Female Genital Mutilation (fgm) Screening Tool How to use this tool



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Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Screening Tool
How to use this tool

This tool is to help professionals working in health services, hospitals, schools, police and children’s services to identify and assess the risks of FGM. It should be read in conjunction with the NSCB inter-agency safeguarding procedures on FGM:


http://northamptonshirescb.proceduresonline.com/chapters/p_fgm.html
The tool is divided into three parts:

Part One – children at risk of being abused through FGM

Part Two - children who may have been subjected to FGM and suffering physical and emotional harm

Part Three – women with FGM presenting to GP/maternity/gynaecology/urology/sexual health services.


Professionals need only complete the part that applies to the child/adult they are working with.

Use the tool to identify the relevant indicators, being careful to record whether each indicator is known to be present, definitely not present, or suspected to be present; and make a brief note of your evidence.


What to do next

  • Having completed the screening tool and identified any risk indicators, professionals should seek consultation and advice from their agency’s FGM operational lead or their designated safeguarding lead. Where no such designation exists, they should seek advice from Safeguarding Children’s Services via the Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH) Tel. 0300 126 1000

  • In instances where the risk of harm to a child is judged to be high i.e. that is it likely that FGM will happen in the near future or has happened and a child is suffering harm, there should be no delay in referring the child to Safeguarding Children’s Services via Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH) Tel. 0300 126 1000


Professional completing this screening tool :………………………….................………………(name)………………………...............................…………………………(desig.)
Agency………………………………………………................................…………Contact tel no/email address………………......................………………………………………………
Date of completion……………………………………………..............................................................................................................................................................
Action to be taken following completion of the screening tool………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................
Please indicate whether the personal data in this screening tool is:
1 Being shared with other agencies with the consent of the subject/parent(s) of the subject? Yes No
2 Being shared with other agencies under the NSCB information-sharing protocol for reasons of child protection? Yes No
If yes to 1 or 2 above, name and address of subject…………………………………………………………………………………………………….......................................................
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....................................................................
3 Being discussed on an anonymised basis at the FGM consultation meeting? Yes No
If yes, no name and address to be included on this record. Enter consultation reference no provided at the meeting…….....................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Part One: Children at risk of being abused through FGM

Indicator

Yes

No

Suspected

Brief details

A child seeks help to avoid FGM or the circumstances in which FGM is a risk (eg going abroad)













A parent or family member expresses concern that FGM may be a current risk














Mother comes from a community known to practice FGM (see Appendix One)














Mother has undergone FGM herself (see Appendix Two)














Father comes from a community known to practice FGM














Grandmother is very influential within the family














A female family elder is involved/will be involved in the care of the girl














Mother has limited contact with people outside of her family














Parents have poor access to information about FGM and nobody has advise them about the harmful effects of FGM or UK law













Parents stating that they or a relative will be taking the girl abroad for a prolonged period













Girl has spoken about a long holiday to her country of origin/another country where the practice is prevalent













Girl has attended a travel clinic or equivalent for vaccinations/anti-malarials for her country of origin/another country where the practice is prevalent













Girl has confided in another that she is to have a ‘special procedure’ or to attend a ‘special occasion’













Girl has talked about going away ‘to become a woman’ or ‘to become like my mum and sister’













FGM is referred to in conversation by the child, family or close friends of the child (see Appendix Three for traditional and local terms)













Girl has a sister or other female relative who has already undergone FGM















Part Two: Children who may have been subjected to FGM and may be suffering physical or emotional harm


Indicator

Yes

No

Suspected

Brief details

Girl asks for help with symptoms of FGM














Girl confides in a professional that FGM has been done














Girl spends long periods away from the classroom with bladder or menstrual problems













Girl finds it hard to sit still for long periods of time, which was not a problem previously













Prolonged absence from school














Noticeable behavioural changes following long summer holiday or prolonged absence from school













Girl has spoken about having been on a long holiday to her country of origin/another country where the practice is prevalent













Increased emotional and psychological needs eg withdrawal, depression














Girl avoiding physical exercise or requiring to be excused from PE lessons without a GP’s letter














Part Three: Pregnant/non-pregnant women/girls, with FGM, with existing female children, anticipated female child or with other female children in household


Indicator

Yes

No

Suspected

Brief details

Mother comes from a community known to practice FGM (Appendix 1)














Mother has undergone FGM herself (Appendix 2)












Father comes from a community known to practice FGM












Grandmother (maternal or paternal) is influential in family












A female family elder is involved/will be involved in care of daughter












Mother has limited integration in UK community












Woman believes FGM is integral to cultural or religious identity














Parents have limited/ no understanding of harm of FGM or UK law*












Mother has been reinfibulated following previous delivery* *












Mother requesting reinfibulation following childbirth*












Woman’s sisters’/brothers’ daughters have undergone FGM












Woman’s sister/brother-in-law’s daughters have undergone FGM












Woman already has daughters who have undergone FGM***











*It is important to consider the opposite of this as indication of willingness to abandon FGM practice: a woman who herself has ongoing physical, psychological and/or sexual dysfunction that she recognises/acknowledges are a result of her FGM, and/or who is involved or is highly supportive of FGM advocacy work/eradication programmes, is less likely to mutilate her own children.


