Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
____ 1. A mission statement is a written declaration by a fire agency describing the things that it intends to do to protect its citizenry or customers.
____ 2. In England, little or no attention was paid to the idea of fire insurance until the Great Fire in 1666.
____ 3. The number of experienced firefighters increased dramatically as a result of the Civil War.
____ 4. The first fire alarm was designed by San Francisco firefighter Daniel Hayes.
____ 5. Fire agencies all have an organizational structure, an inventory of facilities, apparatus, equipment, and methods for responding to emergencies.
____ 6. Fire was seldom used as a weapon of war in the colonies during the two wars fought over independence.
____ 7. After World War I, a whole generation of fire apparatus arose that consisted of hybrids of steam power and internal combustion.
____ 8. In some areas, fire and rescue services may be provided by private, for-profit companies.
____ 9. A quality training program must be followed by a comprehensive work performance evaluation program to ensure fire service leaders that their communications centers are staffed by well-trained personnel.
____ 10. Regardless of the type of fire station alerting system in use, it is critically important that accurate information pertaining to an emergency situation be transmitted from the communications center to first responders in a clear, concise, and expedient manner.
____ 11. Some call boxes simply transmit a preset identification number to the communications center without providing a means for the reporting party to communicate verbally.
____ 12. Oxygen (an oxidizer) is a powerful chemical in that it is always trying to react with other chemicals.
____ 13. The molecules in a solid material are packed closely together and bound in such a way as to give the solid shape.
____ 14. The fully developed phase is recognized as the point at which all contents within the perimeter of the fire’s boundaries are burning.
____ 15. For single-fuel fires, smoke color cannot indicate the type of material burning.
____ 16. Today’s fires are cooler and slower spreading than those of the past (thanks to a “plastic” society).
____ 17. Convection currents created by heat in the air do not occur in liquids.
____ 18. Prior to flashover, smoke gases that have lower ignition temperatures may start to ignite intermittently within the lower thermal layer.
____ 19. According to the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA), firefighter fatalities as a result of fire-related causes (burns, asphyxiation, and structural collapse) have consistently decreased.
____ 20. Currently, OSHA looks at NFPA standards as a guideline to address issues not directly covered by CFRs.
____ 21. A personal devotion to physical fitness is optional for firefighter safety.
____ 22. Defining a “small” fire or a fire that would necessitate the use of a portable fire extinguisher is a clear-cut procedure.
____ 23. Pressurized water, pressurized loaded stream, and stored pressure extinguishers operate by means of an expelling gas that propels the agent out of the container.
____ 24. The building or environment does not have to be taken into account when selecting a fire extinguisher.
____ 25. Carbon dioxide works best in enclosed or semienclosed areas as the agent can be easily blown away by the wind.
____ 26. When thinking of size, it is usually best to pick the smaller size fire extinguisher.
____ 27. Some very popular fire extinguishers of the past have now been declared obsolete and should be removed from service.
____ 28. The valves in public water systems are usually nonindicating-type gate valves and check valves.
____ 29. Firefighters should always check the hydrant outlet, flushing it if necessary, prior to connecting a supply hose.
____ 30. Dry barrel hydrants are used in areas where high temperatures could damage the hydrant.
____ 31. Testing should be conducted on fire hydrants periodically to ensure they are operable and to determine the flow rate of the hydrants.
____ 32. Minerals and organisms do not survive the water treatment process.
____ 33. A wye is a device that divides one hoseline into two or more.
____ 34. Wildland firefighting often requires firefighters to stretch hoselines a great distance from the engine while fighting the fire.
____ 35. Advancing a charged hoseline over a ladder can be done by one firefighter alone.
____ 36. If an operation requires the extension of a hoseline and a clamp is used, the firefighter operating the clamp should stay with it to ensure it is locked.
____ 37. The single-donut hose roll is used when access to either or both couplings may be needed.
____ 38. A water supply flat load starts with the male end of the hose on the right side of the bed at the front.
____ 39. A ladder can be positioned and tied off to secure dangerous areas, forming a makeshift fence in cases where a barrier tape will not suffice.
____ 40. There are two methods of raising a ladder to the vertical position.
____ 41. As with any emergency service tool, all ropes must be inspected and properly maintained to ensure they are in good shape for use during an emergency incident.
____ 42. If using a clothes washing machine to wash rope, it is very important to avoid using a front-loading machine.
____ 43. An overhand knot is generally used to secure the loose end of the working end after tying a knot.
____ 44. The standard coil used by fire departments for years will work with either natural or synthetic ropes equally well.
