Final examination review handout

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HISTORY 101 & 101Z / Fall 2004

Prof. Gerald Zahavi

TERMS: You should be familiar with the following events, places, people, organizations, legislation, books, and general terms. They are drawn from the readings, from lecture, and from the audio and video documentaries you’ve viewed over the course of the last half of this semester. You should be able to identify each, place it in a specific chronological context, and explain its significance. Fifteen of the below will appear on the final exam. You will be asked to write on ten (10) of them.

Dust Bowl

Herbert Hoover

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

Bonus Army

Franklin D. Roosevelt

fireside chats

the First Hundred Days

National Industrial Recovery

Act (NIRA)
Works Progress Administration


National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)

Social Security Act

John Maynard Keynes

WPA's Federal Project Number One

“Section art”

Popular Front

House Un-American Activities Committee


Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

John L. Lewis

German-American Bund

Huey Long

Father Charles E. Coughlin

Francis Townsend

End Poverty in California (EPIC)

Young Communist League (YCL)

Spanish Civil War

Neutrality Acts


America First Committee

Office of War Information

Frank Capra

Congress of Racial Equality


Japanese Internment

Korematsu v. United States

Manhattan Project

Yalta Conference

Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech

Truman Doctrine

Marshall Plan

National Security Act

Taft-Hartley Act

Henry Wallace

Progressive Party
Robert J. Oppenheimer
Hollywood Blacklist
Joseph McCarthy
North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Nikita Khrushchev

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Duck and Cover
Korean War
Dwight Eisenhower
Organization of American

States (OAS)

Bay of Pigs Invasion
Cuban Missile Crisis
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Chinese Nationalists
Mao Zedong
"Red Squads"
Army-McCarthy Hearings
Sputnik I & II
Richard M. Nixon
baby boom
"kitchen debate" (1959)
The Organization Man
the "Beats"/Beat Generation
Allen Ginzberg
Michael Harrington
Southern Christian Leadership

Council (SCLS)

Robert F. Kennedy
Martin Luther King, Jr.

Stokely Carmichael

Brown v. Board of Education
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Malcolm X
Silent Spring

John F. Kennedy

Lyndon Baines Johnson
Civil Rights Act of 1964

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Title VII

Economic Opportunity Act (1964)

"war on poverty”
Earl Warren
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
"The Great Society"

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

The Weatherman

Port Huron Statement

Apollo 11
Hubert Humphrey
Election of 1964
Election of 1968\
The New Right
Barry Goldwater
George Wallace
Ralph Nader
Student Non-Violent Coordinating

Committee (SNCC)

Freedom Summer

White Citizens' Council

Betty Friedan, The Feminine

Equal Pay Act (1963)
National Organization of Women

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission


Domino theory

Ho Chi Minh

"asymmetric warfare"
National Liberation Front

(NLF)/"Viet Cong”
Robert Strange McNamara

Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Operation Rolling Thunder

Henry Kissinger

Richard M. Nixon
My Lai Massacre
Tet Offensive


Kent State shooting

Salt II


Three Mile Island

Jimmy Carter

Camp David Agreement
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

American Indian Movement

Bakke Decision

Christian Right
Jerry Falwell

Affirmative Action

Roe v. Wade

Phyllis Schlafly

Stonewall “Rebellion”

Ronald Reagan

“Reagan Revolution”


Star Wars

PATCO Strike

George Herbert Walker Bush

George W. Bush

Gulf War

Bill Clinton

Green Party


ESSAY QUESTIONS (from the late 1920s to the Present). THREE of these essay questions will appear on the final exam. You will be asked to write on one of the three.

  1. To what extent was the New Deal a “revolutionary” movement in American History? To what extent was it “conservative”? Address this question by examining its economic, political, social, and cultural impacts.

  2. What elements fed both isolationist and pacifist sentiment in America during the 1930s. What fears and suspicions were involved? What caused this sentiment to change by 1940?

  3. To what extent was Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society an extension of FDR’s New Deal? To what extent did it take on new reform agendas?

