First American Industrial Revolution – dbq essay



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NAME: ___________________________

“Manufacturers will create employment and revenues that will improve the well-being of all sectors of the economy. . . . [It] will provide cheaper goods and create a more profitable outlet for its produce.” – Alexander Hamilton



autoshape 2First American Industrial Revolution – DBQ Essay
This question is based on the following documents (1-8). The task is designed to assess your ability to work with historical documents, take into account both the context of each document and point of view that may be presented in the document.
Historical Context
The Industrial Revolution took place over more than a century, as the production of goods moved from homes, where products were generally crafted by hand, to machine-aided production in factories. What had been an almost purely agricultural economy in 1800 was in the first stages of an industrial revolution which would result in the United States becoming one of the world's leading industrial powers by 1900. This revolution, which involved major changes in transportation, manufacturing, and communications, transformed the daily lives of Americans. Arguably, it was one of several factors that set the stage for the Civil War.
Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of social studies, answer the questions that follow the documents. Your answers to the question will help you write an essay in which you will be asked to:
Task:

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Part A: Answer the short answer questions in complete sentences for full credit.


Document I: Railroads 1850 & 1860 & U.S. Inland Waterways



Source: http://facweb.furman.edu/~bensonlloyd/civwar/miniatlas.htm, 2014




Source: http://amhistory.si.edu/onthewater/exhibition/4_2.html, 2014



In 1860, 70% of the railroads in the country ran through Northern states. In the South, farmers were more likely to transport crops by boat.



Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/underground_railroad/map.htm, 2014


  1. What specific kinds of economic opportunities could the railroads have created?

  2. Why might southern farmers have used rivers/oceans to transport their crops and not the railroad?


  1. What effect might these factors have had on industrialization in the south compared to the north?

Document II: Industry & Agriculture in the North and South, 1860



Source: http://www.maps.com/ref_map.aspx?pid=11377, 2014


Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/underground_railroad/map.htm, 2014


Mason-Dixon Line (cultural boundary between the North and South)


The North’s economy was based on manufacturing and commerce, with more than five times as many factories as in the South. Some of these factories produced textiles, like cotton fabric and yarn. Others produced materials like steel and iron. Even though there were some textile mills in the South, a great deal of cotton was still shipped to the North.




  1. According to the map, which section of the country manufacturers the most goods?



  1. Based on context, what is the definition of textiles?


  1. In which area of the country would you expect to see more modern infrastructure (roads, bridges, cities, technology, etc.)? Why?

Document III: Industry & Agriculture in the North and South, 1860



In 1860, there were actually more farms in the North than in the South. Northern farms were typically smaller and produced crops like wheat. In the South, farms were much larger – many had more than 1,000 acres. (A thousand acres is about the size of 1,000 football fields!) These huge plantations grew cash crops like tobacco, rice, and sugar. The South had to pay taxes on many of the crops they exported.

Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/underground_railroad/map.htm, 2014


Mason-Dixon Line (cultural boundary between the North and South)



Source: http://www.maps.com/ref_map.aspx?pid=11377, 2014




  1. According to the map, what is the main crop produced in the North?


  1. What is the main crop produced in the South?


  1. Rank the crops from the key on the line below from least edible to most edible; also, label which section(s) of the country it is grown. What pattern or trend do you notice?



Document IV: South Carolina Senator Hammond’s Speech to Congress Regarding Kansas – 3/4/1848


This speech was given in support of admitting Kansas to the Union as a slave state – Hammond stresses the inseparable connection between the North and South.

In addition to this, . . . [the South] sent to the North $30,000,000 worth of cotton, which is not counted in the exports. We sent to her $7 or $8,000,000 worth of tobacco, which is not counted in the exports. We sent naval stores, lumber, rice, and many other minor articles. There is no doubt that we sent to the North $40,000,000 in addition; but suppose the amount to be $35,000,000, it will give us a surplus production of $220,000,000. But the recorded exports of the South now are greater than the whole exports of the United States in any year before 1856. They are greater than the whole average exports of the United States for the last twelve years, including the two extraordinary years of 1856 and 1857. They are nearly double the amount of the average exports of the twelve preceding years. If I am right in my calculations as to $220,000,000 of surplus produce, there is not a nation on the face of the earth, with any numerous population, that can compete with us in produce per capita. 



Source: http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/cotton-is-king/, 2014



  1. What items are being shipped from the South to the North?



  1. What is the major difference regarding the items produced by the South and the items produced by the North?


  1. How does the economy of the north benefit from the existence of slavery in the south?

Document V: Cotton Production, 1820 & 1860

After the invention of the cotton gin, the yield of raw cotton doubled each decade after 1800. Demand was fueled by other inventions of the Industrial Revolution, such as the machines to spin and weave it and the steamboat to transport it. By mid-century America was growing three-quarters of the world's supply of cotton, most of it shipped to England or New England where it was manufactured into cloth.

Source: http://teachers.henrico.k12.va.us/tucker/strusky_m/webquests/VUS6_Expansion/InventionsSpurExpansion.html, 2014








Source: http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/cotton-gin-patent/, 2014




  1. How did the invention of the cotton gin also increase the demand for slaves?



  1. Imagine that you are an owner of a successful textile factory in Boston, Massachusetts. How do you feel about the invention of the cotton gin and why you do feel that way?