____ 45. The search rope system should always be anchored to an outside area whether conditions are tenuous or not.
____ 46. Using ladders for rescue is a twofold process involving rescuers on the interior as well as the exterior.
____ 47. During cleanups, the use of a dry absorbent is rare for oils, engine coolant, and diesel fuel.
____ 48. Dragging a victim may be necessary when conditions dictate that rescuers remain low or manpower is limited.
____ 49. Standard air chisels are designed to be operated at between 100 and 150 psi.
____ 50. You should not use reciprocating electric saws in hazardous or flammable atmospheres because they can cause sparks.
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. The first record of a truly organized fire department began with actions taken by the ____ Empire to protect their capital.
a. Athenian b. Persian c. British d. Roman
____ 2. Early insurance companies marked the occupancies they protected with signs on sheets of metal called ____.
a. blazons b. Maltese crosses c. firemarks d. policies
____ 3. In Boston, in the early 1700s, designated people known as fire ____ were hired to make as much noise as possible upon spotting a fire.
a. crusaders b. marshals c. wardens d. chiefs
____ 4. The American ____ was developed by Andrew Gratacap.
a. fire truck b. hand pumper c. ladder d. fire helmet
____ 5. The ____ breed of dog was originally developed as a companion for horses, to calm them and chase away any small animals in their path.
a. collie b. Dalmatian c. German shepherd d. Labrador retriever
____ 6. The first fire alarm systems were created in the ____.
a. 1820s b. 1870s c. 1920s d. 1950s
____ 7. ____ is how long it takes for 50% of the information a firefighter has to become obsolete, inaccurate, or ineffective.
a. Information half-life b. Technological obsolescence c. Modernization d. Indirect attack
____ 8. During World War II, research performed by Fire Chief Lloyd Layman resulted in the development of the ____ attack method.
a. direct b. indirect c. sustained d. modern
____ 9. The first catastrophic hazardous materials event in America was the ____.
a. Chicago Fire b. ICS Fire c. Texas City Disaster d. Wingspread Disaster
____ 10. According to the United States Fire Administration, a fire department in this country responds to a fire approximately every ____ seconds.
a. 5 b. 10 c. 15 d. 20
____ 11. Fire kills ____.
a. primarily when it is a result of terrorist attacks b. someone in the United States on average every 10 hours c. fewer Americans than hurricanes do d. more Americans than all natural disasters combined
____ 12. Europe was not to see any dedicated fire forces for ____ years after the collapse of the Roman Empire.
a. 100 b. 500 c. 750 d. 1,000
____ 13. Most of the early settlements in America were constructed of ____ buildings and were extremely vulnerable to fire spread.
a. straw b. brick c. wooden d. mud
____ 14. In the 1800s, the leader of a fire company was known as a ____.
a. Hessian b. foreman c. speaker d. rowdy
____ 15. The first ____ apparatus, a spring-loaded device, was designed by San Francisco firefighter Daniel Hayes.
a. hydraulic b. alarm c. engineering d. aerial
____ 16. Career firefighters banded together to form a(n) ____, the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF).
a. social club b. research and development team c. labor union d. engineering firm
____ 17. Aerial ladders were converted from horse drawn with the advent of ____ systems.
a. electric b. manpower c. hydraulic d. pneumatic
____ 18. Technological ____ means that any given technology will only be useful for a certain period of time before it is replaced by another.
a. half-life b. obsolescence c. state of the art d. modernization
____ 19. The 1970s saw the creation of the incident command system through the activity of the ____ project.
a. NFPA b. FireScope c. Texas City d. Wingspread
____ 20. Computers can provide remote locations with access to a variety of information that is stored in a main ____ that can be accessed when needed.
a. browser b. database c. hard drive d. server
____ 21. When processing an emergency call, the most important piece of information is the ____.
a. nature of the emergency b. callback number c. caller’s location d. location of the incident
____ 22. ____ technology converts audio signals into digital data that is transmitted over the Internet.
a. VOIP b. cellular c. call box d. municipal fire alarm
____ 23. A Type ____ reporting system is defined by NFPA as “a system in which an alarm from a fire alarm box is automatically transmitted to fire stations and, if used, to outside alerting devices.”
a. A b. B c. C d. D
____ 24. ____ detectors work by detecting radiation, ultraviolet, and infrared energy given off by a flame.
a. Gas b. Carbon monoxide c. Carbon dioxide d. Flame
____ 25. In departments where fire stations are staffed twenty-four hours a day, some type of ____ is usually employed.
a. home alerting device b. personal pager c. fire station alerting system d. GPS
____ 26. Departments that utilize CAD systems can enhance this method by installing ____ printers in each fire station.
a. laser b. inkjet c. mobile data d. “tear and run”
____ 27. When using any trunked two-way radio, it is important to depress and hold the “push to talk” button at least two seconds before talking to avoid ____ the first part of the message.
