Expansion versus Anglicization



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Chapter 4

Expansion versus Anglicization

  • 18th Century British colonies sought to emulate homeland: housing, fashion, import British goods

  • Colonies’ population grew rapidly and demand for skilled and unskilled laborers, clergy, professionals outgrew supply

    • Northern colonies train their population for these roles

    • Southern colonies rely on immigrants

  • Constant expansion of British meant constant retreat for Indians


Threats to Householder Autonomy
Political

  • Some families acquired more prestige than others

  • Elected office dominated by Colonial “gentleman”

  • Population grows much faster than elected offices

Economic



Anglicizing the Role of Women

  • Women worked harder to maintain family status

  • Some trends of inheritance (widows) reversed

  • European double standards of sexual behavior prevailed


Expansion, Immigration, and Regional Differentiation

  • Post-1715: era of peace for settlements

  • During expansion, settlers fit into their distinct regions

  • New Englanders had sense of regional identity before independence


Emergence of the Old South

  • 90% of slaves imported go to South

  • Plantation owners dominate politics

  • Slave life

    • Slave gangs, but diverse tasks in tobacco country

    • Malaria and sickle cell anemia

    • Task system in rice country

    • Gullah

    • Violence against slaves

  • Indigo and Eliza Lucas Pinckney


The Mid-Atlantic Colonies: The “Best Poor Man’s Country”

  • Pennsylvania most attractive for immigrants

    • Scots-Irish (Ulsterites)

    • Germans (‘redemptioniers)

    • Philadelphia largest city in British North America by 1770s


The Backcountry

  • Scots-Irish and Germans pushed west into interior of Virginia and Carolinas

  • Area develops its own distinct culture, not as Anglicized

  • Settlers of the backcountry considered clannish and violent


New England: A Faltering Economy and Paper Money

  • 18th century growth rate lower

    • More emigration than immigration

    • Disease and war lower life expectancy

    • “wheat blast” and food importation

  • New England 18th century economy

    • Shipbuilding

    • Rum industry and Molasses Act (1733)

    • “Fiat” paper money and depreciation

    • Anglicized currency: Thomas Hutchinson and repudiation of paper money


Anglicizing Provincial America

  • Diversity of exports, commonality of imports

  • Georgia: Enlightenment by-product

  • Great Awakening

  • Mixed and balanced colonial constitutions


The World of Print

  • English Enlightenment works spread through printing

  • 17th century printing limited to Boston

  • John Peter Zenger and freedom of the press

    • New York Weekly Journal

  • Benjamin Franklin

    • Pennsylvania Gazette

    • Junto (American Philosophical Society)

    • Public citizen work: fire company, library, hospital, and College of Philadelphia

    • Inventor and scientist


The Enlightenment in America

  • Man can improve his condition, God not vengeful

  • Low Church vs. High Church

  • Sir Isaac Newton, laws of motion

  • John Locke, philosopher

  • Enlightenment spirit dominates Harvard

  • Yale College (1701) founded as reaction against Enlightenment


Lawyers and Doctors

  • Rise in legal and medical professions helped spread Enlightenment

  • Benjamin Rush

  • William Shippen


Georgia: the Failure of a Enlightenment Utopia

Background



  • 1730s: convergence of ideas of humanitarianism and social improvement led to founding of Georgia

  • Georgia’s purposes

    • Make productive use of “worthy” poor

    • Buffer of armed free men between S. Carolina and Spanish Florida

    • Produce silk and wine

Operation

  • Slaves and Liquor banned

  • Silk and wine production fail

  • No elective assembly

  • Outcome

    • Royal govt. imposed 1752

    • Economic structure mimics South Carolina


The Great Awakening

  • mid-1730s to early 1740s: immense religious revival: Great Awakening

  • Swept across Protestant lands throughout Europe and the colonies

  • Methodists and Baptists surged ahead


Origins of the Revivals

  • Theodorus Frelinghuysen

  • Gilbert Tennent

  • Jonathan Edwards

    • A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God (1737)

  • John Wesley

    • Methodists


Whitefield Launches the Transatlantic Revival

  • George Whitefield

  • Traveled and preached throughout Atlantic colonies

  • Anglicans – reserved towards him

  • Presbyterian, Congregationalists, Baptists – embraced him

  • Concept that all English Protestants were members of the same church

  • Disruptions

  • Hugh Bryan: “American Moses”

  • Gilbert Tennent

  • James Davenport

    • “Shepherd’s Tent”


Long-Term Consequences of the Revivals

  • Evangelical churches “feminized”

  • Freemasons

  • Congregational Church and evangelical secession

  • “Letter days” and the breaking down of localism

  • Jonathan Edwards and A Treatise concerning Religious Affections (1746)

New Colleges

  • College of New Jersey (Princeton)

  • College of Rhode Island (Brown)

  • Queen’s College (Rutgers)

  • Dartmouth College

  • College of Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)

  • King’s College (Columbia)

