Expectation of the student

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Expectation of the student

  • Understand and use Statehood and Expansion terminology correctly.

  • Understand defining characteristics of Statehood and Expansion.

  • Understand the individuals, issues and events of Statehood and Expansion, Mexican War and Compromise of 1850. STUDY NOTES & MEXICAN

  • Explain significance of the dates…. 1845, 1850. WAR MAP

  • Analyze the causes of and the events leading to Annexation.

Unit 8/Chapters 15

Statehood and Expansion of U.S.

Political Parties during Early Statehood

  1. Democrats strong in Texas and represented farmers and workers.

  2. Whig Party which later became the Republican Party was not strong during early statehood because they were against annexation, expansion of slavery and Industries.

  3. Know-Nothing Party believed in nativism or the support of native born U.S. citizens; they were against new immigrants.

New Statehood and Expansion Vocabulary

  • Antebellum

  • Armistice

  • Cede

  • Envoy

  • Mexican Cession

  • Nativism

  • Reparations

Natives Americans moved to Reservations

  • Indian Territory was across the Red River from Texas in present day Oklahoma.

  • Some Reservations in Texas – Alabama/Coushatta in Polk County; Tigua in El Paso; Kickapoo in Eagle Pass

  • Plains Natives last to move to the Reservations.

Compromise of 1850

    • Proposed by Henry Clay

    • Admission of California as free state (pleases North)

    • Slave trade banned in Washington, D.C. (pleases North)

    • Pearce Plan - Established present-day boundaries of Texas; Texas gives up claim to land in New Mexico, Colorado, Oklahoma, Kansas and Wyoming for $10 million to pay off Republic debt.

    • Territories in Mexican Cession have popular Sovereignty to decide on slavery (pleases South)

    • Fugitive Slave Act – North required to return runaway slaves. (pleases South)

Prior Statehood and Expansion Vocabulary

  • Annexation

  • Census

  • Debt

  • Expedition

  • Immigration

  • Joint Resolution

  • Manifest Destiny

  • Ratify

  • Reservation

  • Resolutions

  • Treaty

Guided Questions

  1. What role did Texas play in the westward expansion of the U.S.?

  2. How did the Mexican-American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo affect Texas?

  3. How did new immigrant groups and technology affect Texas during the Era of Manifest Destiny?

Key Dates

Immigration during Early Statehood

Reasons for Immigration: crop failures, European revolutions, depressions, westward expansion, Homestead Act, Land

  • GTT – Gone to Texas: Most of these people came from the Southern United States (SOUTH)

Life in the communities: Farmers and planters, ranchers

 Transportation/Communication: Stagecoach, freight lines, steamboats, railroads, telegraphs, newspapers

 Immigrant Groups:

o German- New Braunfels, Fredericksburg, Klein; 3rd largest immigration group.

o Polish – Panna Maria

o Czechs- Praha, Fayetteville o Mexico- Abolished slavery

  • French – Dallas o African Americans- had not rights, could

  • Irish- Refugio and San Patricio not participate in gov., were limited by Jewish – Castroville laws

  • Norwegian – Normandy in Dallas area

Mexican-American War (U.S. – Mexican War)

Causes-Texas Annexation, Rio Grande/Nueces River boundary dispute, John Slidell’s proposal for the U.S. to buy the Mexican Cession, Mexican refusal to negotiate, Polk’s strategy for acquisition of the Western Territory (Manifest Destiny)

 Major Battles: Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma 1st battles; Bear Flag Revolt California’s attempt to declare independence from Mexico; Battle of Monterrey; Battle of Buena Vista where Santa Anna is Captured; Battle of Vera Cruz; Battle of Chapultepec Castle & capture of Mexico City.

 Significant Individuals:

  1. Zachary Taylor – Ordered by Polk to move troops from Nueces River to Rio Grande to claim disputed territory. Caused the 1st battle to take place. (Palo Alto) He defeated Santa Anna at Buena Vista (Made him famous)

  2. Winfield Scott – Defeated Santa Anna and captured Mexico City to end the war.

  3. James Polk – President of the U.S. who orders Taylor to move troops to the Rio Grande; goal was Manifest Destiny. “Shed American Blood on American Soil!”- This was a reason for Congress to declare war.

  4. Santa Anna – Defeated at Battle of Buena Vista by General Taylor; defeated by General Scott at Battle of Cerro Gordo and Battle of Chapultepec Castle, a fort protecting Mexico City; Santa Anna’s army retreated from all battles.

  • Mexican War Timeline

    • May 8, 1846 – Taylor win 1st battle at Palo Alto 1853-Gadsden Purchase-purchased

    • May 13, 1846 – U.S. Congress declare war on Mexico for $10 million dollars. Finalized

    • April 17-18, 1847 – Battle of Cerro Gordo the border between US & Mexico.

    • September 12-13, 1847 – Battle of Chapultepec Castle

    • September 13, 1847 – Mexico City was captured

    • February 2, 1848 – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

  • U.S. gains land from west Texas (Rio Grande) to Pacific Ocean; this land was called the Mexican Cession

  • Mexico gave up claim to Texas and accepted the Rio Grande as the border between U.S. and Mexico

  • U.S. pays Mexico $15 million dollars and Mexico’s debt to Americans from the Texas Revolution

  • Mexicans living in the ceded territory were given U.S. citizenship and all individual rights. They had one year to decide if they wanted to be an American citizen.

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