By Paul Herbig
Marketing warfare is a term used to describe some of the techniques and tactics marketeers use in their everyday language. There are two types of force a business can use against it's competition. The first is offensive attack and the second is defensive attack.
Frontal attack, Flanking, Encirclement, Bypass and Guerilla warfare are some examples of an offensive marketing warfare strategy. When using the offensive strategy it is important to remember three important principles: 1. The main consideration is the strength of the leader's position. 2. Find a weakness in the leader's strength and attack at that point. 3. Launch the attack on as narrow a front as possible (Ries, 1986).
Defensive marketing warfare involves employing those tactics and strategies to maintain the market share a company has already achieved. There are three important guidelines to remember in defensive marketing warfare: 1. Only the market leader should consider playing defense. 2. The best defensive strategy is the courage to attack yourself. 3. Strong competitive moves should always be blocked (Ries, 1986).
Some examples of current marketing warfare can be seen in the cola, beer and burger wars. Through observing these market segments, a marketer can see marketing warfare in action.
All in all, marketing warfare is something each marketer will experience in his marketing career. In order to be a successful marketer it is important to have a complete understanding how to win the marketing war.
Marketing Warfare is a term used to describe some of the techniques and tactics marketeers use in their everyday language. First, there are two types of force a business can use against it's competition. The first is offensive attack and the second is defensive attack. Before a person can understand the concept of marketing warfare they must understand the terms which are associated with this type of marketing strategy.
The ideas behind attack and defend are two very different ideas. Attack basically means to seek more than one has, moreover to take what someone else possesses (Kotler, 1981). Defense means to protect what one has already acquired.
OFFENSIVE MARKETING WARFARE
Frontal attack, Flanking, Encirclement, Bypass and Guerilla warfare are some examples of offensive strategy. When using the offensive strategy in marketing warfare, Al Ries and Jack Trout suggest three offensive principles which include: 1. The main consideration is the strength of the leaders's position. 2. Find a weakness in the leader's strength and attack at that point. 3. Launch the attack on as narrow a front as possible (Ries, 1986).
Frontal attack occurs when a company takes all of their forces and face them directly opposite of the opponent (Kotler, 1981). In order to be successful with this type of an attack, statistics show that a factor of five to one is needed for a successful frontal attack (Kotler 1981). For example, in the 1970's three electronic giants tried to attack IBM head on against their stronghold on the mainframe computer market (Kotler, 1981). Each electronic corporation failed because they used a pure frontal attack against IBM's massive stronghold.
There are many types of frontal attacks including: a pure frontal attack, a limited frontal attack, price based frontal attack, and research and development based frontal attack (Kotler, 1985). A pure frontal attack involves matching a competitors product in all areas of marketing (Kotler, 1985). The product is matched price versus price, promotion versus promotion, characteristic versus characteristic and so on. Basically, a pure frontal attack is taking a "look alike" or "me too" strategy (Kotler, 1985). When using a pure frontal attack, companies should be prepared to expend large sums of money.
The next type of frontal attack is the limited frontal attack. A limited frontal attack focuses on specific customers and tries to lure them away from competitors (Kotler, 1985). One example of a limited frontal attack may occur when a new product enters the market such as a new type of paint. The paint company would pursue a select number of their competitor's customers and bring them in on a whole number of product dimensions simultaneously (Kotler, 1985).
Another type of frontal attack is the price based frontal attack. In priced based frontal attack, the aggressor focuses mainly on the price of a product to gain more customers. Every product characteristic is matched; however, the competition beats his competitor on price (Kotler, 1985).
Finally, research and design is a fourth type of frontal attack. This is a more difficult type of attack to employ. The competitor tries to reduce production costs, improve the product, and other characteristics which would enhance product value (Kotler, 1985). With this type of attack, more creative ideas are implemented which allow for a better product.
There are three conditions that need to be met by a firm before it embarks in a frontal attack (Kotler, 1985). First, the firm needs an adequate amount of resources to support the attack (Kotler, 1985). Second, the firm must be able to create and sustain a competitive advantage over it's competitors (Kotler, 1985). Finally, the company must be able to persuade their competitor's customers to try their product and become their loyal customer. In the frontal attack, it is important that everyone in the firm and those who purchase the product perceive a competitive advantage (Kotler, 1985).