Document VI: Mary Paul: A Lowell Mill Girl’s Letters to Her Father




December 21, 1845
I am well, which is one comfort. . . . Last Tuesday we were paid. In all I had six dollars and sixty cents paid $4.68 for board. With the rest I got me a pair of rubber [shoes] and a pair of 50 cent shoes. Next payment I am to have a dollar a week beside my board. I think that the factory is the best place for me and if any girl wants employment, I advise them to come to Lowell.
November 5, 1848

Doubtless you have been looking for a letter from me all week. . . . The work I am now doing.  It is very hard indeed and sometimes I think I shall not be able to endure it.  I never worked so hard in my life but perhaps I shall get used to it. . . . Wages are to be reduced on the 20th of this month. . . . The companies pretend they are losing immense sums every day . . . but this seems perfectly absurd to me for they are constantly making repairs and it seems to me this would not be if there were really any danger of their being obliged to stop the mills.  I expect to be paid about two dollars a week but it will be dearly earned.






Source: http://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/industry/MSPaulLetters.htm, 2014



  1. What is the biggest difference between Mary Paul’s first letter to her father and her second?



  1. Imagine that you are Mary’s sister in 1848 and you have just talked with your father about the letter Mary just sent. Explain whether you would consider working at your sister’s mill if you found out that your father was no longer be able to work and your family needed money.

Document VII: Woodcut of Workers in the North and an Engraving of Slaves in the South



Sources: http://www.uml.edu/tsongas/bringing-history-home/page_02/sb3.htm, 2014 & http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/148974/African-slaves-working-the-first-cotton-gin-engraving-for-Harpers, 2014





  1. What are three inferences that differentiate the labor being performed in the woodcut on the left from the engraving on the right?

a.
b.


c.

  1. Imagine that you’re a proud and an independent northern woman who works in a textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts. What sorts of opportunities would making money from your job at the mill provide you with that you wouldn’t have the opportunity to do if you worked on your family’s farm?


Document VIII: South Carolina Senator Hammond’s Speech to Congress Regarding Kansas – 3/4/1848



The difference between us is, that our slaves are hired for life and well compensated; there is no starvation, no begging, no want of employment among our people, and not too much employment either. Yours are hired by the day, not care for, and scantily compensated, which may be proved in the most painful manner, at any hour in any street of your large towns. Why, you meet more beggars in one day, in any single street of the city of New York, than you would meet in a lifetime in the whole South. We do not think that whites should be slaves either by law or necessity.
Our slaves are black, of another and inferior race. The status in which we have placed them is an elevation. They are elevated from the condition in which God first created them, by being made our slaves. None of that race on the whole face of the globe can be compared with the slaves of the South. They are happy, content, unaspiring, and utterly incapable, from intellectual weakness, ever to give us any trouble by their aspirations. Yours are white, of your own race; you are brothers of one blood. They are your equals in natural endowment of intellect, and they feel galled by their degradation. Our slaves do not vote. We give them no political power. Yours do vote, and, being the majority, they are the depositaries [sic] of all your political power.




Source: http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/cotton-is-king/, 2014




  1. Looking at Hammond’s perspective of their intelligence, how does he think that slaves feel about slavery? Explain.


  1. Explain whether the woman from question 18 would see herself as the kind of worker that Senator Hammond describes in the paragraph above.





Source: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/73558/US-Senator-Henry-Clay-in-a-speech-before-the-Senate, 2014
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Planning Section
This section can be done in bullet-form, with the exception of the thesis.

Task:
Pre-thinking:autoshape 2

Explain the effects that the Industrial Revolution had on the North in bullet-form.




Explain the effects that the Industrial Revolution had on the South in bullet-form





Introduction:

  1. Set up the topics that will be addressed in the body of the essay. Provide background information and explain the historical context.




  1. Develop a thesis (argument) statement:

(Example – David Beckham is professional soccer’s most recognizable star, even in retirement, due to his skill on the soccer field, his marriage to Posh Spice, his many advertisements, and his level of fitness)


Body:


Body Paragraphs

Focus

In the section below, write down the focus of each body paragraph

Evidence from the Documents

In the section below, write down which documents fit in your paragraph and make a quick note of how it does. In your essay, you will have to site the information you get from the document.


Outside Information

Use our notes, textbook, or approved websites to add information that you will add to your paragraphs

1st Body Paragraph

  • A: Topic Sentence

  • B: Supporting evidence from documents and supporting evidence from outside information

  • C: Closing/Transition Sentence



What’s the strongest argument supporting your thesis?







2nd Body Paragraph

  • A: Topic Sentence

  • B: Supporting evidence from documents and supporting evidence from outside information

  • C: Closing/Transition Sentence



What’s a second good argument that supports your thesis?








Conclusion:
Restate your (argument) thesis and summarize the main ideas presented in your essay in 3-4 sentences.


  • Restatement of thesis -






Rubric for DBQ Essay:




Task

Worth

What to Do for Full Credit

Comments

DBQ Questions

20

  1. Answer all of the questions in complete sentences.

  2. Answer all of the questions neatly.

  3. Answer all of the questions completely.




DBQ Planning Section

16

  1. Complete pre-thinking section (4)

  2. Complete thesis section in a complete sentence (4)

  3. Complete body section (4)

  4. Complete conclusion section (4)

DBQ Essay

50

  1. Introduction: Topic sentence, introduction has background information, from the historical context, and thesis (10)

  2. 1st Body Paragraph: Topic sentence, analysis which includes documents (with proper citing), analysis which includes outside information, and closing sentence (10)

  3. 2nd Body Paragraph: Topic sentence, analysis which includes documents (with proper citing), analysis which includes outside information, and closing sentence (10)

  4. Closing: Restates thesis, summarize main points, and is 3-4 sentences (10)

  5. Neatness and proper grammar (10)

Total

86

/86
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