Explain what happened when electing the us president during the Election of 1800



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  1. Explain what happened when electing the US President during the Election of 1800.

First time-political parties impacted an election. American etiquette of the day did not permit presidential candidates to campaign~ this was left to the supporters of the candidate. (until Election of 1896-Wm. McKinley) Lots of mudslinging by both parties. Jefferson later referred to this election as the “Revolution of 1800” ~ b/c it was the 1st time control of gov’t was transferred from one political party to another (Federalist to Democratic-Republican).

Candidates/Electoral votes: John Jay (1), Charles Pinckney (64), John Adams (65), Aaron Burr (73) & Thomas Jefferson (73).

No official VP candidates, but Burr ran as Jefferson’s running mate. Tie created desire for both Burr & Jefferson to become president.



Constitution states House will decide a tie by Electoral College.

35 votes in House remained in deadlock. Alexander Hamilton convinced some Federalist House members to vote for Jefferson, causing the next vote to sway in Jefferson’s favor, electing him the 3rd US President. Hamilton’s input is one reason that led to his death in a duel with Burr in 1804.



Jeffersonian Democracy~ ideal form of gov’t envisioned by Jefferson-marking the end of Federalist control of American politics!

Declaration of Independence~ not only declaring independence from Britain, but also outlining the purpose of gov’t

VA Statute for Religious Freedom~ outlined the separation of church & state

Philosophy of Jeffersonian Democracy~

~”natural” {fundamental} rights of men: rights born with & cannot be taken away=


  • Liberty: equality can only exist by being free

  • Pursuit of Happiness: having a meaningful, purposeful existence

  • Property: provides a means to exist; to live

Jeffersonian Democracy in-a-nut-shell~

The gov’t is the people, and the people are the gov’t. The gov’t works for the good of the people~ so the people can replace it. It protects the people’s rights using the power of the people!



  1. What were Midnight Appointments and what was important about them?

Adams was bitter after losing the election. Near the end of his term, Adams appoints many Federalist federal justices, most notably John Marshall as the Supreme Court Chief Justice & John Marbury as the Justice of the Peace in Washington, DC. This had a long-term effect on the court system. WHY? B/C it assured that the Federalist policies & ideals would continue in government long after the Federalist president was removed from office!


  1. What is Judicial Review and how was it established?

Judicial Review was established in Supreme Court case, Marbury v. Madison, when James Madison refused to honor John Adams’ Midnight Appointment, William Marbury, as the new Justice of the Peace. Case was ruled unconstitutional, but established Judicial Review ( giving the Supreme Court the power to review if a law is unconstitutional or not) & created balance among the 3 branches of government.

  1. Explain the dilemma that Jefferson faced when presented with the possibility of acquiring the Louisiana Territory and how this came to be.

Problem: since purchasing land to increase size of U.S. not stated in Constitution, Jefferson was unsure if he had power to buy land from Napoleon for $15 M, but it offered U.S. opportunity to expand westward. In the end, Jefferson agrees to the purchase because it will allow him to fulfill his desire of a country of self-sufficient farmers.


  1. What knowledge did Lewis & Clark discover during their expedition?

They acquired scientific & geographical knowledge and information about Native American life while trying to find the Northwest Passage & a direct water route to the Pacific Ocean.

Goals:

1.mapping rivers

2.developing friendly relations with Natives

3.developing trade in region

4.locating the Northwest Passage (direct waterway

to Pacific Ocean)

5. Learning about plant & animal life


  1. What impact did Sacajawea have on the Lewis & Clark Expedition?

Without Sacajawea (from Shoshone tribe)

leading the expedition as a



guide & translator,

Lewis & Clark & their team probably wouldn’t have been successful in exploring this region

& surviving the terrain, elements or encounters with the Native Americans.

Due to relationship with Sacajawea:



  • Natives aided the expedition by acting as guides across the Rocky Mts.,

  • providing horses, &

  • during the winter, supplying shelter for the team.



  1. What allowed the Election of 1804 avoid the same pitfalls experienced during the Election of 1800?

During the Election of 1800 the candidate who received the most Electoral votes would become president with the runner-up would become vice-president.

The passage of the 12th Amendment changed this procedure:

allowing Electors to vote for president & vice-president.

Jefferson ran against Charles Pinckney in 1804, easily winning the election due to his popularity.


  1. Describe the duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton.

Quite bitter after losing the election to Jefferson in 1800 due to Alexander Hamilton’s involvement in convincing some Federalist House members to vote for Jefferson.

Aaron Burr also represented Hamiliton’s mistress in court (she was seeking a divorce from her husband) & humiliated Hamilton~ ending his chances to hold public office!

Aaron Burr also published what Hamilton had privately written

(severely critical) about John Adams

Aaron Burr also promised a powerful group of New England Federalists that NY would secede from the Union if he was elected the governor of NY.

Hamilton, from NY, did not want his home state to leave the Union & began working against Burr once again.

Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, killing Hamilton in the process.


  1. What was the purpose and outcome of Zebulon Pike’s Expedition?

Purpose of 2nd team’s expedition: to explore the southern region of the Louisiana Territory & locate water sources of Arkansas & Red Rivers.

Arkansas River led to discovery of Rocky Mts. & mountain peak bears his name: Pike’s Peak.

Never found Red River, instead discovered Rio Grande River, but crossed over into Spanish territory-causing team to be arrested. Finally released in 1807.

Accomplishments of expedition:



  • brought back valuable scientific & geographical knowledge of Great Plains & the Rio Grande River Valley.



  1. Describe the situation that led to the Embargo Act of 1807.

Between 1803-1812: British kidnapped 6,000 American sailors & impressed them aboard British ships.

Jefferson remained neutral & asked Brits for an apology, but they refused.

Jefferson fought back by convincing Congress to authorize the Embargo Act of 1807- which withheld U.S. goods to Europe~ forcing France & Britain to respect U.S.’ neutrality.

It backfired!

Sailors & shipbuilders lost jobs &



farmers’ crops rotted in storage awaiting to be exported.

Congress repealed Act 3/1/1809-3 days before Jefferson left office.


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