FLANKING MARKETING WARFARE
A second type of offensive strategy is the flanking strategy. In a flanking strategy, a company focuses it's forces on the weaker sides of it's competitor (Kotler 1981). Three principles of flanking warfare are mentioned in Al Ries and Jack Trout's book, Marketing Warfare. These principles are: 1. A good flanking move must be made in an uncontested area. 2. Tactical surprise ought to be an important element of the plan, and 3. The pursuit is as critical as the attack itself (Ries, 1986). Usually this offensive strategy is used by a company that does not have overwhelming superiority, but may have an advantage in one particular area. For example, in the mid 1970's Xerox owned eighty-eight percent of the plain-paper copier market; however, almost ten years later the Japanese based Canon Copier took over half of Xerox's market (Kotler 1981). The main reason Canon took over such a large portion of Xerox's market was by use of the flanking strategy. Canon focused on the small size copier market that could not afford Xerox's larger copiers. This attack was successful because it put the attackers strength against the defenders weakness (Kotler 1981).
There are two types of flanking strategy; Geographical and Segmented flanking (Kotler, 1985). Geographical flanking occurs when a firm attacks different areas within the world or country where competitors are nonexistent or not very strong (Kotler, 1985). The Coca-Cola Company uses this type of marketing strategy. When I interviewed Anna Whaley, Director of world wide marketing and sales, she said a majority of Coca-Cola's profits will come from the international areas where competition is not as fierce.
A second type of flanking involves identifying market areas or needs not being served by competitors within a geographical area (Kotler, 1985). Segmented flanking potentially can be more powerful than geographical flanking attacks because they satisfy market needs the competitor has ignored (Kotler, 1985). The Japanese have used segmented flanking when entering the United States market (Kotler 1985). They brought products that were different and aimed them at neglected market segments (Kotler, 1985). These products were smaller or stripped down versions of established products, and they had more features for the same or lower price (Kotler, 1985). The overall idea of flanking strategy is to bring a broader coverage of a markets varied needs (Kotler, 1981).
MARKETING WARFARE THROUGH ENCIRCLEMENT
Encirclement is a third type of offensive strategy. When using this type of strategy a company must have superiority in all areas. Encirclement attacks the competitor from all sides simultaneously (Kotler, 1981). A ratio of ten to one is needed to employ this type of strategy (Kotler, 1981). The basic idea of encirclement is to force the competitor to protect their product from all sides. For example, Smirnoff Vodka used encirclement strategy when another product was introduced and positioned itself directly against Smirnoff, but at a lower price (Kotler, 1981). Smirnoff counterattacked by first raising it's prices, which preserved their quality image. After raising their prices, they introduced another brand, marketed it at the same price as the competition, and introduced another brand at a lower price (Kotler, 1981).
There are two types of encirclement strategy: product encirclement and market encirclement (Kotler, 1985). Product encirclement introduces products with many different qualities, styles, and features that overwhelm the competition's product line (Kotler, 1985). Many Japanese firms have encircled U.S. products such as televisions, radios, hand-held calculators, watches, and stereo equipment (Kotler, 1985). Market encirclement goes beyond the end user, and focuses on the distribution channels (Kotler, 1985). Seiko is one example of market encirclement. By gaining every available distribution channel for watches, Seiko took over as much shelf space as possible (Kotler, 1985). There are some risks to be aware of when employing the encirclement strategy. Having the substantial resources and organizational commitment are two factors needed before using encirclement strategy. Because it is necessary to have these two requirements; winning a battle through encirclement takes a great deal of time.
MARKETING WARFARE THROUGH BYPASS
A fourth type of offensive strategy involves the bypass. A bypass attack wins the battle through attacking areas not defended (Kotler, 1981). When Colgate-Palmolive tried to enter the nonwoven textiles and health care business, it did not have to fight Procter and Gamble's strengths because they used the bypass strategy (Kotler, 1981).
There are basically three types of bypass strategy: develop new products, diversify into unrelated products, and expand into new geographical markets for existing products (Kotler, 1981). Developing new products is a fairly easily understood bypass method. Rather than copying the leader, the competitor creates entirely new products thus gaining a larger market share of untapped customers.
Diversifying into unrelated products is a second type of bypass strategy. Rather than remaining in a single-industry business the firm will venture out into product lines that are different from their one single product. Sony has employed this bypass strategy through entering the restaurant and construction business (Kotler, 1985).
One reason companies may use the bypass strategy is the large amount of congestion in the competitive battleground (Kotler, 1985). For example, if a company produces a new product, the company basically moves the new product to a new level within the same product market area (Kotler, 1985). Moving into digital and electronic watches may bypass the mechanical watch market; however, the company is still fighting for a position within the watch industry (Kotler, 1985). Conversely, movement into an entirely new geographical market usually allows a company to bypass competitors completely.
