Family law council female genital mutilation



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Tropical Doctor, Vol 21, pages 146-148.
DORKENDOO, Efau, Tradition! Tradition!, Undated Booklet.
DORKENDOO Efau and ELWORTHY Scilla, 1992, Female Genital Mutilation: Proposals for Change, The Minority Rights Group, London.
ENGLE Karen, 1992, “For Mary Joe Frug: A Symposium on Feminist Critical Legal Studies and Post modernism”, New England Law Review, Summer 1992, pages 1509-1526.
Ethnic Affairs Commission of NSW, 1987, Female Mutilation/Circumcision, Internal paper (Confidential).
FAWZI EL-SOLH Camillia, 1993, “Be true to your culture: Gender tensions among Somali Muslims in Britain”, Immigrants and Minorities, Vol 12, No 1, March 1993, pages 21-46.
Foreign Affairs & Trade, Department of, 1993, Unclassified Cablegram to DIEA, France: Female Genital Mutilation, 6 May 1993.
FUNDER Anna, 1993, “De Minimis Non Curat Lex: The Clitoris, Culture and The Law”, Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, Iowa College of Law, Volume 3, No. 2, Fall 1993, Pages 418-467.
GUNNING, Isabelle, 1992, “Arrogant preception, world travelling and multicultural feminism: The case of female genital surgeries”, in Columbia Human Rights Law Review, Volume 23, pages 189-248.
HAYTER K, 1984, “Female circumcision - is there a legal solution?”, Journal of Social Welfare Law (UK), November 1984, pages 323-333.
HEDLEY Rodney & DORKENOO Efua, 1992, Child Protection and Female Genital Mutilation, Foundation for Women’s Health Research and Development (FORWARD), London.
HORIN Adele and WILKINSON Marian, 1980, “Racist backlash fear on female circumcision”, National Times, 13-19 April 1980, page 4.
HOSKEN Fran, 1989, “Female Genital Mutilation - Strategies for Eradication”, The Truth Seeker, July/August 1989, 22-28.
Immigration & Ethnic Affairs, Department of, 1993, Position Paper on Female Genital Mutilation, Draft paper, (unpublished).
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KIRBY Vicki, 1987, “On the cutting edge: feminism and clitoridectomy”, Australian Feminist Studies, No 5, Summer 1987, pages 35-55.
LEVIN Tobe, 1980, “Unspeakable Atrocities: The psycho-sexual etiology of female genital mutilation”, The Journal of Mind and Behavious, Autumn 1980, Vol 1, No 2, pages 197-209.
LIGHTFOOT-KLEIN Hanny, “Rites of Purification and Their Effects: Some Psychological Aspects of Female Genital Circumcision and Infibulation (Pharaonic Circumcision) in an Afro-Arab Islamic Society (Sudan)”, Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, Volume 2(2), 1989.
LIGHTFOOT-KLEIN Hanny & SHAW Evelyn, 1990, “Special needs of ritually circumcised women patients”, healthsharing Women, May 1990, 102-106.
LIGHTFOOT-KLEIN Hanny, 1989, “The sexual experience and marital adjustment of genitally circumcised and infibulated females in Sudan”, The Journal of Sex Research, Vol 26, No 3, August 1989, pages 375-392.
MACKAY RD, 1983, “Is female circumcision unlawful?”, Criminal Law Review (UK), November 1983, pages 717-722.
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1Toubia, Nahid, 1993, Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action, UN Working Group on Traditional Practices, page 9.

2Armstrong, Sue, 1991, “Female circumcision: fighting a cruel tradition”, New Scientist, 2 February 1991, page 22.

3Slack, Alison T, 1988, “Female Circumcision: A Critical Appraisal” in Human Rights Quarterly, 10 (1988) 437, page 441.

4“Pharaonic” circumcision is a term which is used in the Sudan. It dates back to the practice of infibulation in ancient Egypt.

5Berndt, RM and CH, 1992,The World of the First Australians, Aboriginal Studies Press, page 181.

6Dirie, MA et al, 1991, “A hospital study of the complications of female circumcision”, Tropical Doctor, October, 21(4), pages 146-148.

7Boston Women’s Health Book Collective, 1985, The New Our Bodies, Ourselves, Penguin Books, page 617.

8Badawi Mohamed, 1989, “Epidemiology of Female Sexual Castration in Cairo, Egypt”, The Truth Seeker, July/August 1989,31-34, page 31.

9WHO, 1992, “Female Circumcision: Female Genital Mutilation”, Int J Gynecol Obstet, 37, page 149.

10Myers, A et al, 1985, “Circumcision: Its nature and Practice Among Some Ethnic Groups in Southern Nigeria”, Social Science and Medicine, 21, No 5, (1985):588 n.20.

11Slack, Alison T, 1988, “Female Circumcision: A Critical Appraisal”, Human Rights Quarterly, 10 (1988) 437-486, pages 442-443.

12Toubia, Nahid, Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action, page 31.

13Al Naggar, Sheikh Dr Abdel Rahman, Female Circumcision and Religion, 1985, Translation of a Communication presented to the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices, Nairobi, 12 July 1985, pages 3-5.

14Slack Alison T, 1988, “Female Circumcision: A Critical Appraisal”, Human Rights Quarterly, 10 (1988) 437-486, page 447.

15Ibid, page 448.

16Barker-Benfield, GJ, 1976, The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes Towards Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth Century America, Harper & Row, New York.

17See, for example, W G Rathmann, 1959, “Female Circumcision, Indications and a New Technique” in GP, Volume XX, No. 3, September 1959 at pages 115-120.