a. clipping b. garbling c. duplication d. erasing
____ 28. Traditionally, the term ____ has signified that a member is in trouble and in need of assistance.
a. 10-4 b. dispatch c. mayday d. emergency traffic
____ 29. A(n) ____ is the first person to speak to the caller in need of emergency services.
a. telecommunicator b. EMT c. division chief d. first responder
____ 30. In the case of emergency medical calls, much more information may be requested from the caller in accordance with emergency medical ____ (EMD) protocols.
a. delivery b. documentation c. dispatch d. damage
____ 31. There are ____ types of public alarm systems as defined by the NFPA.
a. two b. three c. four d. six
____ 32. An alarm system that utilizes a municipal fire alarm box to transmit a fire alarm from a protected property to a fire communications center is called a(n) ____ signaling system.
a. local protective b. auxiliary protective c. remote station protective d. proprietary protective
____ 33. Residential carbon monoxide detectors are oftentimes confused as ____ by citizens calling in alarms.
a. auxiliary alarms b. flame detectors c. call boxes d. smoke detectors
____ 34. Some departments may use ____ circuits to communicate with their communications center.
a. mobile b. ringdown c. pullbox d. base
____ 35. Some departments employ ____ (MDTs) and mobile data computers in their dispatch and deployment process.
a. medical data terminals b. medical data transits c. mobile data transits d. mobile data terminals
____ 36. ____ radio systems provide perhaps the best coverage and also offer direct benefits associated with the most efficient use of radio resources.
a. Simplex b. Multisite trunked c. Duplex d. GPS
____ 37. The golden rule of radio communication is to ____.
a. be polite b. use jargon whenever possible c. be comprehensive d. be brief but be concise
____ 38. Major events involving fire and EMS sometimes call for the use of ____ vehicles (MSVs).
a. mobile sanitation b. medical sanitation c. mobile support d. medical support
____ 39. A National Fire Incident Reporting System was put into place by the U.S. Fire Administration in ____ to be used as a tool for assessing the fire problem in the United States.
a. 1945 b. 1959 c. 1976 d. 2001
____ 40. ____ is a chemical reaction that includes the self-sustaining rapid oxidation of a fuel accompanied by the release of heat and light.
a. Combustion b. Reduction c. Pyrolysis d. Exothermic flow
____ 41. Water is made of the elements hydrogen and ____.
a. helium b. oxygen c. carbon d. calcium
____ 42. Any chemical reaction that results in a heat release is known as a(n) ____ reaction.
a. oxidative b. reductive c. exothermic d. endothermic
____ 43. ____ heat is created from the friction of two materials rubbing against each other.
a. Mechanical b. Electrical c. Chemical d. Nuclear
____ 44. ____ electricity occurs when dissimilar materials are rubbed, scraped, or suddenly joined or separated.
a. Inductive b. Microwave c. Nuclear d. Static
____ 45. Matter can be found in one of three physical states: solid, ____, or gas.
a. liquid b. plasma c. crystal d. condensate
____ 46. The amount of heat a solid material can absorb before it begins to break down is directly proportional to its ____.
a. density b. surface-to-mass ratio c. volume d. mass
____ 47. What is the lowest temperature at which a liquid will off-gas an ignitable mixture that will ignite and continue to burn, given an outside spark or flame?
a. flash point b. fire point c. ignition temperature d. combustion temperature
____ 48. Which class of fire is made up of ordinary combustibles such as paper, wood, cloth, rubber, and other organic solids, including petrochemical solids (plastics)?
a. A b. B c. C d. K
____ 49. ____ is the transfer of heat through a solid object.
a. Radiation b. Induction c. Conduction d. Convection
____ 50. How many methods of heat transfer are usually present during fires?
a. one b. two c. three d. four
____ 51. The most dangerous product of combustion is ____.
a. smoke b. heat c. light d. the thermal plume
____ 52. ____ is the sudden and explosive ignition of pressurized, superheated, and oxygen-deprived gases (within a closed space) caused by the reintroduction of oxygen.
