Fascism in Italy Fascism Militarism: Nationalism

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Fascism in Italyhttp://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/00802/mussolini-460_802785c.jpg




Unity/Social Solidarity:

Cult of Personality:

Conditions that led to rise of Mussolini and fascism


Class division and labour strife:


Paris Peace Treaties:

Unstable governments:

Mussolini’s Reign

Black Shirts

March on Rome


Acerbo Act

Lateran Agreementshttps://ideologicalart.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/main-italian-wedding-rings.jpg

Italian: The day of Faith - December 18, 1935 millions of Italians will ship their wedding rings to help the war effort: they received in return an iron ring bearing the date of that Domenico.


(The logo of National Fascist Party also known as, PNF-Partito Nazionale Fascista; it, led by Mussolini, promised greater living standards under Fascist party. The same symbol and the shield represent the protection PNF will provide to the population. The color of it is also the color of present Italy's flag.)

In Italy is where the modern ideology of Fascism was founded.  The symbolism of the fasces (Latin for ‘bundle’, as in bundle of sticks) is related to the modern Italian word fascio, used in the 20th century to designate peasant cooperatives and industrial workers’ unions. Numerous governments and other authorities have used the image of the fasces for a symbol of power since the end of the Roman Empire.  The most notable of these, however, is Benito Mussolini’s National Fascist Party in Italy. Preceding WWII, Italy was experiencing a time of extreme social unrest that included strikes and parliamentary breakdown.  Mussolini, disenchanted by Socialism, and having by this time written a body of work on Fascism, advocated for the forcible restoration of order in Italy.  Finally, in 1921 Mussolini was elected to parliament and the National Fascist Party was officially organized.  In 1922 Mussolini launched a coup d’État, to oust Prime Minister Facta, and assume the government of Italy, to restore nationalist pride, re-start the economy, increase productivity with labor controls, remove economic business controls, and impose law and order [12].  On October 28th, whilst the “March” occurred, King Victor Emmanuel III withdrew his support of Prime Minister Facta, and appointed PNF Leader Benito Mussolini as the Sixth Prime Minister of Italy.  Between 1925 and 1927, Mussolini progressively dismantled virtually all constitutional and conventional restraints on his power, thereby building a police state. In the 1925-1926 years he was able to assume dictatorial powers and dissolve all other political parties.  Mussolini was called Il Duce or leader by his followers.  He held, besides the premiership, as many portfolios as he saw fit. Although many do not consider Mussolini’s state to be a true totalitarian one, he achieved extreme authoritarian power, including the power of the press.  “Most of his time was spent on propaganda, whether at home or abroad, and here his training as a journalist was invaluable. Press, radio, education, films — all were carefully supervised to manufacture the illusion that fascism was the doctrine of the 20th century that was replacing liberalism and democracy.[…] Newspaper editors were all personally chosen by Mussolini himself, and no one could practice journalism who did not possess a certificate of approval from the Fascist party” [13].  “The ability to properly manipulate the country through propaganda was probably Mussolini’s greatest success as a leader. Through the means of newspapers, cinemas, radio, posters, rallies and sport, he was able to not only convince the people of his great success and merits, but was able to convince himself. This self delusion is similar to the ‘Hitler Myth’ […] Propaganda was used for everything from gaining personal support for Mussolini to weeding out opposition. Mussolini’s use of propaganda was the main reason he was so successful in his rule” [14].  Under Mussolini, the PNF controlled most forms of media, and censorship was rampant.

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