Eyewitness: First Impressions of the Aztec Capital (p. 415)



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Bentley Chapter 20 Study Guide: Worlds Apart: The Americas and Oceania

Eyewitness: First Impressions of the Aztec Capital (p.415)

  1. What is the capital of the Aztec Empire? How did the Spanish describe the city?


States and Empires in Mesoamerica (p.416)

  1. Who were the most prominent people contesting for power in Mesoamerica after the fall of Teotihuacan?


The Toltecs and the Mexica (p.416)

  1. What present-day city did the Toltec and Mexica surround?




  1. Describe the capital cities of the Toltec and Mexica regional states?


Toltecs (p.417)

  1. How did the Toltecs expand their empire?


Tula (p. 417)

  1. Describe the Toltec’s relationship with the Mayan?




  1. How did the Toltec fall?



The Mexica (p.417)

  1. Describe the reputation of Mexica or the Aztecs.



Tenochtitlan (pp. 417-418)

  1. What system of agriculture did the Mexica (Aztec) develop? Describe this system of agriculture.


The Aztec Empire (p. 418)

  1. How did the Aztec expand their empire?


Tribute and Trade (p. 418-419)

  1. What was the main objective of the Mexica and triple alliance?



  1. What items of tribute did they receive from nearby peoples?



  1. What items did merchants take to distant lands to trade for local produce?



  1. Describe the political structure of the Aztec empire, including its military.


Mexica Society

Social Structure (p. 419)

  1. What group of people made up the military elite?



Warriors (p. 419)

  1. What benefits did the warrior elites enjoy?


Mexica Women (p. 419)

  1. Describe the role and view of women in Aztec society.



Priests (p. 419-420)

  1. Describe the benefits that the priestly elite class enjoyed.



Cultivators and Slaves (p. 420)

  1. Apart from cultivating the chinampas, that was the role of the Mexica commoners?


  1. Where did the large number of slaves come from?


Artisans and Merchants (pp. 420-421)

  1. How were artisans and merchants viewed in Mexica society?



  1. Compare the view of merchants in Mexica society to that of Han China.

Mexica Religion (p. 421)

  1. What aspects of Olmec and Mayan traditions did the Aztec adopt and share?



Mexica Gods (p. 421)

  1. What other religious beliefs did Mexica absorb that were common to Mesoamerica?



Ritual Bloodletting (p. 421)

  1. What was the purpose of bloodletting rituals?



Huitzilopochtli (p. 421)

  1. What was the purpose of the sacrificial killing of human victims and why did the Mexcia place so much more emphasis on human sacrifice than their predecessors?

Cahokia (p. 423)

  1. Where was the Cahokia society located?



Trade (p. 423)

  1. Based on archeological evidence, describe trade in relation to Cahokia. Include routes and its importance.


States and Empires in South America (pp. 423-424)

  1. How did the Incan Empire compare to those of Mexica and in Mesoamerica?

The Coming of the Incas (p. 424)

The Incan Empire (p. 425)

  1. Where did the Incans settle, and how did they create an empire?


  1. Describe how the Inca ruled.


Incan Administration (p. 425)

  1. Describe Pachacuti’s system of government at Cuzco.


Quipu (p. 425)

  1. What is quipu?



  1. What was quipu used for?


Cuzco (p. 425-426)

  1. What was the purpose of the city of Cuzco? Describe the city.


Inca Roads (p. 426)

  1. What was significant of the Incan Roads?




  1. What did these roads help spread throughout Incan civilization?



Incan Society and Religion

Trade (p. 426)

  1. What type of economy was at the local level?


  1. Who controlled long-distance trade in the Empire and what effect did that have on society?



Ruling Elites (p. 426)

  1. What were the main classes of Incan society?



  1. How did the Incan’s view their ruler?



  1. How did the god-king ten to the needs of their living subjects?


Peasants (p. 427)

  1. What did the peasants do instead of paying taxes?



  1. Where did production from state lands go?



  1. What else did peasants do besides agricultural work?

Moral Thought (p. 427)

  1. Describe the Inca’s religious beliefs?



The Societies of Oceania (p. 427)

  1. Who did the aboriginal people of Australia and Northern Australia trade with?


  1. Describe Oceania by the time European mariners sailed into the Pacific Ocean in the sixteenth century. Who did they have contacts with?



The Nomadic Foragers of Australia (pp. 427-428)

  1. What was the difference between the people of New Guinea and aboriginal peoples of Australia?


Trade (p. 428)

  1. What was the impact of the small-scale trade that occurred amongst the nomads in Australia?

The Development of Pacific Island Societies (p. 429)

  1. What was the last region on earth to receive inhabitants?



  1. Who were these people inhabiting the larder Pacific islands promoting social and political development?


Trade Between Island Groups (p. 429)

  1. What were the useful goods exchanged amongst the cluster of islands in central and western regions of the Pacific?



  1. What served as social, political, and economic functions?


  1. What islands were involved in longer distance trade?


Long-Distance Voyaging (p. 429)

  1. What impact did long distance voyages have on the Maori people of New Zealand?



  1. How did long distance voyages impact social traditions in the Hawaiian Islands?


Population Growth (p. 430)

  1. What led to population growth in the larger Pacific Island groups? What islands are included in this group?


  1. What was the result of dense populations on some islands?


Development of Social Classes (pp. 430-432)

  1. Around the 13th century, what did expanding populations on many of the Pacific Islands help create?




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