|Final Exam Questions and Terms for History 107
Hitler and Napoleon
Both outsiders, one from Austria and the other from Corsica. Both conquerors of Europe.
Both had absolute power and were dictators. Both used the power of Nationalism and conscription to garner and retain power. Both believed in strong centralized control over a nation state. Both had swift military victories but in the end brought ruin and shame to their nations. Both underestimated Russia’s bitter winters and resilient people.
Napoleon ruled over other peoples by being inclusive and trying to turn them into Frenchmen. Hitler was racist and considered many other peoples inferior and fit only for servitude or death. Napoleon rode to power on the beginning swells of nationalism. Hitler rode the wave of Ultra-Nationalism and eventually crashed along with the veracity of the idea of ultra-nationalism.
Congress of Vienna and Treaty of Versailles
Ended Crimean War and WW I
Changed political map of Europe trying to achieve a balance of power and overall political stability. Small powers left out in both. Initially losers were left out of both proceedings. Loser, France, included via Tallyrand at Vienna but loser, Germany, not included at Versailles. Both had separate peace treaties previous to changing the map of Europe. Treaty of Paris and Armistice. Russia represented by Tsar Alexander I. Austria, Britain, Prussia and Russia were 4 major players at Congress. US represented by Wilson at Versailles along with France, Russia and AH?
Vienna – 1815 - Liberty and civil rights were traded for order and stability. Entire countries were sacrificed such as Poland. Italy was dominated by Austria. National and liberal tendencies were trampled upon. 300 German states were consolidated into 39 states. War was prevented for over 100 years but revolutions continued and were brutally put down.
Versailles – 1919 – France, Britain and US. No Russia or Germany. French and British want to demilitarize Germany and restore a balance of power. Fears of Russia stoke creation of new countries between Germany and Russia. Poland, Czechoslovakia, etc. Balance of Power not achieved, Poland and Czechoslovakia are weak. Germany not split apart into 39 states. No western will to enforce the treaty. Seen as humiliating by Germans. Italy leaves after not getting her way; lands on the Adriatic. US does not ratify treaty. Enforcement left up to France and Britain.
The goals of Versailles and the Vienna Congress was to enhance the position and security of the great powers.
War as a catalyst for change from Napoleonic wars to WW II.
Napoleonic Wars showed the power of Nationalism and conscription.
Prussian Wars unified Germany and helped Italy unite.
WW I destroyed empires, Ottoman and AH, created and restored countries based on Nationalism, strengthened the British Empire, allowed for the rise of Communist Russia and brought America to the world stage. WW II destroyed the British Empire, pacified Germany and Japan. Created new economies with enemies and started the Cold War.
Role of Nationalism in 19th and 20th century Europe.
Nationalism holds that a national identity supersedes membership in all other groups. National identity was based on the fictional Aryan race in Germany and people who lived within certain political borders in Italy. Both systems believed that National identity was pre-eminent. From the French Revolution on, nation states were formed around a national identity. Ultra-nationalism as in pre-ww II Italy, Germany and Communist Russia was typified by one party rule and totalitarian governments whose aim was to focus every individual on ways of strengthening and improving the state.
Creation and successful implementation in the French Revolution.
Crushed by Vienna Congress and Revolutions of 1848.
Rose with creation of Germany in 1872 and unification of Italy in 1860.
Cause of WW I with Serbia.
Political isolation and economic nationalism. High tariffs on imported goods and the idea that a nation could and should be self sufficient. For example Russia and Fascist Italy.
Russia rejected Nationalism in favor of “Workers of the world Unite” logic.
Totalitarianism is a concept used in political science that describes a state that regulates nearly every aspect of public and private sectors. Totalitarian regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of secret police, propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, personality cults, regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism, single-party states, the use of mass surveillance, and widespread use of terror tactics. The Soviet Union was most successful.
