Fascism in Italy- pg 536-538



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Fascism in Italy- pg 536-538
After WWI, Italy split into feuding factions due to its inability to solve problems and disappointment over the loss of promised lands by Britain. Mussolini emerges as a leader, creating a “fascist” part named after _________, representing sticks wrapped around an ax, symbolizing _____________________________________________________.

  • Mussolini promised the people: 1.

2.

* To help gain control he created combat squads, _____________________________ which rejected ____________________________ in favor of _____________________________ action. These “gangs” used __________________________ and ________________________ to scare people and crate power.



  • Their _____________________ on ______________________demanded changes and allowed Mussolini to become prime minister legally, because Victor _____________________________ was scared of civil war.

  • Mussolini becomes “____________ _______________”(the leader) and does many things to control power, such as: 1. ____________________________________, 2. Control the ____________________, 3. Replace ________________________________________ with fascist supporters.

  • In theory, Italy was a _______________________________________________, but in reality it was a ___________________________ held up by terror.

  • Mussolini’s Italy valued the state more than the people. Propaganda said “Mussolini is _________________ _____________________”. Men were encouraged to be _____________________ and women were forced out of work and expected to focus on ________________________________. To help control the hearts and minds of his people, Mussolini started Fascist youth groups.



The Makings of a Totalitarian State: pg 538-539 ‘Infographic’
Totalitarian Governments Share the following features:

  1. single-party ___________________________ with ______________________ obedience to a ____________ leader.

  2. State control of the ____________________

  3. Government control of the _________________________________ to indoctrinate and ____________________ citizens through ________________________________________

  4. Use of _________________________________ and terror to enforce the will of the state

  5. Use of _________________________ and ________________________ organizations to spread ideology to children

  6. Strict ________________________ of _______________________ and ________________________ with dissenting opinions.



What is Fascism? Pg 539


  • Fascism describes an centralized, authoritarian government that is not ___________________________, but whose policies glorify the state over the individual and are ______________________________ to basic human rights.

  • Rooted in extreme ___________________. Glorified action, _________________________, &____________________________.

  • Pursued aggressive foreign expansion and echoed social Darwinism, “survival of the ______________________” . They glorified ________________ as noble for the state.

  • They were anti-____________________________, rejecting the ideas of equality and liberty.

  • But… if it was such a freedom restricting type of government, why did people like it? Because, it promised a strong and ___________________________ government. These leaders projected a sense of power and confidence at a time of disorder & despair and helped revived national pride.

  • Fascist hated _______________________________. They liked defined classes of people, rich, middle, poor.



The Soviet Union- pg 542

  • Stalin proposed the “_________________________________________________” to build industry, improve transportation, and increase farm production- therefore to help the country develop/industrialize.

  • The USSR developed a ___________________________ economy, in which the government controlled all aspects of production/resources. His new plans helped the following industries: oil, __________________, steel, mining, and railroads. But mostly the standard of living remained low. Stalin set goals or ________________ for workers, but ineffective planning often caused ______________________and shortages or low-quality goods. Consumer produced goods were scarce and wages were low.




  • Stalin also brought ______________________ under government control. He made all farmers work on state-owned farms or on ________________________________, large farms owned and operated by a group of peasants. Some farmers did not want to lose their land, so they killed animals, destroyed tools and _ corps. Stalin responded to this with force, killing thousands of kulaks. Ultimately, Stalin killed 5 -8 _____________________ people in this “Terror ____________________”.



  • Stalin also used ________________________________________, torture, and violent ___________________ to ensure obedience. Stalin controlled all individual rights, sending those who protested to the ________________ labor camps. In 1934, Stalin started the great purge, killing (which people) _____________________________

________________________________________________, about 4 million people. The problem with the purge is that it killed experts in industry, economics, _____________, writers, and thinkers. As well as _____________________ leaders.
Stalin also attempted to control thought in his country. He distributed propaganda, censored opposing ideas, imposed Russian culture on minorities and replaced _____________________ with communist ideology. He used radio, film, and print to explain communist successes and the evils of capitalism.
Stalin made artist produce a new type of art, called socialist realism- with peasants, workers, heroes, Stalin as subject matter. He also used Russification to make the nationality’s culture more Russian. Since the USSR was made up of 11 republics, Stalin wanted all the different cultures to speak Russian and follow Russian culture. One of the big changes was stopping public religious following.
Benefits & Drawbacks of Stalin’s USSR:

Good: free communist ________________, medical care, __________________, cheaper housing, and public recreation. Women were valued and worked for the country and earned wages.



Bad: Although the state built apartments, there were not enough apartments and there was a shortage of _________________ and __________________.

Hitler & Rise of Nazi Germany- pg 552

  • Hitler fought in WWI and after despised the ______________________ government for accepting the Treaty of Versailles. And like Mussolini, he organized.

  • Hitler wrote about his life in a book called ____________________________________________, which translates to___________________________________. In it he…




  • Lebensraum is:




  • Hitler came to power and became the _______________________ of Germany in 1933, legally.

  • He wanted to return Germany to its third empire or _________________. The first, the Holy Roman Empire, the 2nd ______________________________________. He achieved his power with the help of the Gestapo, which _____________________________________________________. He created the Nuremberg Laws and other policies to attach ________________________. He also created Youth groups to gain control and purged:


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