First World War (1914-1918) = The Great War = The War to End all Wars = Total War Long Term Causes: [animal]



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Concentration Camps

  • February 1933 – concentration camps are opened

  • Political opponents were put in these camps, beaten and forced to do hard labor unless they agreed to cooperate with the Nazis

  • Mainly Communists arrested

The Reichstag Fire

  • February 27 1933 – Reichstag burns down a week before a general election is supposed to take place

  • Dutch Communist arrested – Marius van der Lubbe

  • Conspiracy Theories abound today - Some say Hitler had the fire started

  • Hitler says it is a Communist plot and arrests 4000 Communists, declares state of emergency

  • Communists banned from the election

Death of Hindenburg

  • August 2 1934

  • Hindenburg dies (of natural causes) – Hitler immediately takes over his role as President

  • Hitler declares himself to be Fuhrer (leader) of Germany (he was both President and Chancellor)

  • German armed forces swear oath of allegiance to Hitler (in return for stopping the SA from taking over the army)

Night of the Long Knives

  • June 30 1934

  • Hitler saw the SA and its leader Rohm as an internal threat – they numbered over 2 million and Rohm also wanted to take over the army

  • SS arrests leaders of the SA and other political figures e.g. von Schleicher (previous Chancellor) SA was more like an independent military whereas SS were like Hitler’s personal police and bodyguards

  • Rohm was brutally executed along with at least 85 others

The Enabling Act

  • March 24 1933, previous March elections had seen Nazis win 52% of the vote

  • Gave Hitler emergency powers to pass laws without the Reichstag

  • SS and SA surround the building to intimidate politicians

  • Hitler could pass any law he wanted

  • July 14 1933 – Hitler rules that the Nazis were the only legal party in Germany

  • Trade unions are banned

Hitler’s Foreign Policy

  • Lebensraum”: (=living space), aim of German expansion in the East

  • Germanism”: unite all German speaking people in one country to make a greater Germany

  • Military power: necessary for gaining more land (= power)

  • Protect German/ Nazi ideology: security of German, revise Treaty of Versailles

  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1917) – Soviets gave up Lithuania and Poland to the Germans)

    • Lost land in the Treaty of Versailles

  • Non Aggression Pact – Germany and Soviets won’t attack each other

  • Rearmament – Treaty of Rapallo

  • Anschluss – Germany and Austria (forbidden in TofV)

  • Totalitarianism

  • Military conscription

  • Citizens subordinate to the state


European Response

  • Stresa Front – Britain, Italy, and France couldn’t agree how to handle Hitler

  • Anglo-German Naval Agreementlarger Germany navy

    • Attempt by Britain to limit Germany Naval expansion

  • Italy invaded Abyssinia

    • League didn’t stop them

    • League is embarrassed

    • Italy left the League

    • Hitler feels empowered


Rhineland

  • Rhineland established in TofV to secure the boarder b/t France and Germany

  • 1936 – Hitler sent in troops and police

  • No response by British or French


Spanish Civil War

  • Hitler sent to troops to test them out

  • Support another right-wing take-over in Europe


Rome-Berlin Axis and Anti-Comintern Pact

  • Rome-Berlin – Italy and Germany 1936

  • Anti-Comintern Pact – Japan and Germany – counter Britain and Russia in Asia (think colonies after WWI)


Czechoslovakia – Appeasement

  • Sudentenland – heavily fortified area w/ industry and RRs

  • Czechs were to be backed by France and Britain

  • Hitler stated that he would fight for it

  • Compromise – Munich Agreement – Hitler got Sudetenland if he left Czech alone – height of appeasement

  • 6 months later, Hitler took all of Czech


Immediate Causes – Europe

Invasion of Poland

  • Nazi – Soviet Pact 1939 – don’t attack each other & split Poland (no 2 front war like WWI)

  • Sept 1, 1939 – Germany invaded Poland (Danzing)

  • Britain and France declared war on Germany



Practices of WWII - Europe

Important events and terms:



The invasion of Poland:

  • Failure of Appeasement Policy. Britain and France decide to enter the war. Soviet Union invaded with Germany.