a. Backdraft b. Rapid fire spread c. Pyrolysis d. Flashover
____ 53. ____ heating takes place when electromagnetic waves stimulate the molecules of a given material.
a. Infrared b. Induction c. Static d. Oxidation
____ 54. The weight of a gas compared to air is known as its ____ density.
a. vapor b. absolute c. atmospheric d. flash
____ 55. Density is the ____ of a substance under specified conditions of pressure and temperature.
a. volume per unit mass b. mass per unit volume c. mass d. volume
____ 56. When combustion occurs, light is produced. These lightwaves range from ____ to infrared.
a. X-rays b. visible light c. ultraviolet d. cosmic rays
____ 57. During the ____ phase of a fire, an obvious thermal plume develops.
a. ignition b. growth c. decay d. fully developed
____ 58. ____ is defined as the product of incomplete combustion or decomposition heating and includes an aggregate of solids, liquids, and gases.
a. The flame front b. Smoke c. The thermal plume d. Pyrolysis
____ 59. A ____ event is one where the accumulated smoke within a building ignites and suddenly spreads the fire.
a. flashover b. backdraft c. rapid fire spread d. pyrolytic
____ 60. Firefighter duty deaths hover around ____ duty-related deaths each year in the United States.
a. 10 b. 50 c. 100 d. 200
____ 61. The NFPA 1500 Standard addresses the ____.
a. Comprehensive Occupational Medical Program for F.D.s b. F.D. Occupational Safety and Health Program c. Rehabilitation Process for Members During Emergency Operations and Training Exercises d. F.D. Infection Control Program
____ 62. ____ Alerts are developed to address disturbing trends and offer recommendations to help reduce the reoccurrence of similar events.
a. OSHA b. NFPA c. CFR d. NIOSH
____ 63. Each and every skill, knowledge item, or behavior that is learned in basic academy should be drilled, tested, or confirmed every ____.
a. week b. month c. year d. two years
____ 64. ____ continue(s) to lead the list of causes of firefighter duty deaths and is a significant contributor in injuries.
a. Burns b. Collisions c. Overexertion/stress d. Smoke inhalation
____ 65. Some departments have learned from others’ experiences—this is known as having a ____ experience.
a. collaborative b. duty-related c. referential d. vicarious
____ 66. It is common to have safety SOPs that address PPE (____).
a. personal power engineering b. public and private enterprises c. personal protective equipment d. personal power-source equipment
____ 67. ____ occurs when a team operates outside the action plan or when individuals work alone.
a. Freelancing b. Feedback c. Team leadership d. Creativity
____ 68. The firefighter safety system only works if ____.
a. the department is run by strong leaders b. the department chief appoints a deputy in charge of health c. everyone takes responsibility for their own safety d. everyone acts as a freelancer
____ 69. ____ are in writing and they take on many forms: standard operating procedures (SOPs), standard operating guidelines (SOGs), departmental directives, temporary memorandums, and the like.
a. Manuals b. Guidelines c. Safety triads d. Formal processes
____ 70. The FDNY line leadership felt that many of the deaths could have been avoided had firefighters and fire officers practiced ____.
a. the basics b. SOPs c. advanced guidelines d. cardio workouts
____ 71. It is common to have safety SOPs that address SCBA (____).
a. self-contained breathing apparatus b. standard contact breathing apparatus c. self-contained bracing apparatus d. standard containment and breathing apparatus
____ 72. Reporting to duty or an incident with a physical limitation will ____.
a. not have an impact b. make the team look good c. increase everyone’s danger d. inspire everyone
____ 73. Using a(n) ____ helps achieve a standard approach to incidents.
a. SOP b. engagement checklist c. action plan d. equipment checklist
____ 74. Class ____ fires involve ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, cloth, plastics, and rubber.
a. A b. B c. C d. D
____ 75. Class ____ fires involve flammable and combustible liquids, gases, and greases.
a. A b. B c. C d. D
____ 76. Class ____ fires involve energized electrical equipment.
a. A b. B c. C d. K
____ 77. Class ____ fires involve combustible metals and alloys such as magnesium, sodium, lithium, and potassium.
a. A b. B c. D d. K
____ 78. How many universal Class D extinguishing agents exist?
a. none b. one c. two d. four
____ 79. Class D extinguishing agents are called ____.
a. wet chemicals b. wet powders c. dry chemicals d. dry powders
____ 80. ____ agents are the agents used to replace halon or halogenated hydrocarbon extinguishers.
a. Clean b. Dry c. Wet d. Chemical
____ 81. Carbon dioxide extinguishers are used for Class ____ fires.
a. B and C b. B and K c. D and K d. A and D
____ 82. The testing of Class C extinguishers and agents tests only the ____ of the agent and the nozzle or hose and nozzle combination.