Italy the least since Mussolini still had to deal with the Pope and Kings. The Nazis were in the middle. Tot regimes often view history through a single lens; Nazi Germany saw history as raciel struggle and Russia saw history as Marxist Class Struggle. Thus it was easy to justify all current actions as solving historical problems and creating a better future. For Friedrich and Brzezinski, the defining elements were intended to be taken as a mutually supportive organic entity comprised of the following: an elaborating guiding ideology; a single mass party, typically led by a dictator; a system of terror; a monopoly of the means of communication and physical force; and central direction and control of the economy through state planning. Such regimes had initial origins in the chaos that followed in the wake of World War I, at which point the sophistication of modern weapons and communications enabled totalitarian movements to consolidate power in Italy, Germany, and Russia. Totalitarian movements offered the prospect of a glorious, yet imaginary, future to frustrated people, enabling them to find a refuge from the lack of personal accomplishments in their individual existence.
4) Central Factors
A) Events in east allowed Britain to arm for war. Battle of Britain won by Britain. Churchill’s friendship with FDR initiated the lend/lease program which supplied war materials and other support to Britain at a crucial time.
B) Hitler gets bogged down in Russia. Cannot achieve victory at Leningrad, Moscow or Stalingrad. Mussolini is a weak and arrogant ally. He causes Hitler to divert troops from the Russian invasion to shore up his own battle lines.
Balfour Declaration - An official letter from the British Foreign Office headed by Arthur Balfour, the UK's Foreign Secretary (from December 1916 to October 1919), to Lord Rothschild, who was seen as a representative of the Jewish people. The letter stated that the British government "view[ed] with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country".
Versailles Treaty - a peace treaty that officially ended World War I. It was signed on June 28, 1919, exactly 5 years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, one of the events that triggered the start of the war. Although the armistice signed on November 11, 1918 put an end to the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude a peace treaty. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial provisions required Germany and its allies to accept full responsibility for causing the war and, under the terms of articles 231-248, disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. The Treaty was undermined by subsequent events starting as early as 1922 and was widely flouted by the mid-thirties. UK, US, France and to a lessor degree, Italy created the treaty.
The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian irredentism and the prevention of a Habsburg restoration. France supported the alliance by signing treaties with each member country.The Little Entente began to break down in 1936 and disbanded completely in 1938. France had seen the Little Entente as an opportunity, in the interests of French security, to revitalize the threat of a two-front war against Germany.
Maginot Line - was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts, and other defenses, which France constructed along its borders with Germany and Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and in the run-up to World War II. Generally the term describes either the entire system or just the defenses facing Germany, while the Alpine Line is used for the Franco-Italian defenses.
The French established the fortification to provide time for their army to mobilize in the event of attack and/or to entice Germany to attack neutral Belgium to avoid a direct assault on the line. The success of static, defensive combat in World War I was a key influence on French thinking. The fortification system successfully dissuaded a direct attack. However, it was an ineffective strategic gambit, as the Germans did indeed invade Belgium, flanked the Maginot Line, and proceeded unobstructed.
1926 General Strike - was a general strike that lasted nine days, from 3 May 1926 to 12 May 1926. It was called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in an unsuccessful attempt to force the government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions for coal miners.
The stab-in-the-back legend refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World War I through World War II. It attributed Germany's defeat to a number of domestic factors instead of failed militarist geostrategy. Most notably, the theory proclaimed that the public had failed to respond to its "patriotic calling" at the most crucial of times and some had even intentionally "sabotaged the war effort."
Karl Lueger - was an Austrian politician and mayor of Vienna, from 1897 to 1910. He was anti-Semitic at a time when Hitler lived in Vienna.
NSDAP - The National Socialist German Workers’ Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. It was known as the German Workers' Party (DAP) before the name was changed in 1920. The party’s leader, Adolf Hitler, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by president Paul von Hindenburg in 1933. Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich.
