Federalist Papers #10, 45, 47, 48, 51

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Federalist Papers #10, 45, 47, 48, 51
#10 Written by Madison
--Factions/diversity in the nation (factions bad connotation)

--Faction is a group of people with similar interests (political parties, etc.)

--(Pluralism and preventing hyper-pluralism)

--Could have factions but don’t want to create hyper-pluralism

Two cures to factions: curing the effects, or controlling it

Removing its causes – destroying liberty (tyranny)

Controlling its effects – making people think the same
Prevent majorities interests; if they do have interest
Solution to factions is a LARGE republic so any one faction (group) does not control the entire country (majority and minority rule)
--Factions are one of the biggest threats to large republics (can be majority or minority)

--Cure faction by EITHER taking away liberty (which isn’t practical) or making everyone think the same SO CANNOT BE CURED

--Difference between democracy and a republic (elect officials)

--Better to have a larger area (against Montequieu’s ideas); easier for corruption in a smaller group (easier to bribe)


“causes of faction cannot be removed, only can be solved by control effects”

Nature of man to have opinions; govts job to reign over everybody

Pure democracy no cure for faction (smaller scale); easier for a small group to take control

“Liberty is to faction what air is to fire”

Solution to controlling factions: Large republic
Federalist Paper #45 written by Madison
States have power in the national government: Federalism and state authority
--National government owes its creation to the state governments (chosen by states)

--reassuring the national government has power but states have more powers than national government

--Assuring states that you won’t be undermined by national laws and regulations; states will still have authority
--national laws and regulations are FEW and DEFINED

--states have NUMEROUS and INDEFINITE

Essential Question: strength of federal government; does it pose a danger to the individual states???
--States have more power than the national government

--State government will have advantage over national government

--National government wouldn’t even be here if we didn’t have the state governments (Electoral College, etc.)
--National government important during times of international war *(foreign danger)

--Otherwise states are more important during times peace

Madison said STOP WORRYING about the power of the national government

States STILL have powers

Federalist Paper #47 written by Madison
--Legislative, Executive, Judiciary departments should be distinct

--Separation of powers from Montesquieu

--Madison tweaks Montesquieu to a large republic

--took ideas from state constitutions to make into the national constitution

--used state constitutions to prove that separation of powers was RIGHT (ignores RI and CT)

--Disputing the ultimate power of the LEGISLATIVE branch (appease the states)

--new concept separation of powers

--accumulation of all powers (all branches) TYRANNY

--Structure of new government

--Separation of powers necessary

--Accumulation of all powers (all branches) is tyrannical – SO separate powers

--each branch must be separate and EQUAL

--should not become too close; could join and be BAD

--used Montesquieu as a guide (legislative, executive, judicial)

--used British Constitution as a BASIS standard

Federalist #48 Written by Madison

--powers should be separated or BAD THINGS will happen

--Legislative branch has too much power so this is prohibited = SO CHECKS

--fix mistakes = VETOES, IMPEACHMENT, process to pass bills, ELECTIONS

--branches should not be intermixed…separation of powers….ok.


--keep each other in check

--Checks and balances; wanted separate groups (like stated in #47)

--Divided and balanced branches

To counter the legislative branch (according to then new Constitution)…..WORRIED MOST ABOUT LEGISLATIVE branch (power)
Federalist #51 Hamilton or Madison
5 components:

  1. Separate but equal powers (like #47)

  2. Popular sovereignty (people have a say)

  3. Checks and balances (like #48)

“First you must enable the government to control the governed and next oblige it to control itself.”

  1. Majority Rule/Minority Rights

  2. Electoral College (Federalism)….connects people, state government, with national government

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