Killing continued after war, as Franco launched terror campaign to eradicate competition (estimated death toll 40,000-200,000).
Thousands Republicans were held in concentration camps and prisons.
Republican children were taken from parents to be re-educated.
Divisions and hatred remained in Spanish society for decades.
10-15% of wealth was destroyed; per capita income declined 28%; 70% of Madrid's factory machinery need to be replaced.
Madrid's communication systems, tram network needed rebuilding.
Two-thirds of merchant ships out of action.
Republican land reform reversed.
Agricultural economy was inefficient and ineffective.
Laborers tolerated periodic unemployment, and landowners not interested in modernization.
General labor shortage.
Economy improved due to outbreak of WW2; Franco began trading with Britain and France again.
Germany's exploitation of Spain's economy during WWII weakened the economy.
France and Britain's loan to Spain gave it influence in Spanish politics.
Suffered a famine in 1946, and was fairly isolated during the war.
During the Cold War, Spain became less isolated with reforms in the 1950s and 1960s developing a capitalist state.
Spain industrialized and developed a strong service industry.
Paul Preston: "as if it were a country occupied by a victorious foreign army."
Franco had declared the country safe of Communism and began White Terror in order to destroy all other traces.
Exodus of half a million Spaniards and murder of thousands of Republicans.
Teachers, lawyers, researches, doctors, writers, poets, artists, and musicians fled the country.
1939, Law of Political Responsibility made supports of Republic liable to punishment.
Objective of new regime to restore power to the privileged class and control the working class.
CNT and UGT destroyed.
Inequalities of social and working system in rural areas were reversed and preserved by Civil Guard.
1950s was an 'era of the national church' as Church reforms were repealed.
Frances Lannon: "The Catholic Church enjoyed a degree of state support that was much greater than at any time since the 18th century. Government and church combined to preach order, hierarchy, and discipline. The counter-revolution had triumphed."
Patricia Knight: Church's creation of links to worker's movements was an attempt to infiltrate and prevent any resurgent communist groups.
Use of Catalan, Basque, and Galician languages were forbidden.
All power centralized in Madrid.
Paul Preston: "behind the rhetoric of national and social unity, until the death of Franco every effort was made to maintain the division between the victors and the vanquished."
Suppression and removal of political opposition created economic stability.
Army lost its pre-eminence in society after Morocco gained independence in 1946.
The country became 'frozen in time' as no modernization took place for 36 years.
Effects and results of the Spanish Civil War
USSR and communism
After the Communist defeat in Spain, international credibility had been lost.
Stalin's contribution caused divisions within the left wing and supports of USSR.
Lost intellectual sympathy from West.
Pushed foreign policy away from potential western alliances against Germany, only one to appease Germany.
After NIC, obvious that Britain and France would not ally with Hitler's expansionist ambitions.
Stalin became closer, possible ally by December 1937.
Munich Agreement in September 1938 was turning point as Britain sacrificed Czechoslovakia and Spain to appease Germany.
Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy
Importance of air power and effectiveness of applying air cover for ground troops in Blitzkrieg.
Germans tested pullet-resistant fuel tanks and discovered possible improvements.
Bombing of civilians was effective.
All these made differences to Hitler's 1939-40 campaign.
However, Italians defeated at Guadalajara, Blitzkrieg did not work.
Germany and Italy grew closer.
The NIC, Britain's pursuit of appeasement, all strengthened Hitler's position.
Britain and France
Spanish civilians who were bombed made it clear that a general European war would witness horrors unlike the scale seen before.
Polarized political view of appeasement; some thought warring factions should battle it without dragging democracies into conflict.
"Weakness" of Britain and France over Britain, and their policy of appeasement, led Hitler to change perception of Britain - 1938 lost respect and the NIC made Hitler more aggressive.
Remained neutral, yet horrified by the atrocities of the Spanish Civil War.
The civil war strengthened isolationist sentiment.
Roosevelt, October 1937: "Quarantine the Aggressors."
Called for economic sanctions against Franco in 1946. All members broke up diplomatic relations.
Spain excluded from Marshall Aid.
1951, Eisenhower agreed to grant aid to Spain in return for using air base.
Spain became a US ally and permitted to join the UN.
Was the Spanish Civil War a cause of World War II?
It emboldened Hitler by increasing his popularity at home and abroad.
Hitler drew closer to his former enemy, Italy.
Hitler gained practical military lessons that he would later apply in the campaigns of 1940. it was a distraction for Britain and pushed the USA further into isolation.
If fostered a new direction for Soviet foreign policy, meaning that there could be no broad alliance in Europe to contain Hitler.
A. J. P. Taylor: The Spanish Civil War was "without significant effect" in causing WWII.
Causes Practices and Effects of War
World War Two Type of War: Total War Long Term Causes – Europe Post War Germany
Association with Defeat
defeat of Germany as the Kaiser had fled before the end
In September 1931, the Kwantung Army claimed a bomb explosion near the town of Mukdem, a Chinese province, was evidence of growing disorder. Japan invaded.
China appealed to the League, and this incident was exactly the type that 'collective security' was to contain.
The League condemned Japan's actions and ordered a withdrawal of Japanese troops. The Japanese government agreed, however, its army refused (This exposed Japan's control over its military).
The League commission took more than a year to report, by which time the invasion and occupation was complete.
The League asked Japan to return the land to China, and in response, Japan left the League, and claimed that the condemnation of their actions in China was hypocrisy by powers such as Britain, which had a long legacy of using force to achieve its objectives in China.
What was the impact of the Manchurian Crisis on the League of Nations?
Member states were unwilling to apply economic sanctions; however, it was the USA which had the strongest trading links with Japan.
Imposing a military solution was problematic in that Manchuria was geographically remote and only Britain and the USA could access it.
France and Italy were too occupied by the events in Europe.
Japan was openly condemned, however privately; a sympathetic view was taken as Japan was struggling economically.
What was the impact of the Manchurian Crisis on the growth of Japanese militarism?
China had appealed to the League for help in the face of an aggressor, however, they received no support, neither militarily or economically (sanctions on Japan).
Richard Overy points out that by leaving the League, Japan had 'effectively removed the Fear East from the system of collective security'.