First World War (1914-1918) = The Great War = The War to End all Wars = Total War Long Term Causes: [animal]



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Effects and results of the Spanish Civil War − Spain

Human cost

  • 100,000 Republicans were killed

  • 70,000 Nationalists were killed,

  • Killing continued after war, as Franco launched terror campaign to eradicate competition (estimated death toll 40,000-200,000).

  • Thousands Republicans were held in concentration camps and prisons.

  • Republican children were taken from parents to be re-educated.

  • Divisions and hatred remained in Spanish society for decades.

Economic cost

  • 10-15% of wealth was destroyed; per capita income declined 28%; 70% of Madrid's factory machinery need to be replaced.

  • Madrid's communication systems, tram network needed rebuilding.

  • Two-thirds of merchant ships out of action.

  • High inflation.

  • Republican land reform reversed.

  • Agricultural economy was inefficient and ineffective.

  • Laborers tolerated periodic unemployment, and landowners not interested in modernization.

  • Massive debts.

  • General labor shortage.

  • Economy improved due to outbreak of WW2; Franco began trading with Britain and France again.

  • Germany's exploitation of Spain's economy during WWII weakened the economy.

  • France and Britain's loan to Spain gave it influence in Spanish politics.

  • Suffered a famine in 1946, and was fairly isolated during the war.

  • During the Cold War, Spain became less isolated with reforms in the 1950s and 1960s developing a capitalist state.

  • Spain industrialized and developed a strong service industry.

Political effects

  • Paul Preston: "as if it were a country occupied by a victorious foreign army."

  • Franco had declared the country safe of Communism and began White Terror in order to destroy all other traces.

    • Exodus of half a million Spaniards and murder of thousands of Republicans.

  • Teachers, lawyers, researches, doctors, writers, poets, artists, and musicians fled the country.

  • 1939, Law of Political Responsibility made supports of Republic liable to punishment.

  • Objective of new regime to restore power to the privileged class and control the working class.

  • CNT and UGT destroyed.

  • Inequalities of social and working system in rural areas were reversed and preserved by Civil Guard.

  • 1950s was an 'era of the national church' as Church reforms were repealed.

  • Frances Lannon: "The Catholic Church enjoyed a degree of state support that was much greater than at any time since the 18th century. Government and church combined to preach order, hierarchy, and discipline. The counter-revolution had triumphed."

  • Patricia Knight: Church's creation of links to worker's movements was an attempt to infiltrate and prevent any resurgent communist groups.

  • Use of Catalan, Basque, and Galician languages were forbidden.

  • All power centralized in Madrid.

  • Paul Preston: "behind the rhetoric of national and social unity, until the death of Franco every effort was made to maintain the division between the victors and the vanquished."

  • Suppression and removal of political opposition created economic stability.

  • Army lost its pre-eminence in society after Morocco gained independence in 1946.

  • The country became 'frozen in time' as no modernization took place for 36 years.


Effects and results of the Spanish Civil War

USSR and communism

  • After the Communist defeat in Spain, international credibility had been lost.

  • Stalin's contribution caused divisions within the left wing and supports of USSR.

  • Lost intellectual sympathy from West.

  • Pushed foreign policy away from potential western alliances against Germany, only one to appease Germany.

  • After NIC, obvious that Britain and France would not ally with Hitler's expansionist ambitions.

  • Stalin became closer, possible ally by December 1937.

  • Munich Agreement in September 1938 was turning point as Britain sacrificed Czechoslovakia and Spain to appease Germany.

Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy

  • Importance of air power and effectiveness of applying air cover for ground troops in Blitzkrieg.

  • Germans tested pullet-resistant fuel tanks and discovered possible improvements.

  • Bombing of civilians was effective.

  • All these made differences to Hitler's 1939-40 campaign.

  • However, Italians defeated at Guadalajara, Blitzkrieg did not work.

  • Germany and Italy grew closer.

  • The NIC, Britain's pursuit of appeasement, all strengthened Hitler's position.

Britain and France

  • Spanish civilians who were bombed made it clear that a general European war would witness horrors unlike the scale seen before.

  • Polarized political view of appeasement; some thought warring factions should battle it without dragging democracies into conflict.

