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EXPLORATION DATE: ____/____/____ NAME: ______________________________ BLK: ___

EXPLORERS

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EXPLORERS CONTENTS

Page


Title Page

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Explorers Table of Contents



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Explorers Anticipation Guide

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Exploration Warm-Ups



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Portugal and West Africa

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Portugal and West Africa Notes



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West African Caravan Camel

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Map of Africa Instructions



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Map of Africa

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Ancient West Africa Quiz



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Study Guide for West African Exploration

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Why Explore?

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Motivations For Exploration



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Obstacles To Exploration 1

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Obstacles To Exploration 2



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The Four Empires

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Exploration of North America Map



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Exploration Claims Text

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Exploration Claims Notes



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Explorers’ Biography Boat

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Accomplishments of Exploration



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Exploration Overview Chart

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Cultural Interaction Between Europeans and Natives



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Conflict and Cooperation Between Europeans and Natives

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Treasure of Two Worlds-Trade Between Continents



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EXPLORERS ANTICIPATION GUIDE



Before




After

SOL 4a – REASONS FOR EXPLORATION

T

F



European explorers were motivated by a need to tame the unknown.

T

F



T

F

French explorers established trading posts along the Mississippi River Valley.



T

F

T



F

One obstacle faced by European Explorers was starvation.

T

F

T



F

The English established settlements and claimed ownership of the Indians.

T

F

T



F

European explorers were motivated by economic opportunities.

T

F

T



F

Navigational tools and ships suffered as a result of exploration.

T

F

T



F

Francisco Coronado claimed all of present-day Southern Canada for Spain.

T

F

T



F

Claiming new territories was an accomplishment of European exploration.

T


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F

T

F



Spanish explorers conquered and enslaved American Indians.

T

F



T

F

The spread of Christianity was largely the responsibility of the English.



T

F

SOL 4b – CULTURAL INTERACTIONS



T

F

One area of conflict between the American Indians and the Europeans was the use of poor maps and navigational tools.

T

F

T

F

The American Indians did not believe in sharing land.

T

F

T

F

One area of cooperation between the American Indians and the Europeans was farming techniques (methods).

T

F

SOL 4c – PORTUGAL AND WEST AFRICA

T

F

Portuguese explorers brought gold to West Africa.

T

F

T

F

The ancient West African empires became rich from trading.

T

F

T

F

The empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were located near the Amazon River.

T

F


EXPLORATION WARM UP SHEET

1. List the three African empires Portugal traded with as it explored West Africa.



  • _______________________________

  • _______________________________

  • _______________________________

2. Place the three African empires on the timeline below from earliest on the left to latest on the right.

3. Which African river was the most important to these three empires?

_______________________________

4. What did Portugal get in exchange for manufactured goods traded with the three empires of West Africa?

_______________________________




  • 6. List the four obstacles of European exploration.

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________

    7. List the three major accomplishments of European exploration.

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________

    5. List the three motivations (reasons) for European exploration.

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________




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Identify the explorers and their areas.

7A. SPAIN
Who:________________________
Where:_________________________
7B. FRANCE


8. List three areas of CONFLICT between American Indians and Europeans.


  • _____________________________

  • _____________________________

  • _____________________________

9. List three areas of COOPERATION between American Indians and Europeans.

  • _____________________________

  • _____________________________

  • _____________________________



#1 Who:________________________


Where:_________________________
#2 Who:________________________
Where:_________________________
7C. ENGLAND
Who:________________________
Where:_________________________

PORTUGAL AND WEST AFRICA
One of the first European nations to make voyages of discovery was Portugal. Explorers from this country on the western tip of Europe explored western Africa. Portugal would trade, or buy, sell or barter goods with African empires for resources. These African goods began to play an important role in increasing European interest in world resources.
THE EMPIRES OF WEST AFRICA

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Three West African empires, one after another, dominated West Africa from 300 to 1600 A.D. First was the empire of Ghana. Next was the empire of Mali. The last empire was Songhai. All three would rise and fall between the Sahara desert and the Niger River. The area is rich in gold and salt. They became powerful by controlling these very valuable resources in West Africa.
Trading was an important part of life in Africa. African empires traded with each other to meet their needs. One of their greatest needs was salt. During the time of the explorers, salt was needed to flavor and preserve food. Because there was no refrigeration, many foods like meats quickly spoiled. Instead of trying to keep these foods cool, people covered them with salt. The salt dried out the food and allowed it to be stored for a while before being eaten. This made salt very valuable. It was so valuable that other African kingdoms were willing to trade gold for it!
The great empires of West Africa traded with European nations and other African kingdoms. The large supplies of gold and salt began to cause European countries like Portugal to become more and more interested in the coast of West Africa. The Portuguese carried goods from Europe to West African empires where they traded metals, cloth, and other manufactured goods for gold. Manufactured means something that has been made by people.





was the first European nation to make

.
They with parts of

.
These African goods played an important role in _______________________________________.


