Final review Sheet: Global History I and II topic: Historical concepts/Prehistory



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FINAL Review Sheet: Global History I and II


Topic: Historical concepts/Prehistory

  • The 5 themes of geography

  • Define: anthropology, culture, historian, primary source, secondary source

  • Define: nomad, hunters and food gatherers, animism, and domesticate

  • Features of the Paleolithic Age

  • Neolithic Revolution

  • Define: civilization, polytheistic, pictograms, city-state, empire, and cultural diffusion

  • The features of a civilization

  • Catal Huyuk

  • River Valley Civilizations


Topic: Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt

  • Define: hierarchy, ziggurat, cuneiform, codify

  • Places/Names to know (know where the place is on a map, its importance, the person’s importance, etc): Babylon, Sumer, Sargon of Akkad, Hammurabi, Tigris River, and Euphrates River

  • Describe a Sumerian king’s power and the justification for his power.

  • What was the Code of Hammurabi? What type of approach did it take? Why was it important that these laws were written down? Compare it to the Ten Commandments, the 12 Tables.

  • Define: silt, cataract, delta, pyramids, mummification, pharaoh, and vizier, hieroglyphics, Rosetta Stone

  • Main features/achievements of Egypt’s three kingdoms

  • Egyptian religious life

  • Egyptians harnessing the power of the Nile River

  • Social structure of Ancient Egypt and the roles/responsibilities of each class

  • Mesopotamian geography/religion vs. the Egyptian

  • Two major rivers in Mesopotamia (be able to locate it on the map)

  • Major River in Egypt (be able to locate it on the map)

  • Define: Judaism, monotheism, First Covenant, Second Covenant


Topic: Ancient India and China

  • Define: subcontinent, monsoon, caste system, Upanishads

  • Places/Names to know (know where the place is on a map, its importance, the person’s importance, etc): Planned cities, Mohenjo-Daro, Harrapa, Aryans, Siddartha Gautama, Indus River, Ganges River

  • Areas of the world India end up influencing as a result of its geographic location

  • The two major Indus River Valley Cities

  • Indian cities and grid formation

  • The Aryan invasion and Indian society

  • Define: Hinduism, Buddhism, karma, dharma, reincarnation, moksha/nirvana, four noble truths/ eight fold path

  • Positives/negatives of living under the caste system

  • Buddhist rejection of the caste system

  • Similarities/differences between Hinduism and Buddhism

  • Chandragupta, Ashoka

  • Maurya dynasty and a strong, central government

  • Gupta period and their golden age/achievements

  • Define: loess, great sorrow, dynastic cycle, feudalism

  • Geography influence where people settled in Ancient China

  • Shang Dynasty religion

  • Zhou governmental system and its ultimate failure

  • Dynastic cycle and the Mandate of Heaven

  • Define: Filial piety, monopoly,

  • Qin Dynasty: Legalism, Shi Huangdi, Great Wall of China

  • Han Dynasty: Wudi, Silk Road, Civil Service Examinations, Han Dynasty achievements


Topic: Ancient Greece

  • Define: strait, polis, acropolis, monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, direct democracy

  • Places/Names to know (know where the place is on a map, its importance, the person’s importance, etc): Homer, Pericles, Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the Great

  • Geography of Athens and Sparta

  • Differences between Athens and Sparta (government, general culture, economy, women’s rights)

  • Athenian and Spartan war technologies

  • Persian Wars and Greece

  • Peloponnesian War

  • Basic concepts of Greek religion

  • Athenian democracy vs. Roman republic

  • Alexander the Great and Hellenistic culture


Topic: Ancient Rome and Byzantine Empire

  • Define: Etruscans, republic, patrician, consul, dictator, plebeian, veto, tribune

  • Geography of Rome

  • 12 Tables and Roman governmental reforms

  • Roman roads

  • Differences between the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire (which came first? What type of government was dominant in each? What is each era known for?)