a. volume b. current capacity c. conductivity d. density
____ 83. The practical effective range of a pressurized water or foam extinguisher is about ____ feet.
a. 5 b. 20 c. 30 d. 50
____ 84. Stored-pressure water extinguishers are designed to be carried in a(n) ____ position when approaching a fire.
a. downward b. horizontal c. tilted d. upright
____ 85. The inspection of fire extinguishers by firefighters is usually a(n) ____ inspection.
a. automatic b. auditory c. visual d. electronic
____ 86. To combat the freezing problems inherent in water, a(n) ____ can be added as an antifreeze agent.
a. acid b. alkali salt c. hydrocarbon d. transition metal salt
____ 87. Wet chemical agents are water-based solutions of ____ carbonate-based chemical, ____ acetate-based chemical, ____ citrate-based chemical, or a combination of those chemicals.
a. magnesium b. lithium c. sodium d. potassium
____ 88. Newer fire extinguishers are labeled with ____,
a. colored geometrical shapes b. a picture label system c. a letter system d. numbers and shapes
____ 89. Pressurized water, pressurized loaded stream, and stored pressure extinguishers operate by means of a(n) ____ that propels the agent out of the container.
a. expelling gas b. explosive c. expelling liquid d. thermal vaporizer
____ 90. ____ extinguishers have a gauge to measure the pressure of the gas.
a. All b. No c. Very few d. Most
____ 91. Cartridge-operated extinguishers are similar to ____ extinguishers.
a. pump type b. stored pressure c. pressurized loaded stream d. pressurized water
____ 92. Which of the following is present in a stored pressure AFFF or FFFP extinguisher with air-aspirating nozzle?
a. anti-overfill tube b. dry chemical c. locking ring pin d. fixed nozzle
____ 93. Extinguishers are meant to combat ____ fires in the ____ stage.
a. large, fully developed b. small, growth c. large, growth d. small, fully developed
____ 94. Normally, portable water extinguishers contain ____ gallons of water.
a. 1 b. 1.5 c. 2 d. 2.5
____ 95. Extinguishers in buildings should be inspected every ____ days, or must be electronically checked.
a. 10 b. 15 c. 30 d. 90
____ 96. The pockets of groundwater below the Earth’s surface are known as ____.
a. natural tankers b. aquifers c. tidal basins d. water tables
____ 97. The level of the water under the Earth’s surface is the ____.
a. water table b. aquifer level c. tidal change d. sea level
____ 98. The term water ____ is used to describe mobile water supply apparatus.
a. tankard b. tide c. tender d. table
____ 99. A ____ is also known as the “plug.”
a. primary feeder b. secondary feeder c. gravity-assisted water supply system d. fire hydrant
____ 100. Anytime a valve is operated, it should be done slowly to prevent a sudden surge of pressure referred to as a ____.
a. water hammer b. draft c. dry barrel d. geyser
____ 101. ____ valves or butterfly valves are opened and closed to control water flow.
a. Check b. Backflow c. Gate d. Nonindicator
____ 102. ____ valves are installed to control water flow in one direction, typically when different systems are interconnected.
a. Gate b. Butterfly c. Backflow d. Check
____ 103. Backflow preventers are ____ valves or a pair of ____ valves that prevent a backflow of water from one system into another.
a. gate b. butterfly c. check d. backflow
____ 104. Rural water supply or mobile apparatus water supply operations can occur ____.
a. only in rural areas b. only in suburban areas c. only on farmland d. anywhere
____ 105. Atmospheric pressure reduces 0.5 psi per ____ feet of elevation.
a. 100 b. 1,000 c. 5,000 d. 10,000
____ 106. Of the many natural and man-made factors affecting water sources, which of the following is the most significant?
a. pollution b. the weather c. farm runoff d. earthquakes
____ 107. Small groundwater systems require a ____ with a pumping station that can also treat and store the water.
a. well b. cistern c. dry hydrant d. tender
____ 108. Water mains are divided into feeders and ____.
a. secondaries b. pumps c. distribution lines d. primaries
____ 109. The two major hydrant types are ____ barrel hydrants.
a. red and yellow b. wet and dry c. large and small d. dense and light
____ 110. Good water distribution systems are interconnected into ____ that allow multidirectional supply.
a. loops and grids b. webs c. concentric circles d. platforms
____ 111. Dry barrel hydrants use a ____ at the base of the hydrant to control water flow to all outlets.
a. valve b. stem c. nut d. water main
____ 112. A dry hydrant is not really a fire hydrant but a connection point for ____ a ____ water source.
a. discharging to, dynamic b. discharging to, static c. drafting from, dynamic d. drafting from, static
____ 113. Dry hydrants are used primarily in ____ areas.
a. urban b. suburban c. polluted d. rural
____ 114. Backflow preventers are mostly required where a building water or fire protection system connects with ____.
a. factory runoff b. a high-pressure system c. the public water system d. a lake
____ 115. Private water valves are of the indicating type, for example, a ____ indicator valve (PIV).
a. post b. private c. pressure d. public
____ 116. A mobile water apparatus operation is a(n) ____ operation that involves mobile water supply apparatus moving large quantities of water between a dump site and a fill site.