There were three West African empires:

  • ________________

  • ________________

  • ________________

They all resided along

.

The African empires would trade



to Portugal for

.



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PORTUGAL AND WEST AFRICA NOTES




One of the first European nations to make voyages of discovery was ________________, who explored and ____________ with parts of western _____________.


These African goods played an important role in _______________________________________.
There were three west African empires:

  • ________________

  • ________________

  • ________________

They all resided along the ___________ river.


The African empires would trade salt and ______________ to Portugal for _____________________.


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PORTUGAL AND WEST AFRICA NOTES

DIRECTIONS:

1. Draw all of the items on your camel that you will need for a caravan trip across the Sahara Desert, to trade in Timbuktu, West Africa. Use color!!!

2. Cut out your camel CAREFULLY , and glue it onto the page in the space below. (You may wish to complete step #3 BEFORE gluing your camel down.)

3. Draw your camel an appropriate background.

4. Use the lines below to explain (list) what you packed and WHY.




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________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



MAP OF AFRICA INSTRUCTIONS

DIRECTIONS

On the map of Africa on the next page, please label the following:
1) Atlantic Ocean

2) Strait of Gibraltar

3) Mediterranean Sea

4) The Nile River in Eastern Africa

5) Portugal - the country next to Spain on the peninsula
Shade in the Sahara Desert in brown using your colored pencils - the huge area is arid (very hot, very dry) and hostile to plants and most life.
Trace the Niger River using your blue colored pencil and label it.
Please put the three major West African empires which dominated from 300 to 1600 AD using the colored pencil in the following key.
First – Ghana - Green

Second – Mali - Orange




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Third – Songhai - Purple
These empires existed in the area south of the Sahara and along the Niger River. This area has the NATURAL RESOURCES of Gold and Salt. Salt was very valuable for preserving meat and fish.
Draw the route that the Portuguese trading ships would take from Portugal to the Niger River along the coast using a red colored pencil. Highlight this route.
The Portuguese traders brought manufactured goods such as tools and cloth from Portugal and traded for GOLD with the West African empires. The leaders and traders of Portugal wanted GOLD.
Write Gold using your yellow colored pencil on the bottom on paper!
The motivation of the Portuguese traders was a desire for GOLD.
FYI (for your information) An Empire is similar to a kingdom.
MAP OF AFRICA




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Ancient West Africa Quiz



bd07327_ bd07327_ bd07327_ bd07327_ bd07327_ bd07327_ bd07327_
Write the correct answer on the space provided.
___1. The ancient griots of Mali were _____.

A. farmers B. storytellers C. kings D. merchants


___2. The head of the government in the ancient African empires was a ______.

A. king B. president C. governor D. mayor


___3. The ancient African empires grew wealthy because of all the _____.

A. weaving B. farming C. trading D. singing


___4. The desert in the northern part of Africa is the ______ Desert.

A. Sahara B. Painted C. Mojave D. Gobi


___5. Which is NOT true about how camels are adapted for trips across the desert:

A. big, wide feet B. short legs C. humps of fat D. nostrils that close


___6. What were the two major items traded in ancient West Africa?


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A. tea and jam B. bread and jam C. salt and gold D. tea and crackers
___7. The major river that runs through the ancient empire of Songhai is _____.

A. Nile River B. Niger River C. Amazon River D. Mississippi River


___8. Being an expert in one type of job is called economic _____.

A. supply B. specialization C. demand D. interdependence


___9. Ancient Africans depending on one another for goods and services is called ____.

A. supply B. specialization C. demand D. interdependence


__10. The climate of ancient Ghana can best be described as _____.

A. hot and dry B. cold and dry C. hot and wet D. cold and wet


__11. Caravans were mostly used for _____.

A. convenience B. socialization C. safety D. entertainment


__12. The European nation responsible for creating interest in North American exploration was ____.

A. England B. Spain C. Portugal D. France

akg 11/08


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INDIA

CHINA


EUROPE

THE SILK ROAD

WHY EXPLORE?