  • "Weakness" of Britain and France over Britain, and their policy of appeasement, led Hitler to change perception of Britain - 1938 lost respect and the NIC made Hitler more aggressive.

The USA

  • Remained neutral, yet horrified by the atrocities of the Spanish Civil War.

  • The civil war strengthened isolationist sentiment.

  • Roosevelt, October 1937: "Quarantine the Aggressors."

  • Called for economic sanctions against Franco in 1946. All members broke up diplomatic relations.

  • Spain excluded from Marshall Aid.

  • 1951, Eisenhower agreed to grant aid to Spain in return for using air base.

  • Spain became a US ally and permitted to join the UN.

Was the Spanish Civil War a cause of World War II?

  • It emboldened Hitler by increasing his popularity at home and abroad.

  • Hitler drew closer to his former enemy, Italy.

  • Hitler gained practical military lessons that he would later apply in the campaigns of 1940. it was a distraction for Britain and pushed the USA further into isolation.

  • If fostered a new direction for Soviet foreign policy, meaning that there could be no broad alliance in Europe to contain Hitler.

  • A. J. P. Taylor: The Spanish Civil War was "without significant effect" in causing WWII.


Paper 2:

Causes Practices and Effects of War

Case Study:

World War Two
Type of War: Total War
Long Term Causes – Europe
Post War Germany

Association with Defeat

  • defeat of Germany as the Kaiser had fled before the end

  • Weimar Govt. in 1919

  • stabbed in the back’

Rebuilding Germany

  • devastated

  • poverty and unemployment

Political Uprisings

  • political extreme groups

  • Putches (Munich Putsch) – overthrow govt

  • violence and murders of key political figures

Economic Problems

  • Germany was bankrupt

  • reparations bill. They paid until 1923

  • Invasion of the Ruhr worsened the crisis. Germany suffered from inflation

  • The government responded by printing more money, but this led to hyperinflation


Political Changes

Weimar in Crisis 1919-1923

A Bad Start

  • Germany had no tradition of democracy and had always had strong leaders.

  • Germans had suffered very badly because of the war. Many were starving and many were furious at the loss of the war – they blamed the new government (rightly or wrongly)

Lack of Consensus

Weimar Constitution

  • Proportional representation meant that the lack of political consensus was reflected closely in elected parties

  • There were many political parties and frequent changes of government

  • It was very difficult to establish stability or even get laws passed

Versailles Treaty

  • The Treaty had been very hard on Germany and the Weimar Government had been forced to accept it

  • Many Germans hated and resented the loss of territory, the reparations and the war guilt clause

  • It wasn’t their fault but the Weimar Government tended to get the blame

Extremist Attacks

  • Hitler’s failed Munich Putsch 1923

Crisis by 1923

  • France invaded the rich industrial Ruhr area in retaliation

  • Weimar ordered passive resistance on the part of Germans in the Ruhr

  • Weimar printed more money to try to solve the problem (hyperinflation)


The Nazi Party

Birth of the Nazi Party

  • 1919 Hitler joined the German Workers Party

  • In 1920 the name changes to NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party) and adopted the 25 point program (nationalistic, self-determinationistic, welfareistic and anti-Semitic)

  • Hitler became leader in 1921 and adopted the swastika emblem

  • Hitler then set up the SA (brownshirts) as a private ‘army’

Munich Putsch 1923

  • When the French invaded the Ruhr Hitler decided to try and seize power

  • He planned to first take the Bavarian government and then march on Berlin (modeled after Mussolini)

  • Hitler took over a Bavarian government meeting but couldn’t get enough support

  • His march was stopped by armed police

Aftermath of Munich Putsch

  • Hitler ran away but was later arrested and charged with treason

  • He used his trial to make long public speeches which were widely and sympathetically reported

  • He got a very lenient sentence of 5 years in Landsberg Prison where he wrote Mein Kampf

Mein Kampf

  • Aryan race is the master race (social Darwinism)

  • Aryans should have ‘lebensraum’ (living space) in a new German Empire

  • Third Reich (1 – Holy Roman Empire 2 – Bismarck’s German Empire with AH)

  • All other races inferior (especially Jews)

