|EXCURSION THROUGH MEDIEVAL EUROPE
732 - Charles Martel defeats the Muslims at Battle of Tours.
793 - First attack of Vikings on Europe.
862 - Traditional date for founding of Russia by Slavs inviting Scandinavian Rus to rule them.
945 - Princess Olga is the first Russian ruler to be Christian.
962 - Otto I becomes the first Holy Roman Emperor. The HRE is supposed to be the temporal head of Christianity,
which puts him at odds with the Pope who wants that job for himself.
989 - Vladimir I of Kiev converts all the Russians to Orthodox Christianity.
1000 - End of Viking raids.
1054 - Pope and Patriarch (Archbishop of Constantinople) excommunicate each other. Christianity now split
between Roman Catholicism and Greek Orthodoxy.
1066 - William of Normandy conquers the Angles and Saxons in England.
1077 - Henry IV of Germany "goes to Canossa" begs Pope Gregory VII's forgiveness to get his excommunication
1095 - Seljuk Turks take Jerusalem.
1096 - First Crusade. Byzantine Emperor Alexis Comnenus asks Pope Urban II for help to retake Jerusalem.
1215 - Magna Carta. Nobles force King John of England to sign it.
1225-1273 - Life of St. Thomas Aquinas, the guy who invented the concept of "just war" and "just price." Heavy
hitter in "scholastic" philosophy.
1240 - Mongols destroy Kiev, rule all Russia.
1270 - 8th and final Crusade.
1302 - High point of papal power. Boniface VIII publishes bull, U nam Sanctu m .
1337 - Hundred Years War begins between England and France.
1348 - Black Death kills off between 1/4-1/3 of entire population of Europe. Death drives up the price of people.
1350 - A convenient date to begin the Renaissance, an artistic and literary movement located primarily in Italy and
1453 - A big year: 1) Ottoman Turks take Constantinople. Goodbye, Byzantine Empire.
2) Hundred Years War over; France wins.
1455 - War of the Roses begins in England.
1461 - Reign of King Louis XI of France.
1462 - Beginning of reign of Ivan III
1469 - Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile get married. Spain on the road to unification.
1480 - Ivan III liberates the Russians from the Mongols and becomes the first Tsar.
1485 - War of the Roses over. Reign of Henry VII begins.
1492 - Another big year: 1) Spain completes "Reconquista" expels Moors from their last stronghold at Granada. 2)
Spain kicks out all the Jews. 3) Columbus sails the ocean blue.
1517 - Martin Luther nails up his 95 Theses, beginning the Reformation. A convenient date to end the Renaissance
USEFUL DATES FOR UNDERSTANDING CONFUSION IN THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
"This agglomeration which was called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire is neither holy, nor
Roman nor an empire."
--Voltaire, E ssai sur les Moeur s , 1756.
932-973 - Reign of Otto I of Germany. He establishes control over German duchies, conquers Italy and is stops the
westward advance of the Magyars (who become Hungarians later on) at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955.
962 - Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation. He becomes the first Holy Roman Emperor,
hereafter abbreviated HRE. Because of the notion that the HRE is the temporal head of Christendom, the HRE's are
always in conflict with the Pope, who would like that role for himself.
1186 - Constance, daughter of Roger II of Sicily, marries Henry VI, HRE.
1192 - Sicily united with the HRE
1202 - Pope Innocent III asserts papal authority over HRE, and all other temporal government. His main antagonist
was Frederick II of Hohenstaufen who became HRE in 1220.
1250 - Frederick II dies and imperial power in Germany and Italy collapses.
1302 - Papal Bull U nam Sanctu m bans churchmen from paying taxes to temporal rulers. It was opposed by England
1309-1377 - The "Babylonian Captivity" in which a series of Frenchmen, starting with Clement V, were elected
popes, with energetic participation of the Kings of France, and the papal court was moved to Avignon.
[1337 - Hundred Years War begins between England and France.]
[In the middle of the war lurks the Black Death]
1356 - Right to choose HRE vested in seven electors from political units in Germany, by the Golden Bull
1378 - The Great Schism of the West. Two rival popes, one at Avignon (Clement VII) and one at Rome (Urban VI.)