Beer Hall Putsch - was a failed coup d'état that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi party's leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund, unsuccessfully tried to gain power in Munich, Bavaria, and Germany. Putsch is the German word for "coup."
D’annunzio - Gabriele D'Annunzio was angered by the proposed handing over of the city of Fiume at the Paris Peace Conference, and on September 12, 1919, he led the seizure by Italian nationalist irregulars of the city, forcing the withdrawal of the inter-Allied (American, British and French) occupying forces. The plotters sought to have Italy annex Fiume, but were denied. Instead, Italy initiated a blockade of Fiume while demanding that the plotters surrender.
D'Annunzio then proclaimed the city to be under the Italian Regency of Carnaro with a constitution foreshadowing much of the later Italian Fascist system, with himself as dictator, with the title of Duce. D'Annunzio ignored the Treaty of Rapallo and declared war on Italy itself, only finally surrendering the city in December 1920 after a bombardment by the Italian navy.
Mussolini - was an Italian who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of key figures in the creation of Fascism. He became the Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 and began using the title Il Duce by 1925. Mussolini continued on in this role until he was replaced in 1943; for a short period after this until his death Mussolini was the leader of the Italian Social Republic.
Mussolini was among the founders of Italian fascism, which included elements of nationalism, corporatism, expansionism, social progress and anti-communism in combination with censorship and state propaganda. In the years following his creation of the fascist ideology, Mussolini influenced, or achieved admiration from, a wide variety of political figures.
Among the domestic achievements of Mussolini from the years 1924–1939 were: his public works programmes such as the taming of the Pontine Marshes, the improvement of job opportunities, and public transport. Mussolini also solved the Roman Question by concluding the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See. He is also credited with securing economic success in Italy's colonies and commercial dependencies.
Although he initially favoured siding with France against Germany in the early 1930s, Mussolini became one of the main figures of the Axis powers and, on 10 June 1940, Mussolini led Italy into World War II on the side of Axis. Three years later, Mussolini was deposed at the Grand Council of Fascism, prompted by the Allied invasion. Soon after his incarceration began, Mussolini was rescued from prison in the daring Gran Sasso raid by German special forces.
Following his rescue, Mussolini headed the Italian Social Republic in parts of Italy that were not occupied by Allied forces. In late April, 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape to Switzerland, only to be captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Communist Italian partisans. His body was taken to Milan where it was hung upside down at a petrol station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.
March on Rome - was a coup d'état by which Mussolini's National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. It took place from October 27 to October 29, 1922.
Lateran Accord - Negotiations for the settlement of the Roman Question began in 1926 between the government of Italy and the Holy See, and in 1929 they culminated in the agreements of the three Lateran Accords, signed for King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and for Pope Pius XI by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri. The agreements were signed in the Lateran Palace, hence the name by which they are known.
The agreements included a political treaty which created the state of the Vatican City and guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See. The Pope was pledged to perpetual neutrality in international relations and to abstention from mediation in a controversy unless specifically requested by all parties. The concordat established Catholicism as the religion of Italy. The financial agreement was accepted as settlement of all the claims of the Holy See against Italy arising from the loss of temporal power in 1870.
Lenin - was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1922, the first de facto leader of the Soviet Union. His contributions to Marxist theory are commonly referred to as Leninism.
Trotsky - was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. He was one of the leaders of the Russian October Revolution, second only to Lenin. During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and the People's Commissar of War. He was also among the first members of the Politburo.
After leading the failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and the increasing bureaucratization of the Soviet Union, Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party and deported from the Soviet Union in the Great Purge. As the head of the Fourth International, he continued in exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, and was eventually assassinated in Mexico by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent. Trotsky's ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories and practices of Stalinism.