a. environmental b. jet c. shuttle d. directional
____ 117. ____ rates can be calculated by adding the time to fill a mobile apparatus, turn the unit around and return to the dump site, drop the water, and turn around and return to the fill site divided by the quantity of water carried.
a. Fire flow b. Jet siphon c. Shuttle flow d. Mobile flow
____ 118. ____ hose (also known as soft sleeve) is large-diameter woven hose used to connect a pumper to a hydrant.
a. Soft suction b. Attack c. Supply d. Occupant use
____ 119. National Standard hose threads and other types have blunt end threads called a ____ cut.
a. Storz b. Higbee c. hydrant d. water hammer
____ 120. The ____ hose roll is the easiest to work with.
a. single donut b. straight c. double donut d. twin donut
____ 121. The minuteman load is a preconnected load using a narrower section of the hose bed. This narrower section is called a(n) ____ load.
a. slot b. ear c. hydrant d. adapter
____ 122. Advancing hoselines using a standpipe system involves ____ different hoseline evolutions.
a. one b. two c. three d. four
____ 123. The ____ is a permanently mounted master stream device on an engine that has either prepiped water connection or needs a short section of hose to connect it to the pump.
a. deluge set b. monitor pipe c. ladder pipe d. wagon pipe
____ 124. A ____ is a permanently attached master stream device with a prepiped waterway on an aerial device such as an aerial ladder or platform.
a. monitor pipe b. water pipe c. deluge set d. ladder pipe
____ 125. The testing of hose begins with a(n) ____ inspection of the hose coupling.
a. visual b. ultrasound c. chemical d. burst
____ 126. Hose testing is a destructive process that identifies weak hose by causing it to ____.
a. melt b. burst c. dissolve d. burn
____ 127. If a hard sleeve is used under positive pressure, it must pass a service test of ____ psi.
a. 110 b. 165 c. 210 d. 255
____ 128. Hard suction hose has a plastic or wire ____ to provide additional support and prevent collapse under a vacuum when drafting.
a. helix b. liner c. jacket d. pylon
____ 129. Uncoupling hose is usually done ____ which it was connected.
a. in the same manner in b. in an unrelated manner to c. with different wrenches than d. in the opposite manner in
____ 130. The simple hose drag technique can move ____ hoselines.
a. one or two b. three c. four d. five
____ 131. The accordion load is ideal for making up ____ loads.
a. shoulder b. dutchman c. coupling d. loop
____ 132. What is the first step in performing the triple-layer load?
a. Connect all the hose to the discharge. b. Make a fold and double the hose on itself. c. Load the hose in the slot in a layer. d. Grab the layer with the nozzle and place it on the shoulder.
____ 133. In wildland firefighting, placing two bundles together allows each firefighter to carry ____ feet of 1-inch (25-mm) or 1.5-inch (38-mm) hose.
a. 100 b. 200 c. 250 d. 300
____ 134. When advancing hoselines, the ____ will advance the first shoulder load with the nozzle.
a. officer b. engine driver c. nozzle person d. incident commander
____ 135. If the line is to be used from a ladder, it should be secured by rope hose tools every ____ feet and at the base of the ladder.
a. 5 b. 10 c. 20 d. 30
____ 136. Care should be taken while removing kinks in large-diameter hose (LDH). For safety reasons, the firefighter should always try to “____” the kink out of LDH.
a. punch b. lift c. dissolve d. kick
____ 137. The ____ lay is used where the fire and the water source are in two different directions, such as on two different streets.
a. forward b. split c. reverse d. modified
____ 138. The bottom-most part of a ladder is known as the ____.
a. heel b. bed section c. beam d. spur
____ 139. ____ are limiters built into the bed section to prevent the extension fly sections from being overextended.
a. Rungs b. Stops c. Heels d. Dogs
____ 140. The folding ladder is also known as a(n) ____ ladder.
a. A-frame b. halyard c. suitcase d. garage
____ 141. The most obvious use of a ladder is for ____.
a. stability b. access c. ventilation d. rescue
____ 142. When bridging, a(n) ____ ladder is the safest to use.
a. wall b. straight c. A-frame d. bedded extension
____ 143. ____ ladders are electrical conductors independent of their construction material.
a. Some b. All c. No d. Only A-frame
____ 144. The three-person ____ carry is a particularly useful technique when great disparity exists in the height of the firefighters.
