuba and overthrow the Communist government of Fidel Castro. The attempt failed.
August 13th 1961
At Yalta, Berlin had been divided into four zones (just as Germany had been)
In 1948-49, the Berlin Blockade saw Stalin attempt to ‘starve’ West Berlin into submission
Stalin was forced to back down following the Berlin Airlift
Apart from the Berlin Blockade, those living in Berlin could travel freely – live in the East and work in the West and vice versa
Khrushchev proclaimed that Berlin was being used by the West as a base for spying and sabotage
In reality, he wanted to prevent all the highly skilled and educated from working in West Berlin
East Berlin was still suffering badly, whereas West Berlin was recovering well
Between 1945-60 it is thought 3 million people crossed from East to West Berlin
August 13, 1961
Overnight a well guarded fence was constructed dividing the city in two
People were trapped in either East or West Berlin
The fence was guarded by Red Army machine gun posts
By August 17th, the barbed wire fence was replaced with a concrete wall, split only by well guarded checkpoints
From 1961 to 1989 nearly 90 people died trying to cross
The wall became a symbol of the division between Communism and Capitalism
Banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water.
November 22nd 1963
JF Kennedy was assassinated while on a visit to Dallas. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the murder but there has always been speculation that he was not a lone killer and that there may have been communist or CIA complicity.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident and Resolution
US claimed N Vietnam attacked our ship; not true
Johnson and declare war in SE Asia
How the US got involved
During the Second World War, South-East Asia had been under Japanese control, but, in 1945, the French re-occupied Indo-China, which had been a French colony before the war.
During the war the Japanese had been opposed by a Vietnamese nationalist group called the Vietminh, led by Ho Chi Minh. The Vietminh, however, had been fighting for their independence, and not to reinstate the French Empire, so now they tried to drive out the French. In 1954, the Vietminh surrounded and wiped out the French army at Dien Bien Phu.
The French realized they would have to leave, and over the next 20 years, America was dragged into fighting a costly and disastrous war in Vietnam.