  • Treaty of Versailles should be reversed, and Germany and Austria should join (Anschluss)

The Nazi Lean Years

  • Germany did well under Stresemann – support for extremists declined

  • Hitler served 9 months in prison during which time the Nazi Party had split and support declined dramatically

  • He decided to reform the party on his release in Dec 1924

Hitler’s Reform of the Party

  • 1925 Hitler reorganized and relaunched the NSDAP

  • Power was concentrated in the leader. Special sections set up for students, teachers, Youth and farmers

  • Party branches in all major towns – soon 100,000 members

  • Hitler decided to use elections, not revolution


Germany 1919-1929 - The Stresemann Years

Worldwide Economy

  • Worldwide economic recovery meant that there were new markets for German goods abroad

  • The economy prospered and unemployment was low

Political Stability

  • As prosperity increased support for the extremists like Communists and Nazis declined. Moderate pro-Weimar parties tended to win elections

  • The very able Gustav Stresemann remained as Foreign Minister throughout the whole period

Rentenmark

  • The new German currency established by Stresemann and regulated by the central bank solved the problem of hyperinflation

  • Confidence returned to the German economy

International Cooperation

  • Stresemann knew Germany had to work with other countries

  • Dawes Plan 1924 which made the reparations payments easier (French troops left the Ruhr as a result)

  • Locarno Pact 1925 settled border disputes

  • 1926 Germany joins the League of Nations and gains respectability

  • 1929 Young Plan replaces the Dawes Plan – reparations reduced by one quarter, Germany given 58 years to pay

  • American banks continued to loan German industry money to help it rebuild


Where did it all go wrong?

  • Stresemann died in October 1929 (most notable politician of his generation)

  • Closely followed by the Wall Street Crash

  • American banks recalled their loans to Germany

  • German economy plunged back into crisis


League of Nations Failed

  1. The failure of 'Collective Security'

    1. Collective security and the League of Nations - If a conflict could not find a resolution, moral pressure and economic sanctions were imposed on the aggressor.

    2. Dealing with international disputes - League lacked military teeth that France had desired.

  2. Problems for the League of Nations in the 1920s

    1. Changing membership of the League - reflected the Leagues priorities in its leading members.

    2. Absence of major powers – Germany, US and USSR missing; Its permanent members, except Japan, were distinctly European; club for victors; club for capitalists

    3. Weakness of Central European states – small states formed from Germany @ the end of WWI were weak.

  3. How successful was the League of Nations in the 1920s? – See Chart Above

  4. The Ruhr Crisis (1923) – See above

  5. The Rapallo Treaty - secretly, and Germany was to rearm and train soldiers in Russia.

  6. The Locarno Era

    1. The Locarno Conference and the 'Locarno spirit' (1925)

      1. 'Stresemann - proposed a voluntary German guarantee of its western borders.

      2. resolved claims over Alsace-Lorraine and reassured France would not be invaded again.

      3. Locarno had undermined both the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations.

    2. The Young Plan (1929)

      1. Further reduced the total sum to be repaid by Germany.

      2. Set a date for completion of repayments, 1988.

      3. Continued US involvement in reparation payments.

      4. John Maynard Keynes noted in 1926 that the foundations of both the Dawes and Young Plan was foreign money recovering European countries; "in the hands of American capitalists."

    3. Kellogg–Briand Pact (1928)

      1. The pact renounced 'war as an instrument of national policy'.

      2. Considered the high of 'Locarno Spirit'.

  7. Why did collective security fail in the 1930s

    1. The Depression

      1. Wall Street Crash in October 1929.

      2. world was ominously linked to US

      3. returned the world's nations to self-interest dominated states.

      4. Poverty and despair

      5. governments became fragile and extreme political groups emerged.

      6. economic sanctions was now useless as nations would now only want to protect their own interest.

      7. Alliances and secret agreements outside of the League reemerged; old-style diplomacy was back.

  8. The Manchurian Crisis

    1. Why did the League fail to resolve the Manchurian Crisis?

      1. Japan, Asia's greatest industrial and trading power, was greatly affected by the world depression.

      2. The USA was attempting to increase its influence in the Pacific, and would be concerned with any 'aggressive' expansionism there.