New Economic Policy (NEP) was an economic policy proposed by Vladimir Lenin to prevent the Russian economy from collapsing. Allowing some capitalist ventures, the NEP allowed small businesses to reopen for private profit while the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries. It was officially decided in the course of the 10th Congress of the All-Russian Communist Party. It was promulgated by decree on March 21, 1921, "On the Replacement of Prodrazvyorstka by Prodnalog" (i.e., on the replacement of foodstuffs requisitions by fixed foodstuffs tax). In essence, the decree required the farmers to give the government a specified amount of raw agricultural product as a tax in kind. Further decrees refined the policy and expanded it to include some industries.
Stalinization of Russia – Stalin was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. During that time he established the regime now known as Stalinism. As one of several Central Committee Secretariats, Stalin's formal position was originally limited in scope, but he gradually consolidated power and became the de facto party leader and ruler of the Soviet Union.
Stalin launched a command economy in the Soviet Union, forced rapid industrialization of the largely rural country and collectivization of its agriculture. While the Soviet Union transformed from an agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in a short span of time, millions of people died from hardships and famine that occurred as a result of the severe economic upheaval and party policies. At the end of 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purges, a major campaign of repression. Millions of people who were suspected of being a threat to the party were executed or exiled to Gulag labor camps in remote areas of Siberia or Central Asia. A number of ethnic groups in Russia were also forcibly resettled.
Great Purges - refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin in 1937-1938. Also described as a "Soviet holocaust" by several authors, it involved the purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, repression of peasants, deportations of ethnic minorities, and the persecution of unaffiliated persons, characterized by omnipresent police surveillance, widespread suspicion of "saboteurs", imprisonment, and killings. Estimates of the number of deaths associated with the Great Purge run from the official figure of 681,692 to nearly 2 million. In the Western World the term "the Great Terror" was popularized after the title of Robert Conquest's The Great Terror, which in its turn is inspired by the period of the Great Terror (French: la Grande Terreur) at the end of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution.
Anschluss - was the 1938 annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi regime.
The events of March 12, 1938, marked the culmination of historical cross-national pressures to unify the German populations of Austria and Germany under one nation. However, the 1938 Anschluss, regardless of its popularity, was enacted by Germany. Earlier, Nazi Germany had provided support for the Austrian National Socialist Party (Austrian Nazi Party) in its bid to seize power from Austria's Austrofascist leadership. Fully devoted to remaining independent but amidst growing pressures, the chancellor of Austria, Kurt Schuschnigg, tried to hold a plebiscite.
Although he expected Austria to vote in favour of maintaining autonomy, a well-planned internal overthrow by the Austrian Nazi Party of Austria's state institutions in Vienna took place on March 11, prior to the vote. With power quickly transferred over to Germany, the Wehrmacht troops entered Austria to enforce the Anschluss. The Nazis held a plebiscite within the following month, where they received 99.73% of the vote. No fighting ever took place and the strongest voices against the annexation, particularly Fascist Italy, France and the United Kingdom (the "Stresa Front"), were powerless or, in the case of Italy, appeased. The Allies were, on paper, committed to upholding the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which specifically prohibited the union of Austria and Germany.
Nevertheless, the Anschluss was among the first major steps in Adolf Hitler's long-desired creation of an empire including German-speaking lands and territories Germany had lost after World War I. Already prior to the 1938 annexation, the Rhineland was retaken and the Saar region was returned to Germany after fifteen years of occupation. After the Anschluss, the predominantly German Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia was taken, with the rest of the country becoming a protectorate to Germany in 1939. That same year, Memelland was returned from Lithuania, the final peaceful territorial aggrandizement before the start of World War II.
Austria ceased to exist as a fully independent nation until late 1945. A Provisional Austrian Government was set up on April 27, 1945 and was legally recognized by the Allies in the following months, but it was not until 1955 that Austria regained full sovereignty.
January 30th, 1933 - ??
The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Under the overall administration of the Schutzstaffel (SS), it was administered by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) (“head office of the reich security service”) and was considered a dual organization of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) (“security service”) and also a suboffice of the Sicherheitspolizei (SIPO) (“security police”).