1409 - Council of Pisa deposes both popes and elects a new pope. But the first two refuse to step down so then
there are THREE!
1414-1418 - Council of Constance deposes the three aforementioned popes and this time it sticks. Council elects
Martin V, who rules from Rome. Also on the agenda is the extirpation of heresy, particularly the Hussites.
1438 - First Habsburg chosen as HRE
[1453 - Turks take Constantinople, marking the fall of the Byzantine Empire]
[1453 - Hundred Years War ends. France wins.]
[1455-1480 - War of the Roses over succession to English throne.]
1493 - Maximilian I, Archduke of Austria is HRE. He initiates diplomacy by marriage.
1517 - Luther issues his 95 Theses
1519 - Charles V is elected HRE
1521 - Diet of Worms
1524-1526 - Peasant uprisings in southern and central Germany. Luther repudiates them.
1526 - Hungarians defeated by Turks at Mohacs. In panic they elect Charles V's brother Ferdinand to be their king.
[1527 - Charles V's troops sack Rome.]
1531 League of Schmalkalden organized by Protestant princes against Charles V.
1545 - Council of Trent in which the Catholics reaffirm their beliefs and go on the offensive against the Protestants.
Ignatius Loyola founds the Jesuits.
1555 - Peace of Augsburg in which Charles V allows the Protestant princes in the HRE freedom of worship. Each
prince will determine the religion of his people.
1556 - Charles V abdicates and his kingdom is divided into the Spanish and the Austrian branches.
1618-1648 - 30 Years War, featuring the Defenestration of Prague, which starts out as a religious/civil war and ends
up as an international free for all, destroying both the prospects for political unity and the economy of the Germanic
lands for years and years in the process.
1806 - Napoleon forces Francis II HRE to give up his title. Francis becomes Francis I of Austria. HRE gives up the
TIMELINE FOR ISLAM AND OTTOMAN EMPIRES
570-632 C.E. - Life of Muhammad. He is born in Mecca, a pilgrimage cite for Arabs who worship at the site of the
610 - Muhammad begins to preach monotheism
622 - Muhammad forced to flee to Medina.
630 - Muhammad and his followers capture Mecca in 630.
632 - Muhammad dies and he is succeeded by four c aliph s , elected successors. These leaders form the Orthodox
Caliphate. They were good generals and they conquered and converted southern Arabia, parts of the Byzantine
Empire, north Africa, Spain, and the Persian Empire.
632-634 - Abu Bakr
634-644 - Umar
644-656 – Uthman. He was murdered by partisans of Ali.
656-661 - Ali. Ali was Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. He was murdered and replaced by the
661-750 - Umayyad dynasty, which moved the capital of the empire to Damascus. At this time the sect of Shi'ites
broke away from Islam. Shi'ites are a minority everywhere except Iran.
750- Umayyands massacred and overthrown by the
750-1258 - Abbasid dynasty, which moved the capital to Baghdad. Islamic Empire has a "Golden Age." (The
Ummayads fled to Spain where they set up their own caliphate, which lasted until 1492.)
861 – Abbasid caliphs become the puppets of officers of Turkish elite guards.
929 - Abd al-Rahman III of Cordova adopts title of Caliph.
969 - Fatimids (Shi’i) take over Egypt.
1054 – Schism between the RCC and the EO.
1055 - Seljuk Turks, former nomads converted to Islam, capture Baghdad, and proclaim their leader the sultan,
ruling on "behalf" of the Abbasids. IT IS THE END OF ARAB POWER IN ISLAM!
1058 – Abbasid Caliphs crown Seljuq Tughril Beg as “Sultan” (temporal leader.)
1071 - Seljuks beat the Byzantines at Manzikert and capture Jerusalem, the trigger for the First Crusade.
1099 – Christians take Jerusalem
1157 – Seljuq Shah builds Iranian empire in opposition to Abbasids.
1171 - Downfall of Fatimids.
1187 – Saladin retakes Jerusalem.
1219 – Genghis Khan launches attack on Islamic rule in Transoxiana and Persia
1221 – Genghis Khan (Temujin) leads the Mongol army into Persia. Mongols later split their domains into separate
Khanates: Il-Khans (Persia) and Golden Horde (Russia.)