Blitzkrieg -

Lighting

Warfare

  • Features: surprise attack, rapid advances in to enemy territory, coordinated massive air strike, flexible/mobility, simplicity, radio/good communication, paratroops

  • the invasion of Poland (September 1939)

  • Germany Attacked from West

  • USSR attacked from East

  • Nazi-Soviet Pact

Strategic

bombing

  • Definition: bombing of specific targets such as military industrial centers or civilian targets in an attempt to hamper the enemy’s ability to wage wars

  • Examples: Battle of Britain (Blitz), bombing of Dresden, firebombing of Tokyo, dropping of atomic bomb.

Operation Barbarossa

  • 3 pronged attack

  • Blitzkrieg

  • Soviets were still recovering from Winter War w/ Finland

  • Stalin’s purges – wiped out best in the Red Army

  • Germany made gains in the beginning

  • Why did operation Barbarossa fail?

  • Germany

    • Geography:

      • Physically and psychologically isolated in the vast land of Soviet Union.

      • Soviet’s severe winter

      • Unimproved airfield

      • Long supply line lead back of fuel, ammunition+ troops

    • Equipment:

      • Dispersed

      • No clothes and equipment for winter

      • Limited production capacity

    • Tactics:

      • No reserves

      • Dispersed forcesthree directions

      • Ideologyracial annihilation

      • officers lead in the frontlack of commanders

    • Poor planning:

      • unrealistic confidence

      • planned to win early before winter comes

      • railway problemwidth of the wheels.

  • Soviet Union

    • -Soviet has more men!!!

    • Patriotic (Mother Russia)

    • -Everyone must find to the end

    • -Scorched earth

    • -Sabotage occupied areas

Pearl Harbor

  • Why did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor?

    • New order in Asia

    • Expansion by forces

    • Inevitable conflict between US and Japan

    • Resources in Pacific

    • US rejected Japan’s status as the leader of East Asia

Turning points of war

  • East Front: Battle of Stalingrad

  • West Front: landing of Normandy

  • Pacific War: Battle of Midway

D-day (Operation Overlord)

  • Why is operation Overlord a success?

    • Present superiority

    • U-boat defeated, Luftwaffe largely eliminated, successful campaign in Italy.

    • Careful planning

    • The deceiving attack totally cheated Germany+ use of phony radio message.

    • The assassination attempt toward Hitler.

    • Soviet Union’s attack on the East Front.

    • Bad weather

Atomic bombing

  • Historiography on whether the atomic bombs were a military necessity

    • YES: Save US Soldiers’ life, destroy Japan’s industrial supply, break the morale, Make the leader realize their defeat, save Japan from full scale destruction.

    • NO: High percentage destruction of Japanese cities (Proportionality), Political necessity, huge suffering of civilians, Japan would have surrendered without the atomic bombs. Start of Cold War (used to show Soviet Union US power)

The Phony War

  • After the defeat of Poland, very little happened in the next five months.

  • Britain had declared war on Germany two days after the Polish invasion, it could not get troops to Poland in time to have any effect,

  • Soviet Union took over Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and then invaded Finland in what became known as the 'Winter War.'

  • French manned the Maginot Line and waited for the next German move

  • Chamberlain believed that this period of inactivity would bring Hitler to his knees and that Hitler had in fact 'missed the bus.'

The invasion of Denmark and Norway (April 1940)

  • Four days after Chamberlain's misguided comment, Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway (iron ore

  • downfall of Chamberlain in Britain

  • coalition government was established under Winston Churchill.

The invasion of Holland, Belgium, and France (May−June 1940)

  • 5/10 - Hitler launched attacks on Holland and Belgium

  • 5/12 - invaded France (around Maginot Line through the Ardennes forest in the North)

  • within six days the Panzers had reached the English Channel.

  • 1/3 of a million troops were then rescued by the British navy and other private boats owned by fishermen.

  • 6/14 - Paris was captured - French government (Pétain) requested Germany's terms for an armistice

  • All of the country except south-eastern France was occupied and demilitarized

  • By the end of June 1940, Germany dominated Western, Central, and Northern Europe.

  • Italy had now entered the war as Hitler's ally and the USSR remained 'friends' with Germany in the east, under the terms of the Nazi-Soviet Pact. Franco in Spain did not actually join in the war, but remained closely associated with Germany and Italy.

