Explorations, Discovery, and Settlement (1492-1700)

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Explorations, Discovery, and Settlement (1492-1700)

New World Beginnings, 33,000 B.C-A.D. 1769
  1. Doc A

  1. Juan Gines de Sepulveda Belittles.

  1. Spaniard- who talks about the power that the Spaniards over the Indians

  2. Aristotle’s teaching

  1. Spaniards

  1. Conquered lands in America which caused conflicts between the natives

  2. Took the natives as their slaves to find riches and to build their territory

  1. Native Americans (Indians)

  1. Were not literate

  2. Followed the rules of their higher leader; who were voted by popularity not power nor hereditary

  3. Worked hard for everything to keep their civilization organized

  4. Understood their way of living by having their specific roles and rules but in the end having a part of a territory and receiving possession

  1. Control

  1. Since the Indians did not have a conflict of following their higher leader, the Spaniards concluded that they would over power them and start to lead them into new ways of living such as religion, land and human virtues.

  2. Spaniard did not care for the Indians because they believe they were stupid and could not lead or have their own way of learning life as the technology improves and dividing land in their “New World called America.”

  1. Doc B

  1. Bartolome de Las Casas

  1. Dominican- known to be the “Protector of the Indians and bishop of Guatemala”

  2. He viewed the Indians as a normal human being who deserves to learn the word of God.

  3. Believed that Sepulveda had no right to treat the Indians as if they were stupid and useless people who are needed to be ruled just to live in their own land.

  4. Believed that Indians were greater than most people in the world

  1. Native American

  1. “They are not ignorant, inhuman or bestial.”

a. Las Casas proves that they should not be treated the way they are just because they are not illiterate

b. The Indians also had a choice: to improve the way they lived because they were easy to teach and accepting to what can be offered such as the Christianity, word of God.

  1. Mechanical art

  1. It was a skill that the natives produced with such beauty.

  2. “Mechanical art is an operative habit of the intellect that is through which the artisan proceeds in orderly fashion, easily, and unerringly in the very act of reason”

c. Their work was so fascinating and detailed that it shows that the natives were more than what the Spaniards believed, they were skilled and talented.

  1. Sepulveda/Spaniards

  1. Sepulveda did not care or even like the mechanical art that Indians produce.

  2. Tortured the Indians

a. Indians are also children of God and Christ died for them too so they did not deserve to be killed or deserve any horrible treatments due to their lack of knowledge

  1. Las Casas’ way of solution

  1. When the Indians embrace the teaching of the gospel then they can obey the rules of their God.

  2. They are so brilliant and having the ability to do such wonderful things to the world that they can spread the teachings and their very own knowledge.

III. Doc C

  1. Hernan Cortes

  1. Conquered the Aztecs ruled by Meteczuma in Mexico

  2. Sent a letter to his King in Spain about the religious beliefs of the Aztecs and how he changed their point of view that there is only one God.

  3. He was given the power to rule the Aztecs by Meteczuma

  4. Ordered the Aztecs to stop the sacrifices and killing for their idols because there is only one god.

  1. Meteczuma

  1. Ruler of the Aztecs

  2. Believed that who ever landed on their land from foreign parts will be their leader and lead them to knowledge of their god.

  3. He gave Cortes a speech that Cortes’ god will be their natural lord who they will obey and follow without a doubt. Also giving Cortes the right to have all the gold from his forefathers if he will accept.

  1. Aztec’s beliefs

  1. Believed that they needed to sacrifice themselves to their idols

  2. Believed that a certain type of people are only allowed to see the idols

  3. The idols were made by the food that they have eaten such as cereals and greenstuffs, and moisten with blood.

  4. They made idols for all their needs such as crops and in wars.

  1. Cortes’ speech about god

  1. That there is only one god who made the world that they are living, who is immortal not man-made.

  2. That there are no sacrifices needed so whosoever kills or sacrifices a human being shall be killed.

  1. Doc D

  1. Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sabagun

  1. Wrote about the tragedy that occurred when the Spaniards conquered the Aztecs killing celebrants during the fiesta of Toxcatl and the image of Huitzilopochtli.

  1. Motecuhzoma

  1. The ruler of the Aztecs told Cortes and the spaniards that they are glad to finally see them face to face because the Aztecs were told they would encounter their lords coming from the sky who will lead them and take the throne.

  2. But Cortes explained that they are his friends so do not fear.

  3. Some of his men lost their respect for him since he was obeying the Spaniards and doing all the things that he was told to do.

  1. Idol image- Huitzilopochtli

  1. Human appearance- dressed in feathers, earrings, gold rings hanging, belt made with feathers, red paper flag that was made into a knife, coyote skin bands, carrying four arrows and bamboo shield with 4 eagle feathers.

  2. Human parts- cloaks were painted with skulls and bones, vest painted with human parts such as “skulls, ears, hearts, intestines, torsos, breasts, hands, and feet.”

  1. Fiesta of Toxcalt

  1. Showed several idols statues and the people started to offer their gifts such as food and even human flesh.

  2. Danced in the patio but the people who did not follow the rules or disobeyed were tortured.

  3. Others were given the title of “Brothers of Huitzilopochtli” if they fasted during year.

  1. Actions of the Spaniards

  1. Fired a canon, which frightened the people of the Aztecs.

  2. Attacked the celebrants during the fiesta.

  1. Closed all the pathways that will allow any celebrants to leave.

  2. “They attacked all the celebrants, stabbing them, spearing them, striking them with their swords….”

  3. Some were beheaded, tore the bodies apart…

  4. The people tried to escape but it wasn’t possible, some even tried to play dead around the dead people or run to the communal houses but the Spaniards did not hesitate to hunt everywhere to kill the remaining.