Reichstag Fire - On February 27, 1933, the Reichstag building was subject to an arson attack, and as a result, seen as the pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. At 21:25h (UTC +1) on the night of 27th, a Berlinian fire station received an alarm call that the Reichstag building, the assembly location of the German Parliament, was ablaze. The fire started in the Session Chamber, and by the time the police and firefighters had arrived, the main Chamber of Deputies was engulfed by flames. Inside the building, a thorough search conducted by the police resulted in the finding of a shirtless Marinus van der Lubbe. Van der Lubbe was a Dutch insurrectionist, council communist and unemployed bricklayer who had recently arrived in Germany, ostensibly to carry out his political activities. The fire was utilised as evidence by the Nazis that the Communists were beginning a 'plot' against the German government. Van der Lubbe and four Communist leaders were consequently arrested. Adolf Hitler, who was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany, four weeks before, on the January 30, urged President Hindenburg to pass an emergency decree in order to counter the 'ruthless confrontation of the KPD'.
Enabling Act - In the German Weimar Republic, an Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was a law passed by the Reichstag with a two-thirds majority, by which the government was authorized to legislate without the consent of the Reichstag. These special powers would remain in effect for the specified time. This is to be distinguished from the provisions of Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution, which allowed the President to legislate by decree in times of emergency, subject to the veto of the Reichstag. An Enabling Act was only supposed to be used in times of extreme emergency. Only two Enabling Acts were ever passed:
* the first Enabling Act was in force in 1923-24, when the government used an Enabling Act to combat hyperinflation.
* the second Enabling Act, passed on March 23, 1933, was the second stepping-stone after the Reichstag Fire Decree through which Adolf Hitler obtained dictatorial powers using largely legal means. The formal name of the Enabling Act was Gesetz zur Behebung der Not von Volk und Reich ("Law to Remedy the Distress of the People and the State"). It was terminated for four years (and should also lose force should another government be appointed) but was renewed in 1937, 1941 and 1944. In contrast to the Enabling Act of 1923, this Act covered changes to the constitution, excepting only the existence of the Reichstag, the Reichsrat and the office of President.
Night of the long knives - was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany between June 30 and July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime executed at least 85 people for political reasons. Most of those killed were members of the "Storm Troopers" (SA) (German: Sturmabteilung), a Nazi paramilitary organization. Adolf Hitler moved against the SA and its leader, Ernst Röhm, because he saw the independence of the SA and the penchant of its members for street violence as a direct threat to his power. Hitler also wanted to forestall any move by leaders of the Reichswehr, the German military, who both feared and despised the SA, to curtail his rule, especially since Röhm made no secret of his ambition to absorb the Reichswehr with himself at its head. Finally, Hitler used the purge to act against conservative critics of his regime, especially those loyal to Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, and to settle scores with old enemies.
At least 85 people died during the purge, although the final death toll may have been in the hundreds, and more than a thousand perceived opponents were arrested. Most of the killings were carried out by the Schutzstaffel (SS), an elite Nazi corps, and the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei), the regime's secret police. The purge strengthened and consolidated the support of the Reichswehr for Hitler. It also provided a cloak of legality for the Nazi regime, as the German courts and cabinet quickly swept aside centuries of legal prohibition against extra-judicial killings to demonstrate their loyalty to the regime.
Before its execution, its planners sometimes referred to it as "Hummingbird" (German: Kolibri), as that was the codeword used to set the execution squads in motion on the day of the purge. The codename for the operation appears to have been chosen arbitrarily. The phrase "Night of the Long Knives" in the German language predates the massacre itself, and it also refers generally to acts of vengeance. Its origin might be the "Night of the Long Knives", a massacre of Vortigern's men by Angle, Jute, and Saxon mercenaries in Arthurian myth. To this day, Germans still use the term "Röhm-Putsch" to describe the event, as that was the term the Nazi regime introduced into the language at the time, despite its false implication that the murders were necessary to forestall a coup. To emphasize this, German authors often use quotation marks or write about the so-called Röhm-Putsch.