**Reinfibulation following childbirth in Sudan is highly prevalent- not to be closed after birth carries great stigma. Reinfibulation per se does not necessarily indicate ongoing support of FGM by the woman herself. One should enquire how the woman felt about reinfibulation after birth. This is in contrast to a woman giving birth in the UK requesting reinfibulation- this should be considered a significant indicator of risk of FGM for a female child. In addition, a reinfibulated woman requesting elective c/section without medical indication should be explored as it may indicate an awareness re. the law and a wish to avoid deinfibulation. Enquiry needs to be sensitively made- as potential alternative explanation for maternal request c/section may relate to trauma/PTSD.
Reinfibulation in this country is potentially illegal under the FGM Act 2003- if a woman has been reinfibulated, it is important to establish which country this took place in and when.
*** if woman discloses she has daughter(s) who have already undergone FGM, it is important to establish when and where this took place and which type of FGM. This is for two reasons: 1) if child was a UK national at time of FGM, a crime has taken place- this should be escalated to Social Care and Police as per protocol; 2) if child was not a UK national at time of FGM i.e., FGM took place prior to coming to this country, it is important to enquire regarding FGM status of any subsequent daughters born in the UK. If no FGM has been carried out on UK-born female child, one should establish why this is the case ( e.g. ?change in attitude or ?fear of prosecution ?lack of opportunity, ?child too young). This is a complex area- many women have greater agency in decision-making re. FGM when outside their country of origin and may elect not to continue FGM practice. This is an important indicator of positive attitudinal change and should be taken into consideration in risk assessment of any siblings.

Appendix One: Countries that practice FGM

Prevalence of FGM in Africa and parts of Asia* (women aged 15-49 years)

UNICEF 2013



*Although data is less robust, FGM is also prevalent in parts of Asia and Middle East :

  • Malaysia (60-90% Muslim Malay communities),

  • Indonesia (up to 80% Muslim communities)

  • Iraqi Kurdistan (38-80%)

  • Oman (up to 60%)

  • UAE ~34%

  • Saudi Arabia- in Hejaz, Tihameh and Asir regions (Sunni Muslims)

  • Pakistan- Bohra Muslims and along Pakistan-Balochistan border




Appendix Two: Types of Female Genital Mutilation

Type I involves the excision of the prepuce with or without excision of part or all of the clitoris.

Type II excision of the prepuce and clitoris together with partial or total excision of the labia minora.

Type III excision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching or narrowing of the vaginal opening, also known as infibulation. This is the most extreme form and constitutes 15 per cent of all cases. It involves the use of thorns, silk or catgut to stitch the two sides of the vulva. A bridge of scar tissue then forms over the vagina, which leaves only a small opening (from the size of a matchstick head) for the passage of urine and menstrual blood.

Type IV includes pricking, piercing or incision of the clitoris and/or the labia; stretching of the clitoris and or the labia; cauterisation or burning of the clitoris and surrounding tissues, scraping of the vaginal orifice or cutting (Gishiri cuts) of the vagina and introduction of corrosive substances or herbs into the vagina.
Appendix Three: Traditional and local terms for FGM

Country


Term used for

FGM

Language

Meaning

EGYPT

Thara

Arabic

Deriving from the Arabic word 'tahar' meaning to clean / purify




Khitan

Arabic

Circumcision - used for both FGM and male circumcision




Khifad

Arabic

Deriving from the Arabic word 'khafad' meaning to lower (rarely used in everyday language)

ETHIOPIA

Megrez

Amharic

Circumcision / cutting




Absum

Harrari

Name giving ritual

ERITREA

Mekhnishab

Tigregna

Circumcision / cutting

KENYA

Kutairi

Swahili

Circumcision - used for both FGM and male circumcision




Kutairi was ichana

Swahili

Circumcision of girls

NIGERIA

Ibi / Ugwu

Igbo

The act of cutting - used for both FGM and male circumcision




Sunna

Mandingo

Religious tradition / obligation - for Muslims

SIERRA LEONE

Sunna

Soussou

Religious tradition/ obligation - for Muslims




Bondo

Temenee

Integral part of an initiation rite into adulthood - for non Muslims




Bondo / Sonde

Mendee

Integral part of an initiation rite into adulthood - for non Muslims




Bondo

Mandingo

Integral part of an initiation rite into adulthood - for non Muslims




Bondo

Limba

Integral part of an initiation rite into adulthood - for non Muslims

SOMALIA

Gudiniin

Somali

Circumcision used for both FGM and male circumcision




Halalays

Somali

Deriving from the Arabic word 'halal' ie. 'sanctioned' - implies purity. Used by Northern & Arabic speaking Somalis.




Qodiin

Somali

Stitching / tightening / sewing refers to infibulation

SUDAN

Khifad

Arabic

Deriving from the Arabic word 'khafad' meaning to lower (rarely used in everyday language)




Tahoor

Arabic

Deriving from the Arabic word 'tahar' meaning to purify

CHAD - the Ngama

Bagne




Used by the Sara Madjingaye

Sara subgroup

Gadja




Adapted from 'ganza' used in the Central African Republic

GUINEA-BISSAU

Fanadu di Mindjer

Kriolu

'Circumcision of girls'




Fanadu di Omi

Kriolu

'Circumcision of boys'

GAMBIA

Niaka

Mandinka

Literally to 'cut /weed clean'




Kuyango

Mandinka

Meaning 'the affair' but also the name for the shed built for initiates




Musolula Karoola

Mandinka

Meaning 'the women's side' / 'that which concerns women'



Appendix Four: Contact Children’s Social Care on one of the following numbers if you are concerned that a child may be at immediate risk of FGM or has suffered harm as a consequence of FGM:

Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH): 0300 126 1000



Emergency Duty Team (outside office hours): (01604) 626938

Version 1, May 2015



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