GUERILLA MARKETING WARFARE
A final type of offensive warfare is guerilla warfare. Some of the principles that can be used when determining when to use guerrilla warfare are the following: 1. Find a segment of the market small enough to defend, 2. No matter how successful you become, never act like the leader, and 3. Be prepared to bugout at a moment's notice (Ries, 1986). Guerilla warfare basically involves winning small victories that can over time amount to a large gain in market share (Kotler, 1981). This attack works because it is very unconventional which makes it difficult for the defender to counter-attack, and because they are aimed at small, weak, and unprotected market positions (Kotler, 1981).
One example of guerilla warfare occurred when IBM won a lawsuit against Hitachi on the grounds that Hitachi stole IBM software. Because IBM won this small battle, Japanese computer manufacturers had to become defensive by investing large sums of money into scarce software research and development personnel who had to re-write old programs and develop new programs which did not interfere with IBM's intellectual property rights (Kotler, 1981). This type of guerilla warfare pushed Japanese computer makers back many years.
Guerilla strategy is usually implemented by companies who are smaller in market position and resource base than the firm they attack. This strategy has usually been used by the Japanese on U.S. firms which have caused a large drain on the resources used by the U.S. firms (Kotler, 1985).
DEFENSIVE MARKETING WARFARE
Defensive marketing strategy involves employing those tactics and strategies to maintain the market share a company has already achieved. There are many ways a company can maintain it's market share. Some important guidelines in defensive marketing warfare are: 1. Only the market leader should consider playing defense, 2. The best defensive strategy is the courage to attack yourself, and 3. Strong competitive moves should always be blocked (Ries, 1986). Fortification, counter attack, mobile defense, strategic retreat and position defense are five techniques a company can use in a defensive strategy.
FORTIFICATION MARKETING WARFARE
First, fortification is based on the concept of the protected fort (Kotler, 1981). The idea is to have every area of the company or product protected leaving no weaknesses for the attacker to exploit (Kotler, 1981). One example of market fortification is within General Foods coffee business. General Foods has entries in physical, price, and perceptual positions in the marketplace (Kotler, 1981). From decaffeinated coffees to premium brands, General Foods has complete coverage of the market. Because of such market domination, other competitors have few unserved or poorly served markets to attack (Kotler, 1981).
This type of defense can be risky. A pure position defense presumes little change in the product market or the industry (Kotler, 1985). It is important when using this type of defense to move the product with the changing technologies and market evolution or else the product can become outdated or even lose it's marketability.
Counterattack is a second type of defensive strategy. A counterattack exploits the competitor's weaknesses where it may involve an attack on a defended terrain (Duro, 1987). This type of defense allows the attacker to move in and the defender capitalizes on the attackers mistakes (Duro, 1987). One method of counterattack is to aim the counterattack at the competitors source of cash (Kotler, 1981). There are two ways a counterattack can succeed: 1. Cutoff the aggressor's cash supply and 2. Through the counterattack the counterattacker gains because the attacker cannot defend and attack simultaneously (kotler, 1981).
MARKETING WARFARE THROUGH MOBILE DEFENSE
A third type of marketing warfare involves mobile defense. Mobile defense occurs when there is a high degree of mobility in the defense which prevents the attacker from localizing and gaining forces for a battle (Duro, 1987). The basic idea of a mobile defense is to avoid holding unnecessary ground. One example of mobile defense came in 1977 when the Japanese went beyond the narrow television receiver an produced video cassette recorders and tapes (Kotler, 1985). The Japanese did not limit their mobile defense to just products they also used mobile defense in their manufacturing strategy (Kotler 1985). Rather than keeping the manufacturing plants in Japan they also broadened their operations to off-shore facilities in Mexico and the Far East (kotler, 1985). Because of their mobility they have found lower labor costs, and new markets (kotler, 1985).
Strategic retreat is fourth type of defensive strategy. The best way to describe strategic retreat is through an example of what Chrysler Corporation did to defend their company. Chrysler had just been taken over by Lee Iacocca in 1978 went he second oil price shock hit in the beginning of 1979. With all the problems facing Chrysler, Iacocca had to use strategic retreat in order to save the company. Iacocca cut his salary from $360,000 to one dollar, he cut salaries of higher official ten percent, and he cut stockholdings in all areas. Rather than making deliveries on expensive freight trains, he turned to deliveries by truck, and used a simple black and white annual report. Iacocca sold off many of the plants Chrysler could not afford to operate, and within three years Chrysler had dropped the break even point from $2.3 million to $1.1 million dollars (Duro, 1987).
