Economic History of North America to 1865 This course is concerned with the early stages of economic growth in Canada and the United States with special emphasis on the middle years of the nineteenth century. The organization will be topical and will include comparisons of Canadian and U.S. economic development. The topics include the settlement process, early staple (primary product) exports, agricultural development, American slavery, trade and commercial policy, and early industrialization.
Instructor: Byron Lew
Office: MC A523
Hours: Monday 10:00-11:30, Thursday 10:30-12:00
Secretary: Elvira Posthumus, D321
Text: reading package on reserve from AMS Publishing Center
Mid-Term Test: 20% October 15, 2001 (in class)
Term Assignments 30% October 11, November 19, 2001
Final Exam 50% As scheduled
Two papers are required of every student registered for credit in the course. A list of topics will be circulated under separate cover. Each paper should be approximately 6-8 pages in length (double spaced). The student is expected to show sources for quotes, tables, charts, etc. The standard essay format is to be used. If in doubt, consult such guides as Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations (University of Chicago Press). Be sure you understand the definition of 'plagiarism' and take steps to avoid even the possibility of a suspected violation. If in doubt, consult the calendar or see the instructor.
Penalties for late submission will be applied unless, upon presentation of a legitimate excuse, permission is obtained for an extension. Papers not submitted by the end of the term in which they are assigned will receive an "Incomplete" grade for that term. In any case a completed and accepted term paper is required before a final grade is assigned to the student at the end of the year. It is up to the student to ensure that they submit a paper for which an extension has been granted.
Some useful reference texts:
Atack, Jeremy and Peter Passell. 1994. A New Economic View of American History, Second Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Easterbrook, W.T. and M.H. Watkins. 1969. Approaches to Canadian Economic History, The Carleton Library #31. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited.
Fogel, Robert and Stanley Engerman. 1974. The Reinterpretation of American Economic History. NY: Harper & Row.
Marr, William L. and Donald G. Paterson. 1980. Canada: an Economic History. Toronto: Gage Publishing.
McCalla, Douglas, ed. 1987. Perspectives on Canadian Economic History. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman.
McCalla, Douglas and Michael Huberman, eds. 1994. Perspectives on Canadian Economic History, Second Edition. Mississauga, Ont.: Copp Clark Longman Ltd.
McInnis, Marvin. 2000. "The Economy of Canada in the Nineteenth Century." In S, Engerman and R. Gallman, eds., The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Volume II: The Long Nineteenth Century. Cambridge U.P., p. 57-107.
Norrie, Kenneth and Douglas Owram. 1996. A History of the Canadian Economy, Second Edition. Toronto: Harcourt, Brace & Company.
Pomfret, Richard. 1993. The Economic Development of Canada. Second Edition. Toronto: Nelson Canada.
Watkins, M.H. and H.M. Grant, eds. 1993. Canadian Economic History: Classic and Contemporary Approaches. Ottawa: Carleton University Press.
Lecture Topics 1. Growth in Preindustrial North America
David, Paul. 1967. "The Growth of Real Product in the United States before 1840: New Evidence, Controlled Conjectures," J.E.H. 27: 151-97. (jstor)
[*]Lewis, Frank D. 2001. “Farm Settlement with Imperfect Capital Markets: A Life-Cycle Application to Upper Canada, 1826-1851,” Canadian Journal of Economics 34: 174-95. (online)
[*]Lewis, Frank D., and M.C. Urquhart. 1999. "Growth and the Standard of Living in a Pioneer Economy: Upper Canada, 1826-1851," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series LVI: 151-81.
[*]Mancall, Peter C. and Thomas Weiss, 1999. "Was Economic Growth Likely in Colonial British North America?" J.E.H. 59: 17-40.
[*]Weiss, Thomas. 1994. "Economic Growth Before 1860: Revised Conjectures." In American Economic Development in Historical Perspective. T. Weiss and D. Schaefer (eds.), Stanford: Stanford U.P., 11-27.
Atack and Passell, Chapters 1, 2.
Norrie and Owram, Chapters 1-3.
2. Mercantilism and the American Revolution
[*]Thomas, Robert Paul. 1965. "A Quantitative Approach to the Study of the Effects of British Imperial Policy on Colonial Welfare," J.E.H. 25: 615-38. (jstor)
Atack and Passell, Chapter 3.
3. Growth and Exports: The Staples Thesis
[*]Caves, R.E. 1965. " 'Vent for Surplus' Models of Trade and Growth," in R.E. Baldwin, et al., (eds.) Trade, Growth, and the Balance of Payments: Essays in Honor of Gottfried Haberler Chicago: Rand McNally, p. 95-115.