Rome/Berlin Axis – the Axis alliance of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany lead by Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler.
Miracle at Dunkirk - In May 1940 during the battle of France, the British Expeditionary Force in France aiding the French, were cut off from the rest of the French Army by the German advance. Encircled by the Germans they retreated to the area around the port of Dunkirk. The German land forces could have easily destroyed the British expeditionary force, especially when many of the British troops, in their haste to withdraw, had left behind their heavy equipment. For some unexplained and still unknown reason, Adolf Hitler ordered the German army to stop the attack, favouring bombardment by the Luftwaffe. Some say it was because Hitler was still hopeful of establishing diplomatic peace with Britain and was still trying to avoid a full-fledged war, while others contest that the unfavourable terrain (which was not suited to armoured vehicles) and a strategic German desire to retain strength for future operations was the real explanation. This lull in the action gave the British a few days to evacuate by sea. Winston Churchill ordered any ship or boat available, large or small, to pick up the stranded soldiers, and 338,226 men (including 120,000 French soldiers) were evacuated - the miracle of Dunkirk, as Churchill called it. It took over 900 vessels to evacuate the Allied forces. More than 40,000 vehicles as well as massive amounts of other military equipment and supplies were left behind; their value being less than that of trained fighting men. The British evacuation of Dunkirk through the English Channel was codenamed Operation Dynamo.
Vichy Regime - Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms to describe was the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 which succeeded the Third Republic and was officially called the French State (L'État Français), as it called itself in contrast with the "French Republic", was proclaimed by Marshal Philippe Pétain, following the military defeat of France by Nazi Germany during World War II, and the vote by the National Assembly on July 10, 1940 to grant extraordinary powers to Pétain, who held the title of "President of the Council" instead of President of France. Pétain headed the reactionary program of the so-called "Révolution nationale", aimed at "regenerating the Nation."
Vichy France had legal authority in both the northern zone of France, which was occupied by the German Wehrmacht, and the unoccupied southern "free zone", where the regime's administrative center of Vichy was located. The southern zone remained under Vichy control until the Allies landed in French North Africa in November 1942. Recent research by the historian Simon Kitson has shown that, in spite of extensive state collaboration, Vichy led an ultimately unsuccessful campaign to preserve the sovereignty of this southern zone by arresting German spies.
Pétain and the Vichy regime willfully collaborated with Nazi Germany to a high degree. The French police organized raids to capture Jews and others considered "undesirables" by the Germans in both the northern and southern zones.
The legitimacy of Vichy France and Pétain's leadership was challenged by General Charles de Gaulle, who claimed to instead incarnate the legitimacy and continuity of France. Following the Allies' invasion of France in Operation Overlord, de Gaulle proclaimed the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF) in June, 1944. After the Liberation of Paris in August, the GPRF installed itself in Paris on August 31. The GPRF was recognized as the legitimate government of France by the Allies on October 23, 1944.
With the liberation of France in August and September, the Vichy officials and supporters moved to Sigmaringen in Germany and there established a government in exile, headed by Pétain, until April 1945.
Battle of Britain - The Battle of Britain is the name given to the sustained strategic effort by the German Luftwaffe during the Summer and Autumn of 1940 to gain air superiority over the RAF's Fighter Command. The name derives from an 18 June 1940 speech in the House of Commons by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, "The Battle of France is over. I expect the Battle of Britain is about to begin..."
Had it been successful, the planned amphibious and airborne landings in Britain of Operation Sealion would have followed. The Battle of Britain was the first major campaign to be fought entirely by air forces. It was the largest and most sustained bombing campaign attempted up until that date. The failure of Nazi Germany to destroy Britain's air defence or to break British morale is considered their first major defeat.
