Japan attacks and conquers Manchuria. The League objects, but can do nothing.
Hitler announces that Germany is leaving the League.
Italy attacks and conquers Abyssinia. The League objects, but can do nothing.
Hitler renounces the Treaty of Versailles and starts re-arming in defiance of the League.
The League's Disarmament Conference fails.
German army re-occupies the Rhineland in defiance of the League.
Italy leaves the League.
Germany informs the League that Germany and Austria are uniting, in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles.
Munich Agreement - Britain and France, ignoring the League, follow the policy of appeasement and give Hitler the Sudetenland.
The fascists win the Spanish Civil War and Spain leaves the League
Second World War
Causes Practices and Effects of War
Spanish Civil War Long-term causes of the Spanish Civil War: political instability (1920−1931)
Struggle between conservatism and liberalism.
Weakness of government
1971 onwards Spain was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament that retained little power.
Political control shifted between the wealthy oligarchs and their various cliques.
Two main parties, Conservatives and Liberals, with very little difference between them.
Elections were rigged or decided in private.
The role of the Spanish Army
Army had powerful political position due to imperial past.
It intervened in politics if a crisis occurred to defend its interests.
It was unpopular, had a reputation for brutality, and was expensive and required heavy taxes.
It was ineffective, as proven by: the loss of the Spanish Empire during the 19th century; the American war in 1898; and the struggle to keep Morocco between 1906 to 1926.
It was too big with too many officers and overly middle class.
Army was conservationist, traditional, nationalistic and 'Africannistas.'
The role of the church
Catholic church was rich and powerful, with guaranteed role in education and the economy.
Its wealth was used to gain political and social influence.
It used its power for economic conservatism and to oppose modernizing and liberal forces.
Defended the upper class as many of the clergy were aristocrats, who helped fund.
In many urban areas and rural areas there were protests against the church.
Spain was mainly an agricultural economy, and it was inefficient, thus not providing sufficient food and its work was seasonal.
Most lived in abject poverty, with an enormous gap between rich and poor.
Rioting and disorder often broke out in the countryside, with the Civil Guard deployed to ruthlessly repress.
No support from Church made some groups support the anarchists who argued for land redistribution.
Many small landholders were conservative, resisted socialist/anarchist ideas, and were exploited by the Catholic Agrarian Federation who provided support for their beliefs, only to later support Franco.
There was a need for modernization and reform, and was limited by endemic poverty.
Workers in twos faced low wages, long hours, unregulated working conditions, poor housing, and little welfare provision.
This situation led to a growth in trade unionism, which, however, failed to achieve anything substantial.
The workers' political parties had no real political power, with no legal means and violent uprisings.
Spain's neutrality during WWI facilitated a short period of economic boom; however the increase in exports only increased inflation and shortages.
Republicans were politically divided and subscribed to different ideologies; between the Communists and Socialists who both believed the 'revolution' should be postponed until after the war and t he Anarchists who argued the war can only be won through a revolution.
Historians argue that the Anarchists' 'revolution from below' added a crucial hurdle for the Republic to regain centralized control, with more influence in Madrid and Valencia.
War increased in popularity with communists; July 1936 40,000 members, October 1937 400,000 members.
Republic had clear foreign support from USSR.
Communists wanted victory in war, anarchists wanted revolutionary regime.
Communists used 'terror' tactics.
Four days of street fighting in Barcelona 1937 - communists and socialists versus the anarchists illustrated the lack of unity.
After May Days (see above), the Worker's Party of Marxist Revolution took up an authoritarian regime.
Lacked strong military and no unified command.
Anarchists and communists would not work together.
Basques refused to be led be a central command structure and would not permit their forces outside of their own territory.
Loyal army forces were not trusted by the Republic.
Military fought series of local battles instead of overall campaign and this meant they could not be supported by the air forces, or to sustain an offensive campaign.
Only until end of 1939 that Republicans started to replace militias with 'Popular Army'.
Areas under the anarchists were the industries, public utilities and transport - these were taken over by workers' committees, however they were unable to meet the demands of the war.
Historians argue that this was not due to a badly run government but due to the war; however the government is partially to blame.
Production fell by two-thirds between 1936 to 1939, with many food and raw material shortages.
Inflation was a problem; rose 300% during the war.
The Non-Intervention Committee (NIC) was set up by France and Britain in 1936.
Prevented an influx of support for warring parties in Spain, making the Republic lose all credit and USSR was the only willing trader.
Paul Preston: communist control ultimately improved the situation by centralizing control, but too late to save Republic.
Role of foreign aid was exaggerated, but aid given to Republic was far less than that of the Nationalists.
Republic's main ally was USSR, who saved them and enabled it to fight the civil war by supplying aircraft (1,000) and tanks (750), but the Republic had to pay for this.
Germany played a crucial military role at critical times and other governments deterred from getting involved due to its presence.
Gave most assistance as Mussolini was anti-communist/-socialist and democratic outlook, he wanted to enhance his influence in Mediterranean, and a fascist victory would weaken France and prevent French left-wing influence.
Another fascist power would encircle France, pressurizing French colonies in North Africa.
Contributed many planes, tanks, weapons, bombers, and submarines.
Historians argue that despite massive troop support, its most effective support was air and naval.
Italy ignored membership of NIC.
Relationship between Italy and Germany were cemented in Spain.
Only foreign force not compromised by membership of NIC.
Sent 20,000 troops and fundamental supplier of rebels in the south-west.
Provided a base for communications.
Britain's long-term alliance with Portugal made the British reluctant to count its support for Nationalists.
The nature of the Spanish Civil War
For foreign powers it was limited, for the Spanish it was total civil war.
Propaganda was used to dehumanize the enemy.
Atrocities were common.
The targeting of civilians was a premonition of what was to come in WWII - no lines drawn between civilian and combatant.
Some cases, cavalry charges proved effective, such as in Teruel in February 1938.
Other case, such as the crushing of Republican offensives in 1938 to 1938 with combined arms and air strikes showed the importance of technology.
Neither side could consistently gain air control.
Control of sea was important especially for supply routes.
Battles on land were similar to that of WWI with defense remained easier than attack.
Casualties were high, with attackers gaining little hand.
Blitzkrieg was evolving with application of tanks, artillery, and air bombardment.
It was not a guerrilla war because, from Antony Beevor, "the conditions for a universal guerrilla war simply did not exist."