[*]Watkins, M.H. 1963. "A Staple Theory of Economic Growth," C.J.E.P.S. pp. 141-58 reprinted in Easterbrook and Watkins, p. 49-73. (jstor)
Norrie and Owram, Ch. 4,9 and pp. 78-84, 145-150.
Pomfret, Ch. 3.
McCusker, John J. and Russell R. Menard. 1985. The Economy of British America, 1607-1789. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Chapters 1*, skim 2, 4
Mackintosh, W.A. 1923. "Economic Factors in Canadian History," Canadian Historical Review p. 12-25; reprinted in Easterbrook and Watkins, p. 1-15.
[*]Altman, Morris. 1988. "Economic Growth in Canada, 1695-1739: Estimates and Analysis," The William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Series, Vol. XLV: 684-701. (jstor)
Buckley, K. 1958, "The Role of Staple Industries in Canada's Economic Development," J.E.H. 18: 439-50. (jstor)
McCalla, Douglas. 1985. "The Internal Economy of Upper Canada: New Evidence on Agricultural Marketing Before 1850," Agricultural History 59: 397-416.
[*]McInnis, R. Marvin. 1992. "The Early Ontario Wheat Staple Reconsidered." Reprinted in R. Marvin McInnis, Perspectives on Ontario Agriculture 1815-1930. Gananoque, Ontario: Langdale Press, p. 17-48.
McInnis, R. Marvin. 1984. "Marketable Surpluses in Ontario Farming, 1860," Social Science History 8: 395-424. Reprinted in McCalla and Huberman.
5. The Fur Trade
Carlos, Ann. 1981. "The Causes and Origins of the North American Fur Trade Rivalry: 1804-1810," J.E.H. 41: 777-94. (jstor)
-----. 1982. "The Birth and Death of Predatory Competition in the North American Fur Trade: 1810-1821," E.E.H. 19: 156-83.
[*]-----. and Elizabeth Hoffman. 1986. "The North American Fur Trade: Bargaining to a Joint Profit Maximization under Incomplete Information, 1804-1821," J.E.H. 46: 967-86. Reprinted in McCalla and Huberman.
[*]Carlos, Ann and Frank D. Lewis. 1993. "Indians, the Beaver and the Bay: The Economics of Depletion in the Lands of the Hudson's Bay Company 1700-1763," J.E.H. 53: 465-94. Reprinted in McCalla and Huberman. (jstor)
[*]-----. 1999. "Property Rights, Competition and Depletion in the Eighteenth-Century Fur Trade: The Role of the European Market," C.J.E. 32: 705-28.
6. Economics of Forced Labour I: European Indentures
[*]Galenson, David 1977. "Immigration and the Colonial Labor System: An Analysis of Length of Indenture," E.E.H. 14: 360-77.
-----. 1984. "The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis," J.E.H. 44: 1-26. (jstor)
[*]Grubb, Farley. 1986. "Redemptioner Immigration to Pennsylvania: Evidence on Contract Choice and Profitability," J.E.H. 46: 407-18. (jstor)
[*]-----. 1994. "The End of European Immigration Servitude in the United States: An Economic Analysis of Market Collapse," 1772-1835," J.E.H. 54: 794-824. (jstor)
-----. 2000. "The Statutory Regulation of Colonial Servitude: An Incomplete Contract Approach," E.E.H. 37: 42-75. (online)
[*]Hamilton, Gillian. 1996. "The Market for Montreal Apprentices: Contract Length and Information," E.E.H. 33: 496-523. (online)
[*]-----. 1995. "Enforcement in Apprenticeship Contracts: Were Runaways a Serious Problem? Evidence from Montreal, 1791-1820." J.E.H. 55: 551-74. (jstor)
7. Economics of Forced Labour II: Slavery
[*]Coelho, Philip R.P. and Robert A. McGuire. 1997. "African and European Bound Labor in the British New World: The Biological Consequences of Economic Choices," J.E.H. 57: 83-115.
[*]Fogel, Robert W. and Stanley L. Engerman. 1974. Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery Vol. 1 (Little Brown, 1974), Prologue, Chapter 4 and pp. 191-223.
[*]Fogel, Robert W. and Stanley L. Engerman. 1971. Reinterpretation..., Chapters 24, 25, and 26.
Grubb, Farley, and Tony Stitt. 1994. "The Liverpool Emigrant Servant Trade and the Transition to Slave Labor in the Chesapeake, 1697-1707: Market Adjustments to War," E.E.H. 31: 376-405. (online)
8. Productivity Change in Agriculture
[*]Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman, (eds.), Reinterpretation..., Chapter 16.
