The deceiving attack totally cheated Germany+ use of phony radio message.
The assassination attempt toward Hitler.
Soviet Union’s attack on the East Front.
Historiography on whether the atomic bombs were a military necessity
YES: Save US Soldiers’ life, destroy Japan’s industrial supply, break the morale, Make the leader realize their defeat, save Japan from full scale destruction.
NO: High percentage destruction of Japanese cities (Proportionality), Political necessity, huge suffering of civilians, Japan would have surrendered without the atomic bombs. Start of Cold War (used to show Soviet Union US power)
The Phony War
After the defeat of Poland, very little happened in the next five months.
Britain had declared war on Germany two days after the Polish invasion, it could not get troops to Poland in time to have any effect,
Soviet Union took over Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and then invaded Finland in what became known as the 'Winter War.'
French manned the Maginot Line and waited for the next German move
Chamberlain believed that this period of inactivity would bring Hitler to his knees and that Hitler had in fact 'missed the bus.'
The invasion of Denmark and Norway (April 1940)
Four days after Chamberlain's misguided comment, Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway (iron ore
downfall of Chamberlain in Britain
coalition government was established under Winston Churchill.
The invasion of Holland, Belgium, and France (May−June 1940)
5/10 - Hitler launched attacks on Holland and Belgium
5/12 - invaded France (around Maginot Line through the Ardennes forest in the North)
within six days the Panzers had reached the English Channel.
1/3 of a million troops were then rescued by the British navy and other private boats owned by fishermen.
6/14 - Paris was captured - French government (Pétain) requested Germany's terms for an armistice
All of the country except south-eastern France was occupied and demilitarized
By the end of June 1940, Germany dominated Western, Central, and Northern Europe.
Italy had now entered the war as Hitler's ally and the USSR remained 'friends' with Germany in the east, under the terms of the Nazi-Soviet Pact. Franco in Spain did not actually join in the war, but remained closely associated with Germany and Italy.
The Battle of Britain (1940)
Britain now stood alone against Germany
Germany believed that the Luftwaffe would be able to destroy the Royal Air Force
concentrated air attack on Britain's airfields in order to gain air supremacy.
bombing London and other major cities in what became known as the 'Blitz,' - break British morale and destroy her major industries
Germany was unable to break the RAF or Britain's morale, Hitler postponed the invasion indefinitely
Britain was able to survive:
German bombers - limited range and a limited bomb load.
RAF was given time to recovery and to rebuild airbases when cities were being bombed
The Battle of Britain was the first time that Hitler had been stopped from achieving his aims.
Government Control of Production: Nations took control of key industries, such as mining, shipping, and railroads (USSR had already nationalized industry prior to the war).
US and UK: War Production Board (US) and Ministry of Production (UK) coordinated transition to wartime economy (e.g. automobile industry began producing military vehicles).
US: Provided war material to Britain, USSR, and other allies.
USSR: During initial German invasion, factories in the west were dismantled and relocated so they could continue operating throughout the war.
Germany and Japan: Less successful than Allied nations in organizing economies for wartime production.
Huge reduction in unemployment 1933-1939
Massive boost for industry through rearmament
Economic policies were inflationary but kept under control because workers had no right to strike or bargain for higher pay
Policies stored up trouble for the future
Government Control of Manpower: Nations implemented both military and industrial conscription
US and UK: War Manpower Commission (US) and Ministry of Labor and National Service (UK) coordinated manpower (e.g. providing training to unskilled workers in important industries).
UK and USSR: Both sexes eligible for conscription (women mostly drafted for industrial work).
USSR: Continued reliance on Gulag system for forced labor.
Germany and Japan: Used POWs and civilians from occupied territories for forced labor.
UK, Germany, and Japan: Evacuated children to the countryside when their cities faced the threat of bombing.
Resource Management: Nations implemented rationing of essential goods such as food, clothing, and fuel; they financed the war through a combination of tax increases, borrowing (war bonds), and printing currency.
UK and US: Encouraged planting of “victory gardens” by families to supplement food supply.
US: Office of Price Administration in charge of rationing and price controls to curb inflation.
Germany and Japan: Confiscated food resources from occupied territories, contributing to famine in USSR, China, etc.
Role of women: Nations saw an increased role for women in society, but they still faced discrimination and lower pay than men.
US and UK: More women in industrial and agricultural jobs and non-combat roles in the military (nursing, clerical work, etc.).
USSR: Women composed a majority of the workforce and some even held combat roles in the military (often as snipers).
Germany and Japan: Women discouraged from joining the workforce for ideological reasons.
Propaganda: Nations used posters, radio, film, and other media to promote public support for the war.
US and UK: Office of War Information (US) and Political Warfare Executive (UK) emphasized the struggle for freedom and democracy, although anti-Japanese propaganda featured racism as well.
USSR: Shifted away from Communist themes and appealed to nationalist and religious sentiments in defense of the motherland (“Great Patriotic War”).
Germany: Emphasized anti-Semitism and the struggle against Communism.