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By the year 1400, people in Europe had been trading with people in Asia for a very long time traveling over land. Silks, spices, and other fine goods would travel from China and India through the Middle East to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea on trade routes called the Silk Road. As Islamic and Christian empires began to fight, these trade routes became more dangerous and more expensive to travel.





AFRICA

ASIA
As sailing and navigational technology began to grow, some thought they could sail to Asia to trade. This meant less trouble with other kingdoms because of going through their territory.
People had to sail all around Africa to get to Asia. By 1500, no one was quite sure how large the planet was, but some thought they could travel to Asia by going west instead of going around Africa.
People wanted to trade for more money. They wanted to do it faster than anyone else. They also wanted to have it cost less to ship things.
MOTIVATIONS FOR EXPLORATION

It is the year 1500. News of Christopher Columbus’ voyage to North America has reached the European empires of Spain, France, and England. They want to claim the continent of North America. These three European countries are in competition. A competition is when two or more groups of people are working against each other in order to win something. These countries had three motivations in their competition. A motivation is a reason for doing something.


GOLD
The empires needed gold and wealth to stay powerful. More money meant bigger ships, bigger armies, and wealthier kings and queens! They hoped the American continents could provide them with great riches.
GOD


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Each empire believed in Christianity. In 1500, the ability of an empire to spread Christianity to new lands meant more blessings from God. If God was on their side, because they converted the most people, it could only mean that they would be victorious against the other empires.



GLORY
The more area an empire claimed, the more opportunities for their culture to spread. Many of the areas these empires once held are still influenced by their culture today!

GOLD (WEALTH)

GOD (RELIGION)

GLORY (COUNTRY)

Land = POWER



OBSTACLES TO EXPLORATION 1

These three countries sent explorers to North America to claim it. These men faced many obstacles. An obstacle is something that is stopping you from doing what you want to do.


POOR MAPS AND NAVIGATIONAL TOOLS
The first obstacle was poor maps and poor navigational tools. There were very few maps. The maps the explorers had were hand drawn and were often inaccurate, or wrong. There were few navigational tools, or things used by people to help them find their way when they are traveling. They used a compass to help with direction. They also used a cross-staff, which helped them locate latitude. Those were the only tools they had. Early explorers had to observe birds, schools of fish, winds, and cloud types to help them navigate across the Atlantic Ocean.


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LACK OF SUPPLIES

The lack of accurate maps led many to believe that far away destinations such as China, were closer than they actually were. This often created shortages of supplies for the sailors when they hadn’t reached their destination in the amount of time they had planned. Rough seas and ferocious storms would also slow them down or blew them off course sometimes. This could add weeks and even months to their journey. There were not enough supplies on board their small ships to last more than a few weeks.


DISEASE AND STARVATION
The lack of enough supplies created a third obstacle, disease and starvation. Sailors often became sick due to bad water supplies and a lack of fresh fruits and vegetables. When food supplies ran low, sailors were forced to eat rats or sawdust.


OBSTACLES TO EXPLORATION 2

FEAR OF THE UNKNOWN
Many of the explorers and navigators had better schooling than the sailors with them. The explorers and navigators knew the Earth was round. Many of the sailors didn’t know that, and were convinced that they would sail over the flat edge of the planet. Worse yet, they thought they would be eaten by giant sea-monsters. Others feared the fierce storms of the open ocean and the very real dangers of wrecking on rocky coastlines or running aground on underwater sand bars.

POOR MAPS AND NAVIGATIONAL TOOLS


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LACK OF SUPPLIES

DISEASE AND STARVATION

FEAR OF THE UNKNOWN
THE FOUR EMPIRES


ENGLAND

FRANCE

SPAIN

PORTUGAL


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EXPLORATION OF NORTH AMERICA MAP
DIRECTIONS

Color the locations of the early European colonies in North America. Spain is yellow, England is red, and France is blue. Use your colored pencils.






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THE EXPLORERS AND WHAT THEY CLAIMED
SPAIN
Spain was first to explore both American continents. Because they were first, they claimed more land than the other two empires.
Francisco Coronado was a Spanish explorer. He set out to find the legend of the seven cities of gold. That were said to be filled with gold and treasure somewhere in what is now the southwest United States. He never found them. Along the way he claimed the area for Spain.
FRANCE

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Samuel de Champlain was a French explorer. He explored what is present-day Canada. He wanted to establish, or start, a fur trading post. He created the first permanent French settlement and named it Quebec.
Another French explorer by the name of Robert La Salle claimed the entire Mississippi River Valley, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, for France.
ENGLAND
John Cabot made the first voyage to the continent of North America for England. His exploration of eastern Canada, including Newfoundland, gave England a claim to lands in North America.