18See, for instance, Viva: The International Magazine for Women, March 1975, Vol. 2, No. 6 at pages 53-54 and 104-105.

19Toubia Nahid, Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action, pages 35-37.

20Slack, Alison T, op cit, page 443.

21Toubia Nahid, Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action, page 11.

22Note, “Female Circumcision”, 1983, The Lancet, 12 March, page 569.

23Toubia, Nahid, op cit, page 26.

24Toubia, Nahid, op cit, page 26.

25See, for instance, Armstrong S, 1991, “Female Circumcision: Fighting a Cruel Tradition”, New Scientist, February 1991, 22-26, page 22.

26Armstrong Sue, 1991, “Female circumcision: Fighting a cruel tradition”, New Scientist, February 1991, page 22.

27There has been debate in medical circles in recent years about the therapeutic value of male circumcision. See, for example, Schlossberg, NM and Irwin CE, 1992, “Early Adolescent Knowledge and Attitudes about Circumcision: Methods and Implications for Research”, Journal of Adolescent Health, 12 (1991) 293-297; Griffiths D and Frank JD, “Inappropriate circumcision referrals by GPs”, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol 85, June 1992, 324-325; Ganiats TGet al, 1991, “Routine Neonatal Circumcision”, Medical Decision Making, No 4, Oct-Dec 1991, 282-293; Chessare JB, 1992, “Circumcision: Is the Risk of Urinary Tract Infection Really the Pivotal Issue?”, Clinical Pediatrics, February 1992, 100-104.

28Armstrong S, 1991, “Female Circumcision: Fighting a Cruel Tradition”, New Scientist, February 1991, 22-26, page 22.

29SBS Television, The Cutting Edge Series, 29 June 1993.

30Toubia, Nahid, Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action, page 8.

31World Health Organisation, 1992, “Female Circumcision”, European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 45 (1992) 153-154.

32Slack, Alison T, 1988, “Female Circumcision: A Critical Appraisal”, Human Rights Quarterly, 10(1988) 437-486, page 451.

33Sen, Amartya, “More than 100 Million Women are Missing” in New York Review of Books, 20 December 1990, 61-4, 64, as cited in Funder, Anna, 1993, “De Minimis Non Curat Lex: The Clitoris, Culture and the Law”, Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, Volume 3, Number 2, Fall 1993, pages 418-467 at page 424.

34Armstrong, Sue, 1991, “Female circumcision: fighting a cruel tradition”, New Scientist, 2 February 1991, pages 22-23.

35Slack, Alison T, ibid, page 452.

36Slack, Alison T, ibid, page 454.

37Hosken, Fran P, 1989, “Female genital mutilation - Strategies for eradication”, Truth Seeker, July/August 1989, page 22.

38Slack, Alison T, op cit, page 454.

39Slack, Alison T, op cit, page 454.

40Hedley Rodney and Dorkenoo Efua, 1992, Child Protection and Female Genital Mutilation, Foundation for Women’s Health Research and Development, page 9.

41Toubia, Nahid, Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action, page 40.

42Toubia, Nahid, Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action, page 17.

43Slack, Alison T, op cit, page 453.

44SBS The Cutting Edge , 29 June 1993.

45Badawi, Mohamed, 1989, “Epidemiology of Female Sexual Castration in Cairo, Egypt”, The Truth Seeker, July /August 1989, page 32.

46Badawi, Mohamed, op cit, page 32.

47Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1992) Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status, Geneva, page 11.

48See, for example, The Age, 25 march 1994.

49The Guidelines issued by the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board in March 1993 (Women Refugee Claimants fearing Gender-related Persecution), discuss the position of “...women who fear persecution as the consequence for failing to conform to, or for transgressing, certain gender-discriminating...cultural laws and practices in their country of origin. Such laws and practices, by singling out women and placing them in a more vulnerable position than men, may create conditions precedent to a gender-defined cultural group”. Page 3.

50ALRC, 1991, Multiculturalism : Criminal Law, Discussion Paper 48, May 1991, page 23.

51Slack, Alison T, 1988, “Female Circumcision: A critical appraisal”, Human Rights Quarterly, 10(1988) 437-486, page 448.

52SBS Television, The Cutting Edge, 29 June 1993.

53This term is used by Hanny Lightfoot-Klein in, 1989, Prisoner of Ritual: An Odyssey into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa.

54Lightfoot-Klein Hanny, 1983, “Pharaonic Circumcision of Females in the Sudan”, Medicine and the Law, 2 (1983) 354.

55El Saadawi, Nawal, 1985, “Prisoner of Conscience”, Coming Out! Women’s Voices, Women’s Lives, page 84.

56For a discussion on the role of the public/private distinction in this context, see Katherine O’Donovan, Sexual Divisions in the Law, 1985 (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London).

57Funder, Anna, 1993, “De Minimis Non Curat Lex: The Clitoris, Culture and the Law”, Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, Iowa College of Law, Vol.3, No.2, Fall 1993, page 419.

58Funder, Anna, op cit, page 425.

59Funder, Anna, op cit, page 426.

60Department of Immigration & Ethnic Affairs, 1994, “Women affected by old custom require sensitive support” in Post Migration, Number 94, January 1994, page 7.

61See, for example, Australian Law Reform Commission, Multiculturalism: Criminal Law, ALRC DP 48, May 1991 at paragraph 2.35, page 22.

62The brief outline of the position in France is based on information provided in a cablegram from DFAT Paris.

63The information on the position in Europe is based on a cablegram from DFAT Paris.

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