The Battle of Britain (1940)

  • Britain now stood alone against Germany

  • Germany believed that the Luftwaffe would be able to destroy the Royal Air Force

  • concentrated air attack on Britain's airfields in order to gain air supremacy.

  • bombing London and other major cities in what became known as the 'Blitz,' - break British morale and destroy her major industries

  • Germany was unable to break the RAF or Britain's morale, Hitler postponed the invasion indefinitely

  • Britain was able to survive:

    • German bombers - limited range and a limited bomb load.

    • home airfields

    • radar

    • RAF was given time to recovery and to rebuild airbases when cities were being bombed

  • The Battle of Britain was the first time that Hitler had been stopped from achieving his aims.


Defeat of Nazi Germany - Mediterranean

  • US joined the war Dec. 1941

  • Not strong enough yet for major attack

  • Defeated Rommel in N. Africa

  • Italy is defeated by Allies

Battle of the Bulge

  • Germans temporarily regained ground

  • Hitler killed himself – April 30 1945

Why did the Allies defeat Hitler?

  • The weakness of the Axis powers

    • Hitler allowed Britain to survive

    • The invasion of the Soviet Union – 2 front war

    • Declaring war on the USA

    • Hitler's personal conduct of military operations was disastrous.

    • He focused developing V-rockets when large-scale production of jet aircraft could have restored German air superiority and weakened Allied bombing campaigns between 1944 and 1945.

    • Women were not employed in German and Japanese munitions factories.

  • Strengths of Allies

    • USSR economy = wartime economy

    • US industry = wartime

    • Improved quality and quantity of resources

    • Most of the allied attacks were against Germany

    • Strategic bombing

    • Will to win



Long Term Causes – Pacific

Japanese Isolation

  • Feudalism (mid 17th cent)

  • Matthew Perry opened Japan to trade

  • Industrialization

  • Military = priority

Japanese Aggression

  • Wanted to conquer Asia

  • 1894-1895 – Victory over China

  • World Power

  • Anglo-Japanese Alliance – Britain and Japan (if 2 countries attack = attack back/ if 1 country attack = be neutral)

  • 1910 – Japan annexed Korea


Short Term Causes - Pacific

Manchuria

  • Nationalism - Strong army (Manchuria was attacked by army, not gov’t)

US v. Japan

  • West alarmed by bombing of Shanghi

  • Japan left League of Nations

  • Japan had inferior navy due to Washington Naval Conference

  • Japan invaded China – US supported China and stopped trading

  • National Origins Act – no immigration of Japanese


Immediate Causes – Pacific

American Embargos

  • Manchuria

  • Japan dependant on US for steel, food, and raw materials (needed these to keep China in line)

  • Tripartite Pact – Loan from US to China to fight Japan

  • Japan tried to take Indochina – GB, F, and Netherlands embargo too

  • US demanded Japan leave China

US v. Japan

  • Pearl Harbor – intercepted codes

  • Lend-Lease Act


Practices of WWII - Pacific

Japanese Aggression

  • Dec. 7, 1941 – Pearl Harbor

  • Dec. 25 & 26 – Hong Kong

  • Jan 1942 – Dutch East Indies & Malay Peninsula

  • Mid 1942 – Philippines and Burma

Battle of Midway

  • US turning point

  • US destroyed 3 aircraft carriers

Island Hopping

  • MacArthur – Commander of US forces

  • Iwo Jima and Okinawa


Technology - Pacific

Atomic Bomb

  • Unconditional surrender

  • Signed before Russia could get involved

  • Truman

  • Manhattan Project

    • Little Boy – Hiroshima – Aug 6 1945 (80,000 dead & 80,000 injured)

    • Fat Man – Nagasaki – Aug. 9 1945 (40,000 dead)

Sea


Technology
Tactics

  • Advances in technology returned mobility to the battlefield, which favored offensive tactics.

  • German Blitzkrieg (“lightning war”) was the first application:

    • An artillery barrage and air strikes weakened enemy defenses.

    • Tanks - Panzers

    • A concentration of tanks and motorized infantry broke through these defenses and used surprise and speed to encircle and then capture or destroy enemy troops.

  • Blitzkrieg successes: Poland, Norway, France, and opening months of Operation Barbarossa (USSR).