a. oblique b. flat c. suitcase d. shoulder
____ 145. There are two methods of raising a ladder to the vertical position: rung raises and ____ raises.
a. beam b. heel c. bed d. spur
____ 146. ____ is the most difficult action for the uninitiated.
a. Performing the leg lock b. Using a ladder belt c. Getting on and off a ladder d. Carrying tools on a ladder
____ 147. The bed ladder is attached to a turntable, a ____-degree rotatable platform that is attached to the framework of the apparatus.
a. 90 b. 180 c. 270 d. 360
____ 148. The articulating boom (sometimes known as a ____ ladder) truck was among the first designs for elevated platform use in the fire service.
a. snorkel b. tower c. turntable d. fly
____ 149. ____ are the apparatus that carry ladders and other devices, tools, and personnel to upper levels.
a. Ladder joists b. Ladder companies c. Fly sections d. Portable apparatuses
____ 150. Also referred to as a(n) ____ ladder, the straight ladder is a fixed length ladder.
a. wall b. extension c. roof d. elongated
____ 151. When nested, the A-frame ladder is easily stored and acts as a mini-____ ladder.
a. wall b. folding c. extension d. straight
____ 152. If the ladder tip is on the fire escape itself, the tip should be ____ the upper rail.
a. level with or below b. level with or above c. significantly above d. to the side of
____ 153. A set of ladders tied off at the tip and at the base into an A-frame configuration can be used as an emergency hoist point if a pulley and rope are attached to the ____ of the ladder triangle.
a. base b. side c. apex d. middle rung
____ 154. When parking the ladder apparatus, the ladder apparatus driver should place the apparatus ____ the fire building.
a. parallel to b. perpendicular to c. immediately next to d. at an angle to
____ 155. Ladder weight loads are tested while the ladder is in a horizontal position and resting on one beam, supported only at the tip and the butt, and again while the ladder is in the climbing position of ____ degrees.
a. 30 b. 60 c. 75 d. 90
____ 156. The suitcase carry is used primarily as a(n) ____ carry maneuver.
a. long b. short c. elevated d. A-frame
____ 157. The second alternate leg lock is known as the ____ leg lock and works well for taller firefighters performing quick maneuvers.
a. foreshortened b. towering c. suitcase d. hyper-extended
____ 158. When climbing into a window, it is always better to ____ the windowsill so that if there is structural instability, weight can be withdrawn.
a. step down onto b. step up onto c. step through d. step around
____ 159. The bed ladder, including the nested fly sections, is raised out of the bed of the apparatus through the use of ____ pistons.
a. hydraulic b. pneumatic c. turntable d. floating
____ 160. ____ ropes are formed by weaving small bundles (not twisted) of fibers together, uniformly and systematically.
a. Kernmantle b. Laid c. Utility d. Braided
____ 161. NFPA 1983 categorizes life safety ropes as light-use (or one-person) or general-use (or two-person) ropes and sets minimum ____ requirements for each.
a. length b. diameter c. tensile strength d. density
____ 162. A ____ is a doubled section of rope, usually made along the standing part. It forms a U-turn in the rope that does not cross itself.
a. running end b. bight c. round turn d. working part
____ 163. The ____ is used to attach a rope to an object, such as a pole, tree, or fence post, or to a tool, such as a pike pole or hoseline.
a. clove hitch b. half hitch c. overhand knot d. sheet bend
____ 164. Although it was the mainstay of fire service knots for years, the advent of synthetic fiber ropes has greatly reduced the utilization of the ____ knot.
a. becket b. bowline c. half hitch d. clove hitch
____ 165. The first step in tying a water knot is to tie a simple ____ knot.
a. becket b. half hitch c. bowline d. overhand
____ 166. If a life safety rope is found to be damaged or suspect it should be ____.
a. immediately removed from service b. immediately repaired c. jury-rigged d. used until the next inspection
____ 167. Ropes should be inspected ____ by running them through the hands.
a. visually b. chemically c. tensilely d. tactilely
____ 168. Inspecting the inside of a braided rope ____.
a. can be done tactilely b. should be done annually c. is impossible d. is very easy
____ 169. The standard coiling method of storage used by fire departments for years ____.
a. will work with either natural or synthetic ropes equally well b. will work better for natural ropes c. will work better for synthetic ropes d. is obsolete
____ 170. Pike poles should be hoisted ____.
a. horizontally b. point up c. point down d. at a 45-degree angle
____ 171. When hoisting a hoseline, the first knot utilized is a ____.
a. clove hitch b. half hitch c. bowline d. figure eight
____ 172. The use of natural material ropes by the vast majority of departments continued until the ____.
a. 1960s b. 1970s c. 1980s d. 1990s
____ 173. The primary synthetic materials utilized in the manufacture of ropes are nylon, polypropylene, polyethylene, and ____.