EXPLORERS AND CLAIMS NOTES




SPAIN
Who:________________________
Where:_________________________
FRANCE
Who:________________________
Where:_________________________
Who:________________________
Where:_________________________


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ENGLAND
Who:________________________


Where:_________________________



In the space below, summarize what you have read in a few short sentences.



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Explorers




Francisco Coronado

Samuel de Champlain




Spanish, sponsor~ Spain

1540-1554 searched for the “7 cities of gold” (Cibola) and spread Christianity and disease

Claimed southwestern U. S.~ AZ, CO, NM, TX, and OK

Route became part of Santa Fe Trail






French, sponsor~France

1603-1615 explored

St. Lawrence Riv. and founded a trading post at Quebec

Claimed “New France” (Canada)




John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto)




Italian, sponsor~England

1492 seeking “NW Passage” to China

Discovered Newfoundland, explored eastern Canada and went south- landing at Cape Cod, MA Thought he found Asia Lost at sea

Robert La Salle

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French, sponsor~France

1666-1678 Claimed Miss. Riv. Valley and the Great Lakes

Founded Louisiana (named for King Louis of France)

Sought control of fur trade and mouth of



Mississippi River



Explorers



ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Although the obstacles were great, European explorers had many accomplishments. An accomplishment is something you prove or gain when your work is done.
The Europeans exchanged goods and ideas with the Native Americans they met there.
Countries improved their navigational tools and ships. They did this because they wanted to make travel to North America easier.
Most important were the huge areas of land or territory claimed for the major European powers.
EXCHANGED GOODS & IDEAS

IMPROVED TOOLS & SHIPS


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NEW CLAIMED LANDS


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CULTURAL INTERACTIONS
SPAIN
Spain began enslaving Native Americans as soon as they arrived in the Americas. Europeans were prejudiced against the Native Americans, or wrongly felt their culture was better. They didn’t respect their beliefs or customs. They brought Christianity to the New World and tried to convert the Native Americans to their religion. They converted Native Americans by choice, or by force. The Spanish explorers also brought European diseases, like smallpox, that killed many Native American populations.

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FRANCE
The French also interacted, or meet with, worked with, talked to, or fought with the Native Americans living on the lands they claimed for France. They allowed Native Americans to keep most of their land. They established trading posts where they could trade. Native Americans would trade animal furs they had hunted for metal hatchets, knives, blankets, and traps. The French, like the Spanish, also wanted to spread Christianity in North America.
ENGLAND
The English quickly established settlements and claimed ownership to all they could see. Their claims to land would sometimes cause conflict, or a fight, with the Native Americans near them. Europeans could cooperate, or work together with Native Americans too. They learned farming techniques from the Native Americans and began to add beans, pumpkins, squash, and corn to their diet. The English also traded like the French did, exchanging metal weapons and tools for deerskins and furs.


CONFLICT AND COOPERATION


Areas of Cooperation




Areas of Conflict

Spain

  • Spain created missions (small church centered towns) that taught the Catholic faith and European village life and created an environment to live in





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Spain

  • Spain conquered and enslaved Native Americans

  1. Aztecs and Incas – stole their gold and treasure

  2. Forced many natives to work in mines and on sugar plantations in the West Indies

  • Spain brought Christianity (sometimes by force) into the New World

  • Spain 1st brought European diseases to the natives

  1. Small Pox #1 killer of natives

  2. Spanish contracted diseases like malaria and yellow fever

  • Language

France

  • France traded very fairly with the Native Americans










France

  • France spread Christianity

  • France competed for trade (with the natives and other Europeans)

  • Language

England

  • England traded weapons and farm tools to the Native Americans for crops.




  • England learned farming techniques from the Native Americans.







England

  • England established larger settlements than other Europeans

  • England claimed the land as their own.

  • Competed for trade (with the natives and other Europeans)

  • Language

Sometime called the Columbian Exchange (after Christopher Columbus), many new plants and animals went back and forth between Europe and the Americas. This was also the beginning of the Slave trade.



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Gavrin, Griswold, DeGuzman, Doyle, Griffith, Hinchman – LCPS (2013-2014) U.S. History I


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