  1. Doc E

    A. Don Juan de Ornate

    1. instructs his orders to Vicente de Zaldivar how to deal

with the Pueblos
B. Reasons for the movement
1.the Pueblos killed 10 captains/ soldiers, women and children as an act of sacrifice for their religion
2. To keep the peace and prevent murders or killing
C. Indians of Acoma
1. Had no fear about what they caused (murders)
2. Had to give up their possessions and were assured that they will be taken cared of in the valley and learn the gospel of God
3. Their place had to be burnt down and destroyed so they will not relocate and start things all over again.

D. Vincente de Zaldivar

1. Sent to the pueblos to take the orders and follow as plan
2. Given the power to execute if needed and humiliate in a public view
3. To make the Indians believe the friars, to fear them and love
4. Follow the majority vote by the member of the council of war about the decisions that we're needed to make.

VI. Doc F

A. England 1550
1. Most workers lived on the road after the depression
B. Affects
1. Farmers gave up their farms
2. There are more beggars and criminals
3. People sold all their possessions and belongings

Because they couldn’t get money from work or didn’t have one.

4. Hunger caused people to eat anything even dog/horse flesh

And even stole.

C. William Pelham
1. An English landlord had to help out others and affected his

Own life but he still did things such as borrowed money

2. He writes to his brother in a way that explains how

thankful he still is about what he has and takes things positively

as it goes along. He tries to see things in other ways to

keep himself going and doing things for his love ones.

VII. Doc G

    1. Prisoners of England

1. Since it was too dangerous to keep the prisoners around, England had thought of a way to keep them working and useful for the country.

a. To make them work in American soil where England occupied some land.

b. “in burning of the firs and pine trees to make pitch, tar, rosin and soap ashes…in setting them to work in mines of gold, silver, copper, lead, and iron..”

c. Prisoners will be workers… “cappers, knitters, clothiers, wool men…etc”

    1. America

1. Merchandise can be made by the prisoners

2. It can then be sent to England for use and to sell.

C. Life

1. Instead of executing the prisoners, they are given the chance

to live and make use of their time by being workers.

Questions for each Doc.

  1. What is the historical context of this document?

  2. What is the author’s thesis?

  3. What was the author’s purpose/agenda in writing this document?

  4. For what audience was this document intended?

Doc A

  1. The historical context of this document was mainly about the spread of power of the Spaniard throughout the New World and how they can control the Native Americans to work and serve the Spaniards.

  2. The author, Juan Gines de Sepulveda declared that the Indians are capable to follow their higher leaders since they had done so for several years without a struggle. Also, having minds that are in need to be controlled so they can live in their environment so the Spaniards concluded that it will not be a problem when they will become slaves for the Spaniards.

  3. The author’s purpose in the writing of the document is to view the Indians as barbarians who are not literate and the kind of people that cannot stand up for their own power that the Spaniards can immediately over power them and use them to work on their own land.

  4. The audience that which the document intended to were the men of the Spaniards, to let them see why they did what they had to do.

Doc B

  1. The historical context of Doc B was mainly about a leader who believed that Indians are people who deserved to be treated like children of God who can be taught of Christianity and can also change.

  2. The author, Bartolome de Las Casas’ is clarifying that the Indians have more to prove and the talent so they deserved to be treated with respect and the ability to learn new things.

  3. The author’s purpose in the writing was to defend the Indians because he believed that Christ died for them too so nobody has the right to even torture a mankind or exclude them from any choices.

  4. The audience that which the document intended to were the men of Sepulveda and their Kings.

Doc C

  1. The historical context of Doc C was mainly about how the Aztecs believed that a human sacrifice is needed to praise their god. Also, if any foreigner’s steps foot on their land will have a higher god who will teach them and make them his servants but Cortes teaches them that there is one god and he is not an idol.

  2. The author, Hernan Cortes clarifies that there is one god and a human sacrifice is not needed to praise their god.

  3. The author’s purpose for this passage was to let his king in Spain know that the Aztecs are offering themselves to be ruled and taught the religious beliefs.

  4. The audience that which the document intended to was for the king in Spain.

Doc D

  1. The historical event of this document was mainly about how the Spaniards killed the celebrants during the fiesta of Toxcatl.

  2. The author, Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sabagun clarifies how devastating the attack was, to see how the Spaniards treated Indians.

  3. The author’s purpose for this passage was to describe what really happened when the Spaniards conquered the Aztecs in Mexico.

  4. The audience that which the document intended to was for the Spaniards and the Aztecs.

Doc E

  1. The historical context would be that the Pueblos were needed to be punished for the brutal damage that they had caused by having their Pueblo buildings destroyed and giving them a safe place in the valley to learn the Gospel of God.

  2. The author’s thesis is that punishment does not necessarily mean to kill or execute someone for their wrong doings but to give them a change to learn the right thing to do.

  3. The author’s purpose was to let the Spaniards give a chance to make a difference in the pueblo’s life by doing their mission by how they were told to do.

  4. This document was intended to the men of the Spaniards to follow their mission.

Doc F

  1. Historical context would be how England had a big fall “depression” and workers became beggars, criminals and went to hunger.

  2. The author’s thesis is to see how there are possibilities so have a positive attitude, be thankful for what people have and still have the heart to help out.

  3. The author’s purpose is to let people see the best of the negative outcomes that may happen.

  4. This document was intended for his brother and to see what he is going through but still thankful.

Doc G

        1. The historical context would be that England is making use of the American soil and the surroundings to make their merchandise made by their own prisoners.

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