  4. Trace the course of liberalism and conservatism from the Great Depression to the early 1990s. What were the main issues and philosophical positions that differentiated and divided conservatives and liberals and how did these change over time?

  5. What does the history of World War II reveal about the place of both women and African Americans in American society? What roles did each play in the military and on the homefront? What opportunities and obstacles did they face? How did women and Blacks adjust and react to post-World War II society?

  6. Explain the origins and evolution of the Cold War. How did the Cold War shape domestic social, political, economic, and cultural life?

  7. The 1950s are sometimes referred to as an Age of Consensus. What is meant by this, and was it really the case? Discuss factors such as religion, race relations, gender roles, cultural shifts, and related issues.

  8. Explain how the role of the American presidency evolved under Ronald Reagan AND compare and contrast his presidency to any one of the presidents from the following group: Teddy Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Warren Harding, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon Baines Johnson, Jimmy Carter. How did each man perceive the rights and responsibilities of his position? How did each define his presidency in relation to the context of the time and the dominant problems facing the country during his years as president?

  9. "From the 1950s through the 1980s, American foreign policy was marked by an aggressive and arrogant style reminiscent of the worst excesses of imperialism. In its relations with Cuba, and especially in its dealings with Vietnam, the U.S. attempted to impose its will on others, not only in the name of national interest, but of morality as well. In neither case were American actions justified." Discuss. Agree, disagree, and/or modify the above judgment on American foreign policy. Be specific--cite relevant acts, events, personalities, legislation, and so on.

  10. Beginning in the late1950s, American society was confronted with a wave of movements that sought to change the American social cultural values and social relationships of Americans. The struggles for racial equality, the student movement, and the 2nd wave of the feminist movement formed the three major streams of these movements. Discuss the sources of each of these three movements, the issues they confronted, their evolution, the interrelationships between them, and their successes and failures. How did they contribute to the creation of contemporary America (through their achievements and the reaction of their opponents).

COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS (1865-present). THREE of the following eight essay questions will appear on the final exam. You will be asked to write on one of them.
1. American foreign policy from the end of the Civil War to the present has witnessed periods of relative isolation as well as periods of vigorous participation in world affairs. Choosing any two of the four periods listed below, discuss the central foreign policy makers of each period and the events and forces that influenced them. What views did they hold of America's role in the world? What actions did they take (or fail to take) to further what they perceived to be America's interests and why?

a. 1890-1912

b. 1912-1919
c. 1920-1941
d. 1945-present
2. Compare and contrast the “red scares” of the post-Haymarket bombing (1880s) period, the post-World War I years, and the post-World War II era. Why did they occur? In what ways were they similar/different? What accounts for their differences?
3. From 1865 to the present, liberalism and conservatism in America have followed broken courses. Domestic reform movements were followed by conservative reaction--and vice versa. Focus on at least three ideological turning points in American history when one tendency has given way to another and explain why. Be specific, citing relevant personalities, organizations, programs/legislation, and so on.
4. Compare African Americans’ position in U.S. society in the post-Civil Rights Movement era (late 1960s through the present), with their position in the early 20th century -- in terms of economic, political, social, and cultural expectations and achievements. What had changed, and what had not? What factors helped bring about change, and what had limited change?
5. In the last 125 years, the role of government in the lives of Americans has changed dramatically. Discuss what you see as the main changes in the way the federal government has operated in America since the late 1870s. How have citizen expectations and federal government responsibilities changed over this period. Pay special attention to the eras associated with the Gilded Age, Progressivism, “Normalcy,” “The New Deal,” “the Fair Deal,” “The Great Society,” and the “Reagan Revolution.”

6. Compare women’s position in American life in the 1980s to women’s position in the late 19th century. What had changed, and what had not? Consider factors including economic, political, and social conditions.

7. "Considering its social, economic, political, and foreign policy impact, World War II clearly brought about far more significant changes than World War I." Evaluate and discuss.
8. Compare and contrast America’s post–September 11 patriotism and pro-war sentiment to the atmosphere in the country during and after the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, and during the US-Vietnamese War. What helps account for the similarities and differences?

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