  • Define: imperialism, latifundia, Pax Romana, inflation

  • Places/Names to know (know where the place is on a map, its importance, the person’s importance, etc): Julius Caesar, Augustus, Diocletian, Constantine, Jesus Christ, Justinian

  • Julius Caesar and the implications of his actions on the Republic

  • Roman emperors’ promotion of peace/stability in their empire

  • Compare and contrast Roman and Greek achievements.

  • The Roman concept of “bread and circus.”

  • Diocletian and Constantine reforms

  • Christianity and its appeal to the lower classes

  • Roman Roads and the spread of Christianity

  • Christianity’s threat to the Roman government

  • The political, social, economic and military reasons credited to causing the fall of Rome

  • Define: autocrat, patriarch, Hagia Sophia, Bosporus Strait (where is this located?)

  • Justinian and Byzantine power

  • Justinian’s Code of Law

  • The Byzantine Empire as both a revival of Rome and its own distinct eastern culture


Topic: Islam/Muslim Empires

  • Define: monotheistic, mosque, hajj, kaaba, sharia law, caliph, sultan, arabesque,

  • Places/Names to know (know where the place is on a map, its importance, the person’s importance, etc): Muhammad, Mecca, Medina,

  • The teachings of Islam (5 pillars and other beliefs)

  • The connections between Islam, Christianity, and Judaism

  • Muslim treatment of conquered peoples

  • Differences between Sunni and Shiite Muslims: Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Ali

  • Abbasid/Umyyadd Caliphate and Baghdad

  • Seljuk Turks influence on the Abbasid Caliphate

  • Moors in Spain; Alhambra; interactions with Catholics; Reconquista, Grenada

  • Ottomans; impact on Constantinople; Suleiman the Magnificent; interactions with Europeans

  • Delhi Sultunate/Islam in India

  • Mughal Empire; Babur, Akbar the Great, Shah Jahan and the Taj Mahal; Arunugzeb


Topic: European Middle Ages

  • Germanic kingdoms and the Fall of Rome

  • Frankish kingdom/ Charlemagne/Treaty of Verdun

  • Feudalism and Manorialism and effects of this system on society

  • Early kings in England; William the Conqueror and the Battle of Hastings; King John and the Magna Carta

  • Catholic Church in the Middle Ages: structure/hierarchy; excommunication; lay investiture; monks and learning; Catholic philosophy and St. Thomas Aquinas (Scholasticism)

  • Holy Roman Empire

  • Crusades; Pope Urban II; Saladin and Richard the Lionhearted

  • The effect of the Crusades on Europe (political, social, religious, economic)

  • Economic development in the Middle Ages: Agricultural and Commercial Revolution

  • Romanesque vs. Gothic architecture

  • Other advancements in learning/philosophy (Aquinas)

  • Black Death


Topic: Renaissance, Reformation, and Russia

  • Humanism; patrons; Medici family

  • Genius’ of the Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Brunelleschi, Castiglione and The Courtier, Machiavelli and The Prince

  • Southern Renaissance in Florence, Italy—Why was this the starting point?

  • Renaissance art techniques

  • Northern Renaissance writers, William Shakespeare, Erasmus, Thomas More

  • Gutenberg and the printing press; effects of the printing press on religion, society, politics, etc.

  • Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the major beliefs associated with each

  • Effects of the Protestant Reformation on Europe: Counter reformation Spanish Inquisition, formation of Jesuits, 30 Years War (Peace of Westphalia)

  • English Reformation; King Henry VIII, Act of Supremacy

  • Queen Elizabeth and her role in the Protestant Reformation; Elizabethan Settlement

  • The Scientific Revolution and the major inventors associated with this age and their contributions

  • Effects of the Scientific Revolution

  • Rise of Russia and Russian geography, role of Vikings in early development, Princess Olga/Vladimir, Byzantine influences in Russia (Kiev)

  • Ivan the Great, Ivan the Terrible, Rise of Moscow


Topic: Africa, China, Mongols, Korea, and Japan

  • Bantu migrations

  • Geography of Africa, major geographic features (Sahara, Sahel, etc.)