Olmstead, Alan and Paul Rhode. 1995. "Beyond The Threshold: An Analysis of the Characteristics and Behavior of Early Reaper Adopters." J.E.H. 55: 27-57. (jstor)
[*]Pomfret, Richard. 1976. "The Mechanization of Reaping in Nineteenth-Century Ontario," J.E.H., 36: 399-415. (jstor)
Lew, Byron. 2000. "The Diffusion of Tractors on the Canadian Prairies: The Threshold Model and the Problem of Uncertainty," E.E.H. 37: 189-216. (online)
9. Quebec Agriculture and the Backwardness Hypothesis
Jones, R.L. 1942. "French-Canadian Agriculture in the St. Lawrence Valley, 1815-1860," Agricultural History 16 (1942); reprinted in Easterbrook and Watkins, p. 110-26.
[*]Lewis, Frank and R.M. McInnis. 1980. "The Efficiency of the French-Canadian Farmer in the Nineteenth Century," J.E.H. 40: 497-514. (jstor)
Le Goff, T.J.A. 1974. "The Agricultural Crisis in Lower Canada, 1802-12," Canadian Historical Review, 55; reprinted in McCalla, Perspectives.., p. 10-36.
[*]McInnis, R. Marvin. 1982. "A Reconsideration of the State of Agriculture in Lower Canada in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century," Canadian Papers in Rural History, 3: 9-49.
10. Trade and Commercial Policy
[*]Officer, L and L.B. Smith, 1968. "The Canadian-American Reciprocity Treaty of 1855 to 1866," J.E.H. 28: 598-623. (jstor)
[*]Barnett, D.F. 1976. "The Galt Tariff: Incidental or Effective Protection," C.J.E. 9 389-407. (jstor)
Ankli, R. 1971. "The Reciprocity Treaty of 1854," C.J.E. 4 1-20. (jstor)
11. Transport Development
[*]Mak, J. and G. Walton. 1972. "Steamboats and the Great Productivity Surge in River Transportation," J.E.H. 32: 619-40. (jstor)
[*]McIlwraith, T. 1976. "Freight Capacity and Utilization of the Erie and Great Lakes Canals before 1850," J.E.H. 36: 852-75. (jstor)
[*]Carlos, Ann and Frank D. Lewis. 1992. "The Profitability of Early Canadian Railroads." In Claudia Goldin and Hugh Rockoff, eds., Strategic Factors in Nineteenth Century American Economic History. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, p. 401-26.
Fishlow, A. 1965. American Railroads and the Transformation of the Ante-Bellum Economy Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p. 2-62, 301-11.
12. Agriculture and Early Industrialization
[*]Sokoloff, K. and V. Tchakerian. 1997. "Manufacturing Where Agriculture Predominates: Evidence from the South and Midwest in 1860." E.E.H. 34: 243-64. (online)
[*]Sokoloff, K. and D. Dollar. 1997. "Agricultural Seasonality and the Organization of Manufacturing in Early Industrial Economies: The Contrast Between England and the United States." J.E.H. 57: 288-321.
[*]Goldin, C. and K. Sokoloff. 1984. "The Relative Productivity Hypothesis of Industrialization: The American Case, 1820 to 1850," Quarterly Journal of Economics 99: 461-87. (jstor)
13. The Labor Scarcity Debate
[*]Temin, Peter. "Labor Scarcity in America," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 1: 251-64.
Field, A.J. 1983. "Land Abundance, Interest/Profit Rates and Nineteenth Century American and British Technology," J.E.H. 43: 405-31. (jstor)
[*]James, J.A. and J.S. Skinner. 1985. "The Resolution of the Labor-Scarcity Paradox," J.E.H. 45: 513-40. (jstor)
[*]Field-Hendrey, Elizabeth. 1998. "The Role of Gender in Biased Technical Change: U.S. Manufacturing, 1850-1919," J.E.H. 58: 1090-1109.
14. Immigration and Migration
[*]Cohn, Raymond L. 2000. "Nativism and the End of the Mass Migration of the 1840s and 1850s," J.E.H. 60: 361-83.
[*]Conley, Thomas G. and David W. Galenson. 1998. "Nativity and Wealth in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cities," J.E.H. 58: 468-93.
[*]Ferrie, Joseph P. 1997. "The Entry into the U.S. Labor Market of Antebellum European Immigrants, 1840-1860," E.E.H. 34: 295-330. (online)
[*]Herscovici, Steven. 1998. "Migration and Economic Mobility: Wealth Accumulation and Occupational Change Among Antebellum Migrants and Persisters," J.E.H. 58: 927-56.
[*]Margo, Robert A. 1999. "Regional Wage Gaps and the Settlement of the Midwest," E.E.H. 36: 109-27. (online)