MARKETING WARFARE THROUGH POSITION DEFENSE
A fifth and final type of defensive marketing strategy is position defense. Position defense uses all of a company's resources to consolidate one's position within the existing market segment (Duro, 1987). This type of defense usually occurs under stiff competition or major structural changes, i.e. the drop in oil consumption (Duro, 1987). Basically position defense means staying with the product or service a company knows best and avoiding the temptation of diversification.
CURRENT MARKETING WARFARE
Some examples of current marketing warfare include the cola wars, the beer wars and the burger wars. In Al Ries and Jack Trout's book they divide marketing warfare into four principles. These four principles addressed in Marketing Warfare include: Principles of flanking marketing warfare, Principles of guerilla marketing warfare, and the principles of defensive and offensive marketing warfare (Ries, 1986). In the following sections of this report each of the current marketing warfare battles will be analyzed through these principles.
MARKETING WARFARE IN THE COLA WARS
First, in the cola wars, Coca-Cola the one-hundred year old softdrink, did not have any competition until Pepsi came out with the twelve ounce bottle that sold for the same nickel that bought 6.5 ounces of Coca-Cola (Ries, 1986). Because of the advertising scheme used by Pepsi, Coca-Cola was on the spot. Coca-Cola had spent $15 million dollars on advertising and Pepsi just $600,000. The consumer went for quantity rather than quality (Ries, (1986). If they increased quantity, Coca-Cola was left with a billion 6.5 ounce bottles, and hundreds of thousands of nickel soft drink machines (Ries, 1986). Pepsi had created a successful flanking attack which turned into an offensive attack against the heart of Coca-Cola's strength (Ries, 1986). Pepsi had used offensive principle number two which was: find a weakness in the leader's strength and attack at that point. A more modern day experience of marketing warfare occurred when Coke introduced new Coke, one of the biggest marketing blunders of the century. After many years of being a leader, Coca-Cola did something a leader should never do - change their formula to match the sweetness of Pepsi Cola (Ries, 1986). Coke had undermined their own position (Ries, 1986). One key learned from Coca-Cola's mistake was that perception is reality. Because Coca-Cola had undermined "the real thing" consumers perception was that nothing could taste better than the "real thing"; thus, Coke threw int the towel and re-introduced Classic Coke (Ries, 1986).
MARKETING WARFARE IN THE BEER WARS
Another example of the current state of marketing warfare is occurring in the famous beer wars. Consumers are bombarded daily with commercials and advertisements about who has the best beer. One example of marketing warfare occurred when imported beer was first introduced into the United States. Heineken was an imported beer and that was it's strength; however, it was imported from Holland (Ries, 1986). Lowenbreau was the second imported beer and they could have used offensive principle number three against Heinken. Offensive principle number three states: Launch the attack on as narrow a front as possible (Ries, 1986). Lowenbrau could have launched an attack against Heniken. Being from Holland a country famous for windmills, cheese, and canals, the perception of the market was stronger for Lowenbrau because it was imported from Germany (Ries, 1986). Today, as marketers, we are constantly fighting a battle within the consumers mind which is consumer perception.
MARKETING WARFARE IN THE BURGER WARS
Guerilla principle number one: pick a segment of the market that is small enough to defend (Ries, 1986). This is what McDonald's has done in their attack in the burger war. Up until the birth of McDonald's there had been coffee shops all across America famous for different delicacies. Rather than trying to combat each type of delicacy, McDonald's chose to specialize in the hamburger. Because of their strict standards to cleanliness, procedures, and continuity, McDonald's has remained the leader of the burger war from it's start (Ries, 1986).
Eventhough their uniformity was a major strength of McDonald's it was also a weakness. Burger King, the second fastest growing food chain took on offensive principle number 2: find a weakness in the leader's strength and attack at that point (Ries, 1986). Burger King did just that, they pinpointed the seam which held McDonald's strength together and they hit it hard. Burger King focused their advertising on "Have it your way" (Ries, 1986). McDonald's was squeezed and Burger King's sales increased with this maneuver (Ries, 1986).
In conclusion, Marketing warfare will continue to be an integral part of the marketing world. Each principle discussed in the above paper will aid a company in ways it can become more competitive. It is important for companies to employ offensive and defensive tactics when necessary. Through monitoring competition a company will know when to use the appropriate warfare techniques to be successful in the marketing arena.