  • West African trading kingdoms of Ghana, Songhai, Mali

  • Ibn Battuta and his significance in history

  • Influence of Islam in West Africa trading kingdoms; Mansa Musa

  • Gold and Salt trade across the Sahara Desert

  • Influence of Trade on the Eastern African Coast (Kilwa, Mogadishu, Great Zimbabwe)

  • Tang Dynasty and its influence on China; Tang dynasty achievements

  • Song Dynasty: achievements, impact of Song Dynasty on Chinese social development; footbinding

  • Genghis Khan and the Golden Horde; Mongol military technologies, Mongol influence on trade/silk road,

  • Rise of the Yuan Dynasty in China, Impact of Kublai Khan, Marco Polo, Silk Road trade in the Yuan Dynasty

  • Mongol positive/negative impacts on the world

  • Korea; Korea as a bridge for cultural diffusion, geography of this area; how China shaped Korea; Tang and Silla; development of Hangul and Choson dynasty

  • Japan: geography, Yuan dynasty, Prince Shotoku/17 article constitution; selective borrowing; Shintoism/kami spirits; Heian Japan; Japanese feudalism (compared to European); know the social order of Japanese feudalism; Code of Bushido/Seppukku;Tokugawa Shogunate/centralized feudalislm; Isolationism; reasons for this policy

  • Spread of Buddhism to Korea and Japan

  • Ming Dynasty and impact of exploration; Zheng He; Why did China stop exploring?

  • Qing Dynasty, interaction with western explorers

  • Korea’s policy of isolationism and reasons for it


Topic: Mesoamerica, Exploration, Atlantic Slave Trade, Columbian Exchange, Commercial Revolution

  • Aztec, Maya, Inca: know their location, geography/geographic challenges, social structure, religious beliefs, impact of trade (maybe do a comparison chart for these)

  • Sapa Inca

  • Tenochtitlan, Machu Picchu

  • Why did Europeans want to explore (motivations)

  • Why Spain and Portugal were the strongest nations

  • Challenges with exploration/new inventions

  • Exploration starting with the Portuguese and Henry the Navigator, Bartolome Dias, Vasco Da Gama (how did they contribute)

  • Geography of Southeast Asia

  • Island civilizations of Khmer, Pagan, Srivijaya; the influence of India in the East Indies ; impact of exploration on these areas

  • Mughal India and the impact of Akbar the Great, India interaction with the British

  • Spanish Exploration starting with Columbus, Hernan Cortes, Francisco Pizarro

  • Why were the natives easy to conquer?

  • English exploration and French exploration in North America (know important people and differences between these and Spanish colonies)

  • Impact of Spanish exploration on Mesoamerican Native Americans

  • Encomienda System and the impact of the social system of New Spain

  • Columbian Exchange and the Commercial Revolution,, Mercantilism

  • Impact of exploration on the Atlantic Slave Trade, middle passage, impact of West African societies

  • Oladuah Equiano, Bartolome des las Casas



Topic: Absolutism

  • Divine Right; why people accepted this type of rule

  • Differences between absolute rule and a democracy

  • Spanish Absolutism; Charles V, Philip II; interactions with English Queen Elizabeth I; Spanish Armada;

  • French Absolutism: Henry IV, Edict of Nantes, Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu

  • King Louis XIV, “Sun King,” Versailles and Levee; Jean Baptiste Colbert and Mercantilism

  • English Absolutism and the problems/challenges in England; road to democracy

  • Tudor interaction with Parliament, Stuart Family interaction with Parliament, James I and Charles I, Petition of Right; English Civil War , Cavaliers and Roundheads

  • Regicide

  • Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth

  • Charles II and James II

  • Glorious Revolution and William and Mary, Limited Monarchy, English Bill of Rights

  • Peter the Great and Russia, modernization and westernization, Catherine the Great, Connection to the Byzantine Empire


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