a. agave b. polyester c. manila d. sisal
____ 174. The ____ method is the most common type of construction for natural fiber ropes.
a. laid b. braided c. braid-on-braid d. kerned
____ 175. In a kernmantle rope, the ____ generally carries the vast majority of the load, accounting for approximately 75 percent of the strength of the rope.
a. kern b. mantle c. braid d. sheath
____ 176. Rope used for utility purposes has no governing standards; therefore, it is the responsibility of the ____ to determine its type and construction.
a. NIOSH b. OSHA c. NFPA d. AHJ
____ 177. The ____ is the end of the rope utilized to tie the knot.
a. running end b. hitched end c. working end d. standing part
____ 178. A ____ is formed by continuing the loop on around until the sections of the standing part on either side are parallel to one another.
a. loop b. round turn c. bight d. running end
____ 179. A half hitch is almost always utilized in conjunction with some other knot and is used to maintain the proper ____ of the object being hoisted.
a. orientation b. size c. elevation d. weight
____ 180. Also known as the ____ bend and double ____ bend, the becket bend and the double becket bend are very useful knots for tying ropes together.
a. clove b. hitch c. sheet d. half
____ 181. The bowline is an inherently ____ knot, which is beneficial when it needs to be untied.
a. loose b. tight c. hitched d. doubled
____ 182. Which of the following procedures should be used to clean synthetic material rope?
a. Use strong detergent. b. Use bleach. c. Use hot water. d. Use tap/cold water.
____ 183. When coiling a rope, measure off an amount of rope equal to approximately ____ times the distance between the standards to be used in tying the finished coil.
a. two b. three c. four d. five
____ 184. A ____ figure eight on a bight with a ____ hitch up the handle is the easiest and quickest way to hoist an ax.
a. small, half b. small, clove c. large, half d. large, clove
____ 185. When firefighters are involved in a rescue operation, one of the biggest dangers they face is overfocusing on a particular problem without proper regard for consequences. This is called ____.
a. teamwork b. initial assessment c. risk/benefit analysis d. tunnel vision
____ 186. During an interior search, firefighters should stay in contact with a ____.
a. truss b. wall c. door d. roof
____ 187. ____ emitters are inanimate objects whose temperatures will vary depending on the environment and time limit that they are exposed.
a. Direct source b. Indirect source c. Passive d. Active
____ 188. The extremity carry (sometimes referred to as the cross-arm carry) can be utilized on both conscious and unconscious patients and requires ____ rescuer(s).
a. one b. two c. three d. five
____ 189. ____ (also known as long spine boards) are designed to provide the maximum in spinal immobilization.
a. Cradles b. Blanketboards c. Backboards d. Stretchers
____ 190. The glass used in vehicle windshields is laminated safety glass and is actually several layers of glass and ____ sandwiched together.
a. metal b. gel c. plastic d. air
____ 191. The disentanglement method that involves the cutting off of components is ____.
a. disassembly b. severance c. distortion d. displacement
____ 192. What is the first stage in structural collapse rescue?
a. void search b. general debris removal c. selected debris removal d. reconnaissance and rescue of surface victims
____ 193. The first fire departments to use ____ (TICs) took place in the late 1980s.
a. transient imaging cameras b. transient intensity cameras c. thermal imaging cameras d. thermal intensity cameras
____ 194. To bring a victim down a ground ladder will require a minimum of at least ____ members.
a. one to two b. two to three c. three to five d. four to six
____ 195. A good working definition of ____ is “to set free, release or disentangle a patient from an entrapment.”
a. cradle carry b. first aid c. extrication d. rescue
____ 196. The first hour after the onset of a severe injury is the most critical for the accident victim and is referred to as the ____ Hour.
a. Silver b. Golden c. Critical d. Magic
____ 197. What is the first procedure to be performed at an extrication incident?
a. disentanglement b. patient removal c. scene assessment d. establishment of work area
____ 198. High-pressure air bags operate at a maximum inflation pressure of approximately ____ psi.
a. 50 b. 75 c. 130 d. 200
____ 199. An apparatus serving as a traffic barrier should park ____ to help increase the work area and make the apparatus appear larger to approaching traffic.
a. with a slight diagonal angle b. parallel to the road c. at a right angle to traffic d. on the shoulder
____ 200. A(n) ____ collapse occurs when both sides of the supporting walls or the floor anchoring system fail.
a. A-type b. pancake c. lean-to d. V-type