Exercise 2 Part I 4

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Exercise 1.2

Exercise 1.2 Part I




1. Nonargument (explanation)

2. Nonargument; conditional statement

3. Argument (conclusion: Freedom of the press is the most important of our

constitutionally guaranteed freedoms.)

Nonargument (illustration)

Nonargument (piece of advice)

6. Nonargument (warning)

7. Argument (conclusion: If the earth's magnetic field disappears, then intense cosmic rays will bombard the earth.)

8. Argument (conclusion: Fiction provides us with the opportunity to ponder how people react in uncommon situations, and to deduce moral lessons, psychological principles, and philosophical insights from their behavior.)

Nonargument (statement of belief)

10. Nonargument (report)

11. Argument (conclusion: Any interest of the state in protecting the woman from an inherently hazardous procedure, except when it would be equally dangerous for her to forgo it, has largely disappeared.

Nonargument (expository passage)

Nonargument (report)



14. Nonargument (report of an argument)

15. Argument (conclusion: Economics is of practical value in business.)

16. Nonargument (piece of advice)

17. Nonargument (loosely associated statements)

18. This passage could be interpreted as either an argument or an explanation (or both). If it is interpreted as an argument, the conclusion is: Most business organizations include a credit department which must reach a decision on the credit worthiness of each prospective customer.

19. Aj


20. Nc

21. At

22. At


23. At

24.1V 'c

25. Nc

26. Ac

27. Nc

28. Aj

29. N(

30. Ni

31. Tk

w l

32. Bc


33. Aj


34. Ni

35. Ai


Part D

1. Ni

2. Ai


Exercise 1.2

19. Argument (conclusion: For organisms at the sea surface, sinking into deep water usually means death.)

20. Nonargument (temporal meaning of "since"; "hence" indicates an explanation.)

21. Argument (conclusion: Dachshunds are ideal dogs for small children.)

22. Argument (conclusion: Atoms can combine to form molecules, whose properties are generally very different from those of the constituent atoms.)

23. Argument (conclusion: The coarsest type of humor is the practical joke.)

24. Nonargument (conditional statement)

25. Nonargument (explanation)

26. Argument (conclusion: Words are slippery customers.)

27. Nonargument (report)

28. Argument (conclusion: A person never becomes truly self reliant.)

29. Nonargument (opinion)

30. Nonargument (illustration)

31. This passage could be both an argument and an explanation (conclusion: In areas where rats are a problem, it is very difficult to exterminate them with bait poison.)

32. Both an argument and an explanation (conclusion: Men are less likely to develop osteoporosis until later in life than women and seldom suffer as severely.)

33. Argument (conclusion: Newspapers, radio, and television are essential for a democracy.)

34. Nonargument (loosely associated statements)

35. Argument (conclusion: The plane mirror remains an important element in the modern arsenal of sophisticated optical devices.)

Part II

1. Nonargument

2. Argument (conclusion: The emphasis on computers in elementary schools is harmful.)

Exercise 1.2

3. This passage is probably best considered a nonargument, but it could be rephrased to form an argument. (Possible conclusion: Something is wrong with our approach to education.)

4. Nonargument



5. Argument (conclusion: In opposing obligatory prayer in the public schools I am actually serving my God.)

Argument (conclusion: Religious fundamentalists are preventing our children from learning science. Or We must eliminate the influence of religious fundamentalism in our public schools.)

Argument (conclusion: The poor quality of parenting and the lack in continuity of adult care provided to many U.S. children contribute to a passivity and a sense of helplessness that hobbles individuals for the remainder of their lives.)

8. Argument (conclusion: Global capitalism is attended by serious inequities.)

9. Argument (main conclusion: The suggestion by socio biologists that stepparent child abuse has evolutionary advantages is superficial. Intermediate conclusion: there are plenty of loving and generous stepparents around.)

10. Nonargument

Part IV

1. Conditional statement: An "if... then ..." statement

2. Antecedent: The component of a conditional statement that immediately follows the word "if."

3. Consequent: The component of a conditional statement that immediately follows the word "then"; the component of a conditional statement that is not the antecedent

Sufficient condition: The condition represented by the antecedent of a conditional statement




Necessary condition: The condition represented by the consequent of a conditional statement

6. Explanation: A statement or group of statements intended to shed light on some event

Explanandum: The component of an explanation that indicates the event or phenomenon to be explained



Exercise 1.3
8. Explanans: The component of an explanation that ex plains the event indicated by the explanandum

Part V

1. True 6. True

2. False 7. True

3. False 8. True

4. True 9. True

5. True 10. True

Part VI

1. Sufficient: If something is a tiger, then it is an animal.
2. Necessary: If something is not an animal, then it is not a tiger. Or: If something is a tiger, then it is an animal.
3. Sufficient: If a person drinks water, then he will quench his thirst.
4. Necessary: If a person has no racquet, then he/she cannot play tennis. Or: If a person plays tennis, then he/she has a racquet.
5. Necessary: If a person does not pull the cork, then he/she cannot drink a bottle of expensive wine. Or: If a person drinks a bottle of expensive wine, then he/she has pulled the cork.
6. Sufficient: If someone steps on a cat's tail, then the cat will yowl.
7. Sufficient: If leaves burn, then smoke is produced.
8. Necessary: If a person does not pay attention, then he/she will not understand a lecture. Or: If a person understands a lecture, then he/she pays attention.
9. Sufficient: If a person takes a swim in the North Sea, then he/she will cool off.

10. Necessary: If a person does not open the door, then he/she cannot cross the threshold. Or: If a person crosses the threshold, then he/she has opened the door.

Exercise 1.3 Part I

1. Deductive (argument based on mathematics; also, the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises.)
2. Inductive (argument based on signs)


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