  • Blitzkrieg was less successful starting in late 1941:

    • Mobility was undermined by terrain and weather conditions deep in Soviet territory.

    • German supply lines became stretched.

    • The Allies learned to respond with effective counterattacks.

Air

Luftwaffe' (air force)

  • Aircraft roles

    • Photo reconnaissance

    • Supply and troop transportation (including dropping of paratroopers behind enemy lines)

    • Close air support in ground and naval engagements

    • Strategic bombing (conventional and atomic)

  • In 1944, Germany began relying on V-rockets (V1 flying bombs and V2 ballistic missiles) rather than aircraft after the Allies gained air superiority.

  • The Allies made more effective use of radar in support of air operations.

  • Strategic bombing


Sea

  • Amphibious assaults were significant in many theaters of the war: North Africa (e.g. Operation Torch), Europe (e.g. Operation Overlord), the Pacific (e.g. Guadalcanal and numerous other islands)

  • The Atlantic

    • The British Navy blockaded the Axis Powers in Europe.

    • Germany attempted to use submarines to prevent the shipment of supplies from the US to Britain and the USSR.

      • Britain broke the Engima Codes

    • The Allies countered German submarines with the convoy system, long range bombers, detection technology (sonar, radar, “Huff-Duff”), and code-breaking.

  • The Pacific

    • Aircraft carriers replaced battleships as the most important naval vessels.

    • Code-breaking and superior use of radar contributed to US victories the Battles of Coral Sea, Midway, and Leyte Gulf.

    • US submarines successfully blockaded Japan, especially after the Allies achieved naval and air superiority late in the war.


Home Front

Government Control of Production: Nations took control of key industries, such as mining, shipping, and railroads (USSR had already nationalized industry prior to the war).

  • US and UK: War Production Board (US) and Ministry of Production (UK) coordinated transition to wartime economy (e.g. automobile industry began producing military vehicles).

  • US: Provided war material to Britain, USSR, and other allies.

  • USSR: During initial German invasion, factories in the west were dismantled and relocated so they could continue operating throughout the war.

  • Germany and Japan: Less successful than Allied nations in organizing economies for wartime production.

    • Huge reduction in unemployment 1933-1939

    • Massive boost for industry through rearmament

    • Economic policies were inflationary but kept under control because workers had no right to strike or bargain for higher pay

    • Policies stored up trouble for the future

Government Control of Manpower: Nations implemented both military and industrial conscription

  • US and UK: War Manpower Commission (US) and Ministry of Labor and National Service (UK) coordinated manpower (e.g. providing training to unskilled workers in important industries).

  • UK and USSR: Both sexes eligible for conscription (women mostly drafted for industrial work).

  • USSR: Continued reliance on Gulag system for forced labor.

  • Germany and Japan: Used POWs and civilians from occupied territories for forced labor.

  • UK, Germany, and Japan: Evacuated children to the countryside when their cities faced the threat of bombing.

Resource Management: Nations implemented rationing of essential goods such as food, clothing, and fuel; they financed the war through a combination of tax increases, borrowing (war bonds), and printing currency.

  • UK and US: Encouraged planting of “victory gardens” by families to supplement food supply.

  • US: Office of Price Administration in charge of rationing and price controls to curb inflation.

  • Germany and Japan: Confiscated food resources from occupied territories, contributing to famine in USSR, China, etc.

Role of women: Nations saw an increased role for women in society, but they still faced discrimination and lower pay than men.

  • US and UK: More women in industrial and agricultural jobs and non-combat roles in the military (nursing, clerical work, etc.).

  • USSR: Women composed a majority of the workforce and some even held combat roles in the military (often as snipers).

  • Germany and Japan: Women discouraged from joining the workforce for ideological reasons.

Propaganda: Nations used posters, radio, film, and other media to promote public support for the war.

  • US and UK: Office of War Information (US) and Political Warfare Executive (UK) emphasized the struggle for freedom and democracy, although anti-Japanese propaganda featured racism as well.

  • USSR: Shifted away from Communist themes and appealed to nationalist and religious sentiments in defense of the motherland (“Great Patriotic War”).

  • Germany: Emphasized anti-Semitism and the struggle against Communism.
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