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Brazilian Federalism Good: Economy

Brazil has redesigned their federal system to promote prudent fiscal behavior
Purfield, Asia and Pacific Department at IMF, 2008

[The Decentralization Dilemma in India, http://imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2004/wp0432.pdf]
Many governments have begun to redesign their federal systems to improve incentives for prudent fiscal behavior. Brazil’s federal government bailout of states in 1997 required states to sign formal debt restructuring contracts with the federal government and to bear part of the bailout costs. All new state borrowing was banned until states lowered their debt to revenue ratio. Interest penalties were imposed for noncompliance and states used constitutionally mandated transfers as collateral for the new state bonds. They also provided downpayments worth 20 percent of a jurisdiction’s outstanding debt stock, and entered into fixed payment schedules based on a jurisdiction’s revenue mobilization capacity.

Generic – Middle East won’t model

Middle Eastern countries won’t model US federalism, they are more influenced by European models of government

Chilbi Mallat, 2003Ph.D., University of London, CASE WESTERN RESERVE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, Winter 2003, pp. 10-11
Put differently, there is no reference in the Middle East to federalism because the way legal education has been conducted for the past hundred years has been entrenched in the British and French models, and thus in Egypt, Lebanon, Iran, and Iraq. Since the federal horizon did not appear in their textbooks, it is difficult for students, attorneys, judges or legislators to make a jump into the unknown, a jump that even the Europeans have difficulty making

Iraq Won’t Model US Federalism

Iraq won’t model US federalism – they would rather have a centralized government

Zeidel, fellow of the Iraq Research Team at the Truman Institute and the Center of Iraq Studies at the University of Haifa, 2008

(Ronen, “Iraq’s future: The War and Beyond” Right Side News, June 13, http://www.rightsidenews.com/200806131177/global-terrorism/iraq-s-future-the-war-and-beyond.html)

Ronen Zeidel: I wanted to say it took me a great effort to say what I said about sectarianism in Iraq, because personally, as an Iraqi citizen, I would be in favor of Iraqi national identity all out, without having this sectarian layer in between. I guess many Iraqis would agree. It's just that reality does not always go our own way. I think Iraqi national identity is in the process of being renegotiated after April 2003, and the new version, once it's out, would certainly have to find more space for the sectarian layer that exists within every Iraqi citizen--sectarian and ethnic layer to include the Kurds here. We cannot be back into blurring sectarianism altogether, forbidding it. Millions of people go to Karbala every year for Ashura; you cannot forbid these parades and marches altogether just because you have to go back to the old version--not a good one--of Iraqi national identity.Now I must go back to the longterm and say that if we do encourage this deconstruction of all common denominators, like deconstruction of the Sunni and sectarian identity, Iraq will end up like Somalia. There is already a very weak central government with lots of tribes running or ruling the countryside, each with conflicting interests and nothing understandable--true chaos. Whether it is good in the short-term, I don't know, but in the longterm it could be really destructive, and many Iraqis fear that. Iraqis are strongly suspicious of federalism; most of them are in favor of a strong central government and centralization, along the lines of what the Iraqi state looked like for 83 years.

Iraq rejects US federalism

Reuters, 2007
(“Iraq PM rejects U.S. Congress Call for Federalism” http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L28122016.htm)

More BAGHDAD, Sept 28 (Reuters) - Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki said on Friday a U.S. Senate resolution calling for the creation of separate Sunni, Shi'ite and Kurdish federal regions in Iraq would be a disaster for his country. "They should stand by Iraq to solidify its unity and its sovereignty," Maliki told Iraqi state television on his flight back from the United Nations General Assembly. "They shouldn't be proposing its division. That could be a disaster not just for Iraq but for the region." Maliki also called on the Iraqi parliament to meet and respond formally to the non-binding resolution, passed by the Senate on Wednesday, which called for the creation of "a federal system of government and ... federal regions". Iraq's northern Kurdish region already enjoys significant autonomy from Baghdad, with a separate Kurdish parliament. But Sunni Arabs and some Shi'ites oppose greater federalism which they see as a step towards dividing Iraq. The Senate resolution urged U.S. President George W. Bush to seek international support for such a political settlement and convene a conference with Iraqis to help them reach it."We reject this decision," Maliki said.

Iraqi Federalism Good: War

Iraqi federalism is key to preventing civil war, stabilizing the middle east, and promoting federalism globally

Brancati, visiting scholar at the Center for the Study of Democratic Politics at Princeton University, 2004

(Dawn, visiting scholar – Center for the Study of Democratic Politics – Princeton University, “Can Federalism Stabilize Iraq?” Washington Quarterly 27:2 Spring, Lexis)

The potential consequences of failing to design federalism properly and to establish a stable democracy in Iraq extend far beyond Iraqi borders. Civil war in Iraq may draw in neighboring countries such as Turkey and Iran, further destabilizing the Middle East in the process. It may also discourage foreign investment in the region, bolster Islamic extremists, and exacerbate tensions between Palestinians and Israelis. A civil war in Iraq may even undermine support for the concept of federalism more generally, which is significant given the number of countries also considering federalism, such as Afghanistan and Sri Lanka, to name just two. Finally, the failure to design and implement the kind of federalism that can establish a stable democracy in Iraq might undermine international support for other U.S. initiatives in the region, including negotiations for Arab-Israeli peace. Iraq's federal government must therefore be designed carefully so as to give regional governments extensive political and financial autonomy, to include Kirkuk in the Kurdish region that is created, and to limit the influence of identity-based political parties. The short- and long-term stability of Iraq and the greater Middle East depend on it.

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