Neither Hitler nor the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) believed it possible to carry out a successful amphibious assault on the British Isles until the RAF had been neutralised. Secondary objectives were to destroy aircraft production and ground infrastructure, to attack areas of political significance, and to terrorise the British people into seeking an armistice or surrender. Some historians, such as Derek Robinson, have argued an invasion could not have succeeded; the massive superiority of the Royal Navy over the Kriegsmarine would have made Sealion a disaster and the Luftwaffe would have been unable to prevent decisive intervention by British cruisers and destroyers, even with air superiority.
British historians date the battle from 10 July to 31 October 1940, which represented the most intense period of daylight bombing. German historians usually place the beginning of the battle in mid-August 1940 and end it in May 1941, on the withdrawal of the bomber units in preparation for the attack on the USSR.
Lend/Lease Program - was the name of the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermudas, and the British West Indies. It began in March 1941, over 18 months after the outbreak of the war in September 1939.
A total of $50.1 billion (equivalent to nearly $700 billion at 2007 prices) worth of supplies were shipped: $31.4 billion to Britain, $11.3 billion to the Soviet Union, $3.2 billion to France and $1.6 billion to China. Reverse Lend Lease comprised services (like rent on air bases) that went to the U.S. It totaled $7.8 billion, of which $6.8 billion came from the British and the Commonwealth. Apart from that, there were no repayments of supplies that arrived before the termination date, the terms of the agreement providing for their return or destruction. (Supplies after that date were sold to Britain at a discount, for £1,075 million, using long-term loans from the U.S.) No lend lease money went to Canada, which operated a similar program that sent $4.7 billion in supplies to Britain and Soviet UASS.
This program is seen as a decisive step away from American isolationism since the end of World War I and towards international involvement. In sharp contrast to the American loans to the Allies in Worlld War I, there were no provisions for postwar repayments. However, some historians are of the opinion that it was an attempt to bolster Britain and the other allies as a buffer to prevent the necessity of America becoming involved against Nazi Germany.
Battle of Leningrad - Leningrada)) was a military operation by the Axis powers to capture Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) during World War II. The siege lasted 872 days from September 1941 to January 1944.  The Siege of Leningrad was one of the longest, most destructive, and most lethal sieges of major cities in modern history.
The capture of Leningrad was one of three strategic goals in Hitler's initial plans for Operation Barbarossa. Hitler's strategic goal for capturing Leningrad was motivated by its status as the former capital of Russia and the symbolic capital of the Russian Revolution, the main base of the Russian and Soviet Baltic Fleet, its political and military importance, the cultural wealth, and economic potential. 
Hitler announced his goal as the taking of Leningrad by force with the intent to "Celebrate New Year's Eve 1942 in the Tsar's Palaces", ensuring the official invitations were sent out by the Reich Chanceller's office. Although Hitler's plan failed, the 2½ year siege caused the largest destruction and loss of life in a modern city.
The siege was conducted by Wehrmacht troops with assistance from the Finnish Army as part of an operation codenamed Barbarossa in 1941. The operation was given to the Army Group North. The siege followed after the Finnish offensive in Karelia, and German offensive on southern suburbs of Leningrad. Once the offensive stopped, and the 4th Panzer Group left towards Moscow, the Germans started to dig-in to execute the siege. Georgy Zhukov overlooked this change and prepared the city to withstand expected German assault. 
On August 6, 1941, Hitler repeated his order: "Leningrad first, the Donetsk Basin second, Moscow third." From August 1941 when the Wehrmacht troops of Army Group North reached the outskirts of Leningrad through to January 1944, operations to take the city dominated OKH decisionmaking in the northern Area of Eastern Front operations. In August 1941 all railway lines to the city were severed, and the city was encircled by Finnish armies on the north and Wehrmacht troops to the south of Leningrad.
Fire of anti-aircraft guns deployed in the neighborhood of St. Isaac's cathedral during the defense of Leningrad (now called St. Petersburg, its pre-Soviet name) in 1941.
