The War to End all Wars = Total War Long Term Causes: [ANIMAL]
Few countries were democracies
Italy - corrupt
Germany – Wilhelm was mad
Russia – tsar was weak
Turkey – was falling apart
Weltpolitik - German colonial expansion policy = arms and naval races as well as rivalry between Britain and Germany
Alsace-Lorraine was lost to Germany angered the French who believed this was a part of France and wanted the territory back
British Empire covered a fifth of the world
Fight for resources mainly in Asia and Africa, but also Latin America and Middle East
Wilhelm wanted ‘a place in the sun’
Germany’s Navy Law 1900 - committed Germany to building up a navy capable of competing with the Royal Navy of Britain.
Schlieffen Plan – was no secret that Germany had plans to attack France through Belgium (Russia mobilized faster than Germany anticipated, drawing German resources away from Western Front and creating a stalemate in France)
Plan XVII: French plan to regain Alsace-Lorraine Entirely offensive
Britain’s War Plan: Planned to send the British Expeditionary Force to Belgium if Belgium Neutrality was violated
European countries thought alliance system would be a deterrent to war
Assassination and ‘blank cheque’ lead to ultimatum
Short Term Causes
List of Events: [Beasts Fabricate Decisions Because Dads Assume Bad Activities]
1. Boer War 1899-1902
Germany opposed Britain's attempt to defeat the Boers in South Africa.
2. First Moroccan crisis 1905
Kaiser Wilhelm promised to support the sultan of Morocco against France's attempts to take over the country.
3. 'Daily Telegraph' article 1908
In a newspaper interview, Kaiser Wilhelm said the English were mad and the Germans hated them. This caused great offence in Britain.
4. Bosnia 1908
Austria annexed Bosnia in the Balkans from Turkey. This annoyed Serbia, which had wanted to take over the area. Russia wanted to help Serbia, but had to back down.
5. Dreadnought crisis 1909
Scared by the growing German navy, the British people demanded that the government build eight of the new Dreadnought battleships.
6. Agadir 1911
There was a revolution in Morocco, so France sent an army to take over. Kaiser Wilhelm sent the gunship 'Panther', but Britain and France forced him to back down.
7. Balkan Wars 1912-1913
Serbia and other countries in the Balkans conquered most of Turkey's land in Europe. Serbia became a powerful country, and said Austria-Hungary was its next target.
8. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand 1914
The heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was shot by GavriloPrincip, a young Serb terrorist, in Sarajevo in Bosnia.
Events and consequences
The Boer War, the 'Daily Telegraph' article and the Dreadnought crisis made the British public hate the Germans.
The first Moroccan crisis and Agadir made France think that Germany wanted to destroy its empire.
The Dreadnought crisis showed that the British thought Germany wanted to challenge the British navy.
Bosnia, the Balkan Wars and the assassination of Franz Ferdinand made Austria-Hungary determined to destroy Serbia.
Bosnia made Russia determined to support the Serbs.
The Balkan Wars made Austria-Hungary frightened of Serbia.
The Boer War made Britain think that Germany wanted to destroy its empire.
Agadir made Germany determined to stand up to France and Britain.
Assassination at Sarajevo
1. Sarajevo was in Bosnia, the province that - to Serbia's anger - had been annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908.
2. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. He was inspecting the army in Sarajevo with his wife Sophie.
3. Seven young Bosnian Serbs planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand as he drove along the main road in Sarajevo, the Appel Quay.
4. The first conspirator who tried to kill Franz Ferdinand was Nedeljko Cabrinovic - he threw a bomb at his car. He missed and was arrested.
5. The Archduke escaped unhurt and went to the town hall. He decided to abandon the visit and return home via a different route to the one planned. The royal couple left the town hall immediately.
6. No one had told the driver the route had changed. On the way back, therefore, the driver turned into Franz Josef Street, following the published route and, when told of his error, stopped the car to turn around.
8. Princip pulled out a gun and shot at Franz Ferdinand, hitting him in the jugular vein. There was a tussle, during which Princip shot and killed Sophie. By 11.30am, Franz Ferdinand had bled to death.
The steps to war 1914
If it was a Serbian who shot an Austrian, why did Germany, Russia, France and Britain become embroiled in a war? Why couldn't Serbia and Austria-Hungary sort out their own problems? Was Germany really to blame for the war? Alliances
Steps to war
The Austrian government asks the German government if it will support Austria in a war against Russia, if Russia supports Serbia. The Germans say they will support whatever the Austrian government decides to do - the so called 'blank check'.
The Austrian government sends the Serbian government an ultimatum.
The Serbians accept all the conditions except one - that Austrian police should be allowed into Serbia.
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
The Russian army is mobilized.
Germany declares war on Russia.
Germany declares war on France and, following the Schlieffen Plan, attacks Belgium.
Britain keeps the promise made in a treaty of 1839 to defend Belgium, and declares war on Germany.
New Kind of Warfare
WWI saw death and destruction on a scale never experienced before
Technological developments were seen as vital to both sides, but each new weapon brought further destruction
Germany to return the territories it had taken during the war
Self-Government for the nations of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and for the non-Turkish people within the Ottoman Empire
The creation of an independent Polish state
However, Britain wanted to rebuild a strong economy by restoring European relations and trade. Unlike France, Britain wanted German economic recovery as Britain would benefit greatly from the trade with Germany who before 1914 was a very important buyer of British goods.
Wanted to keep the balance of power within Europe stable
Did not want France to expand beyond Alsace-Lorraine and did not support France in the domination of Europe
Did not want to form a guaranteed alliance with France. Believed in freedom of action
Only wanted to intervene if the balance of power was threatened
Wanted the territories that had been promised to it in the Treaty of London
Did not take into account national self-determination
When Italy was denied these territories it walked out of the Versailles Conference.
Wanted to be recognized for its dominant position in China
Wanted possession of the former German territories in China and the Pacific
Wanted to secure a larger empire for security and economic strength
Did not support self-determination
Wanted to be one of the major powers
Wanted racial equality in the peace settlement
influenced the conference in that the allies (especially Lloyd-George from G.B.) feared a communist revolution.
Paris Peace Conference
Signed on November 11th 1918 and WWI ended
(after Ebert the Socialist came to power in Germany following the abdication of the Kaiser) Paris Peace Settlement:
The representatives of 32 countries met in 1919 in Paris to draw up the peace settlement.
The "Big Three" (France, USA and Britain) leaders were mostly in command of the decision makings and so was Italy but to a lesser extent.
The settlement was created from five treaties; the Treaty of Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevres/Lausanne.
The Treaty of Versailles dealt specifically with Germany and was the major discussion during the draw up of the peace settlement whereas the other treaties dealt with the geo-political and economic future of Europe.
The agreement containing the principles on which the League of Nations was to operate on took into account all five treaties.
Treaty Of Versailles - Key clauses :
Article 231 : Germany recognizes the war guilt.
Article 119 : Germany is to lose all her colonies which will be placed under the authority of the allies.
Article 42 : Germany is not to construct any fortifications on either sides of the Rhine for the next 50 years.
Article 428 : As guarantee that the treaty will be carried out the west part of the Rhine will be occupied by allied troops for 15 years.
Article 160 : The German army is to be reduced to 100,000 men, also the construction of tanks submarines and airplanes was forbidden.
Article 45 : The Saar land will be given to France as part of the compensation for the war.
Article 80 : Germany is not allowed to ally ever again with Austria. (Anchluss)
Article 102 : The city of Danzig is to become a free city and to be placed under the protection of the League of Nations.