      3. In September 1931, the Kwantung Army claimed a bomb explosion near the town of Mukdem, a Chinese province, was evidence of growing disorder. Japan invaded.

      4. China appealed to the League, and this incident was exactly the type that 'collective security' was to contain.

      5. The League condemned Japan's actions and ordered a withdrawal of Japanese troops. The Japanese government agreed, however, its army refused (This exposed Japan's control over its military).

      6. The League commission took more than a year to report, by which time the invasion and occupation was complete.

      7. The League asked Japan to return the land to China, and in response, Japan left the League, and claimed that the condemnation of their actions in China was hypocrisy by powers such as Britain, which had a long legacy of using force to achieve its objectives in China.

    2. What was the impact of the Manchurian Crisis on the League of Nations?

      1. Member states were unwilling to apply economic sanctions; however, it was the USA which had the strongest trading links with Japan.

      2. Imposing a military solution was problematic in that Manchuria was geographically remote and only Britain and the USA could access it.

      3. France and Italy were too occupied by the events in Europe.

      4. Japan was openly condemned, however privately; a sympathetic view was taken as Japan was struggling economically.

    3. What was the impact of the Manchurian Crisis on the growth of Japanese militarism?

      1. China had appealed to the League for help in the face of an aggressor, however, they received no support, neither militarily or economically (sanctions on Japan).

      2. Richard Overy points out that by leaving the League, Japan had 'effectively removed the Fear East from the system of collective security'.

Short Term Causes - Europe

Rise to Power – Hitler

Locarno 1925c:\documents and settings\annaleighb.marquez\local settings\temporary internet files\content.ie5\bcsfjtxv\mc900433820[1].png

League was fragilec:\documents and settings\annaleighb.marquez\local settings\temporary internet files\content.ie5\bcsfjtxv\mc900433818[1].png

Kellogg Briand Pact 1928c:\documents and settings\annaleighb.marquez\local settings\temporary internet files\content.ie5\bcsfjtxv\mc900433820[1].png

League was weakc:\documents and settings\annaleighb.marquez\local settings\temporary internet files\content.ie5\bcsfjtxv\mc900433818[1].png

Disarmament Conferences 1932c:\documents and settings\annaleighb.marquez\local settings\temporary internet files\content.ie5\bcsfjtxv\mc900433820[1].png

Collective Securityc:\documents and settings\annaleighb.marquez\local settings\temporary internet files\content.ie5\bcsfjtxv\mc900433818[1].png

League of Nationsc:\documents and settings\annaleighb.marquez\local settings\temporary internet files\content.ie5\bcsfjtxv\mc900433820[1].png

Depressionc:\documents and settings\annaleighb.marquez\local settings\temporary internet files\content.ie5\bcsfjtxv\mc900433818[1].png


Violence

  • Hitler’s SA or brownshirts were used to intimidate opponents and drum up support

  • Running street battles were fought with rivals from the Communist party

  • Violence and rivalry were central to Nazi philosophy of survival of the fittest

  • Ernst Rohm led the SA for the Nazi party

Hitler, the ‘Political Genius’

  • Hitler had an undoubted ability for public speaking and an understanding of ordinary peoples’ desires

  • Hitler had ‘his finger on the pulse of Germany’ – Walden

  • The vision was highlighted in Mein Kampf

  • Single-mindedness

  • ‘Enter the Reichstag holding our noses’

Attractive Policies

  • Hitler appealed to many sections of society

  • ‘Rip up the Treaty of Versailles’

  • ‘Work, freedom and bread’

  • Sort out the Communists

  • Guaranteed farm prices

  • Regain national pride

  • All of these things were attractive to ordinary Germans

Divided Opponents

  • Hitler should have been kept from power, he never did gain an overall majority

  • But the Communists and Socialists were divided

  • Parties squabbled over how to deal with the depression

  • January 1933 Hitler is invited as Chancellor in an attempt to control him and the Nazis

Hitler Becomes Chancellor

  • January 30 1933

  • Hitler was in a weak position because he could be dismissed by Hindenburg (other Chancellors hadn’t lasted long!)

  • Hitler cooperates closely with Hindenburg
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