Fire of anti-aircraft guns deployed in the neighborhood of St. Isaac's cathedral during the defense of Leningrad (now called St. Petersburg, its pre-Soviet name) in 1941.
In August 1942, another operation codenamed Operation Nordlicht (Operation Northern Light) started east and south of Leningrad and included a combined arms offensive of the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy), and the Luftwaffe (Air force) troops. At the same time Finnish Naval Detachment K carried attack on Soviet supply route at Lake Ladoga by sinking one barge. Massive air-bombings and artillery bombardment of the city continued from August 1941 through 1942, and through 1943. Mannerheim's order on May 17 only authorised deployment of the Naval Detachment K to interdict the Leningrad supply route in the southern part of Lake Ladoga as a combined operation with the German, and for a short time, Italian naval detachments. American and British Lend-Lease food and materiel supplies to Leningrad begun in the last quarter of 1941, while British and American convoys to Mourmansk increased this support for the city in 1942 and 1943, helping civilian survivors in the besieged Leningrad, as well as the Soviet fighting forces. In three winters between 1941 and 1944, the ice cover on Lake Ladoga was used by the beseiged city for temporary communications via the Road of Life.
On Hitler's explicit orders most of the Palaces of the Tsars, such as the Catherine Palace, the Peterhof, the Gatchina, the Ropsha, the Strelna, and other historic landmarks located outside of the city's defensive perimeter were looted and then destroyed, with many art collections transported to Nazi Germany. Many Leningrad industries, factories, schools, hospitals, transport facilities and infrastructures, the airport and other locations were destroyed by the air raids and long range artillery bombardment during the 2½ years of the siege.
The Wehrmacht besieging perimeter was penetrated by Soviet forces at January 17, 1943, during Operation Iskra, when a narrow corridor was established along the shores of Lake Ladoga. The siege was finally lifted by Marshal Zhukov's offensive on January 27, 1944, as part of the Leningrad-Novgorod strategic offensive operation.
The 900 days of the siege caused unparalleled famine through disruption of utilities, water, and energy supply. This resulted in the deaths of about 1,2 to 1.5 million civilians, and the evacuation of 1.4 million more, mainly women and children, many of whom died during evacuation due to starvation and bombardment. Of the 1.7 million total Soviet casualties, just one Piskaryovskoye Memorial Cemetery in Leningrad has half a million civilian victims of the siege interred. Economic destruction and human losses in Leningrad on both sides exceeded those of the Battle of Stalingrad, or the Battle of Moscow, or the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The battle for Leningrad is listed among the most lethal sieges in world history.
Historians speak about the Nazi siege operations as a genocide of the Leningrad residents in terms of a "racially motivated starvation policy" which became the integral part of the unprecedented German war of extermination against the civilian population of the city and the Soviet Union in general.
Battle of Stalingrad - is a commonly used name in English sources for several large operations by Germany and its allies and Soviet forces conducted with the purpose of possession of the city of Stalingrad, which took place between 17 July 1942 and February 2, 1943, during the Second World War. Stalingrad was known as Tsaritsyn until 1925 and as Volgograd since 1961.
The results of these operations are often cited as one of the turning points of the war in the European Theater and was one of the bloodiest battles in human history, with combined casualties estimated to be above 1.5 million. The battle was marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties by both sides. The German offensive to take Stalingrad, the battle inside the city, and the Soviet counter-offensive which eventually trapped and destroyed the 6th Army and other Axis forces around the city was the second large-scale defeat of the Second World War.
Battle of the Bulge - The Ardennes Offensive (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive on the Western Front and was launched towards the end of World War II. It was also Adolf Hitler's last offensive in the war. The offensive was launched in the Ardennes. Germany’s planned goal for these operations was to split the British and American Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp, Belgium, and then proceeding to encircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis Powers’ favor