Denominational Realignment

Pre-realignment dominant groups



Groups that gain

  • Methodists

  • Baptists

  • Presbyterians

Political Culture in the Colonies

  • Colonists felt they were free because they were British

  • Mixed constitutions that united monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy in perfect balance

  • 1720s: every colony (except Connecticut and Rhode Island) had an appointive governor, council and elective assembly

    • Governor = monarch

    • Council = aristocracy

    • Elected assembly = commons


The Rise of the Assembly and the Governor

  • In all 13 colonies, settlers elected their assembly

  • Three-fourths of free adult white men in colonies could vote (vs. one-third in England)

  • Assemblies gain power at expense of councils

  • Royally appointed governors: success dependent on winning over assembly

  • “Factions” (political parties) universally condemned in colonies

Country” Constitutions: The Southern Colonies



  • The “politics of harmony”

  • VA governors Alexander Spotswood and William Gooch

  • “Faction” free politics and policy

Court” Constitutions: The Northern Colonies



  • Greater economic diversity, greater factionalism

  • William Shirley and Benning Wentworth: governance through reward and patronage

  • Common politics: liberty, property, and no popery

  • Robert Hunter

  • Quaker Party

The Renewal of Imperial Conflict

  • 1739-1763: new era of imperial war

  • English colonies, New France, New Spain and Indians all involved

  • North America split between Spain and Britain

Challenges to French Power

  • Louisbourg fortress, Cape Breton Island

  • Company of the Indies and Louisiana

  • French hold on American interior weakened in both North and South

  • Indian “republics” and trade with the British

  • Natchez Indians

  • France lost influence and prestige in North America


The Danger of Slave Revolts and War with Spain

  • Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose (Mose)

    • Francisco Menéndez

    • Yamasees

  • Stono Rebellion (1739)

  • War of Jenkins’s Ear

  • New York conspiracy trials

  • Britain defeats Spain

    • Oglethorpe’s defense of Georgia

    • Anson and the capture of the Manila galleon


France versus Britain: King George’s War

  • France joins Spain against Britain 1744

  • Fort Louisbourg falls to British 1745

  • Boston Impressment riots 1746

  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

The Impending Storm

  • War drove British frontiers back, but colonies had promised land grants to volunteers

  • Areas of frenzied expansion: Maine, New Hampshire and middle colonies

    • Colony vs. colony

    • Settlers vs. Native Americans

    • British vs. French

  • Ohio Company of Virginia

    • George Washington

  • Marquis Duquesne

  • French movement to block British settlement west of Alleghenies


The War for North America

  • 1755: British professional army conflicted with the householder society and voluntaristic colonists

  • Colonists and Britain learn to cooperate in order to achieve victory against France

  • The Albany Congress and the Onset of War

  • War: New France vs. Virginia

Albany Congress

    • Keep Six Nations (Iroquois) neutral

    • Benjamin Franklin and the Albany Plan

      • President General and Grand Council

      • Raise soldiers, levy taxes, deal with Indians

      • Rejection

    • Centralized relations with Indians

Britain’s Years of Defeat

  • Edward Braddock

  • Fort Duquesne

  • Acadians

    • Cajuns

A World War

  • Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil

    • Frontier war to scatter Britain’s superior resources

  • Louis-Joseph, marquis de Montcalm

  • Fort William Massacre

  • Britain declares war on France, 1756

  • Seven Years’ War (1756-1763): France, Austria, and Russia vs. Prussia (subsidized by Britain)

  • Spain neutral until 1762


Imperial Tensions: From Loudoun to Pitt

  • Earl of Loudoun, British military commander in N. America 1755

    • Coercion to force colonial cooperation

  • William Pitt, Prime Minister 1757

    • Consent to gain colonial cooperation

    • Replaces Loudoun with James Abercrombie

  • By 1758, Britain finally had a military force capable of overwhelming New France

  • Cooperation between redcoats and provincials became routine and effective in warfare against French & Indians

The Years of British Victory

  • British navy prevents France from reinforcing Canada

  • Marquis de Montcalm (French N. America commander) decides on defensive strategy

  • Peace between Indians and British 1758

  • Quebec 1759

    • James Wolfe

    • Marquis de Montcalm

    • Plains of Abraham

  • Montreal and the fall of Canada


The Cherokee War and Spanish Intervention

  • Cherokee attack 1760

    • Drive South Carolina settlement back 100 miles

    • Peace treaty 1761, but backcountry settlers restless

  • Spain entered war 1762

  • British forces took Havana and Manila in the Philippines

  • France and Spain sued for peace

The Peace of Paris

  • Peace of Paris ended the war 1763

  • Britain returned Martinique and Guadeloupe to France

  • France surrendered some West Indian islands and mainland North America east of Mississippi

  • Havana returned to Spain, Florida ceded to Britain

  • France gives New Orleans and lands W of Mississippi river to Spain

  • Indians angrily rejected peace settlement and France’s surrender of their lands to Great Britain


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