1250 - Ottoman Turks, having been driven west by the Mongols, take service with the Seljuks.
1250 – Mamluks take over Egypt from the French.
1258 – Mongol army captures Baghdad. END OF ISLAM’S GOLDEN AGE.
1260 Mamluks defeat Mongols (Il-Khans) at Ain Julat.
1288 - Osman I, chief of the Ottomans, proclaims himself Sultan of all the Turks, and thus founds the Ottoman
1370-1405 – TAMERLANE, a Muslim of Mongol descent, reconstitutes the Empire of the Il-Khans, and conquers
most of the Islamic world.
1421-51 – Murad II develops the janissary system.
1453 - Ottomans conquer Constantinople, the last nail in the coffin of the Byzantine Empire.
Ottomans expanded across Christian Europe in the 16th century, acquiring territory in Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia,
Romania, Hungary and the Crimea. They took control of Egypt, parts of North Africa and Syria, Lebanon, Israel,
Persia, Iraq and Yemen.
1501 – Isma’il begins Safavid Dynasty in Persia. He is the descendant of a 200 year old family of Sufi mystics.
1520-1566 - Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent: the Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire.
1529 - First Siege of Vienna. Turks held off but it is a close call.
1536 - Alliance between Suleiman and Francis I of France against the Habsburgs.
1571 - Battle of Lepanto: Turks are defeated by Spanish and Venetians. It is the end of Turkish sea power in
1587 – Shah Abbas – the high point of Safavid rule.
1683 - Turks fail again to successfully besiege Vienna. It's the beginning of the end for the Ottoman Empire.
1687 - Battle of Mohacs, in which the Ottomans are defeated and Hungary becomes a hereditary Habsburg
USEFUL DATES FOR THE NEW MONARCHIES
"Be not the first by whom the new are tried,
Nor yet the last to lay the old aside."
-----Alexander Pope, A n Essay on Criticis m (1711)
1337-1453 - Hundred Years War between England and France.
1378- "Babylonian Captivity" begins.
1414- Council of Constance ends the Captivity.
1438 - Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges in which Gallican church refuses to pay annates to the pope.
1516 - Concordat of Bologna. King Francis I of France makes a deal with Pope Leo X: he gets to pick all the
bishops and abbots and the pope gets his annates.
1455-1485 - War of the Roses, a struggle between the descendants of Edward III for the English crown. Ends with Henry VII ascending the throne, founding the Tudor dynasty.
1461-1483 - Reign of Louis XI of France. Member of the Valois family.
1469 - Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile.
1478 - Ferdy and Izzy bring the Inquisition (founded in 12th century) out of mothballs.
1485-1509 - Reign of Henry VII.
1491 –Charles VIII of France marries the daughter of the Duke of Brittany. France acquires the territory.
1492- Ferdinand and Isabella do three things: 1. Complete the R econquista , expelling the Moors from Granada. 2.
Expel the Jews from Spain 3. Underwrite Columbus's expedition to the New World, although they do not know it
is new at the time.
1509 - Henry VIII succeeds his father
1529 - Peace of Cambrai: the French renounce their claims to Italy and Charles V (HRE) renounces his claim to lost
USEFUL DATES FOR THE REFORMATION
1328-1384 - Life of John Wyclif. The Lollards were his disciples. He was declared a heretic posthumously and the
RCC dug up and burned his bones in 1428.
1369-1415 - Life of John Hus. Condemned as a heretic by the Council of Constance, he was burned at the stake.
1414-1418 - Council of Constance ends Great Schism.
1483-1546 - Life of Martin Luther.
1484-1531 - Life of Ulrich Zwingli.
1509-1564 - Life of John Calvin.
1517 - Luther's 95 Theses are posted on the door of the Court Church at Wittenberg.
1518 - Luther refuses to recant his assertions.
1519 - Charles V is elected HRE and Luther debates theologian John Eck on the issue of the authority of the Pope
and church councils, the famous Leipzig Disputation.
1520 - Luther excommunicated by Pope Leo X. He burns the Bull that announces it.
1521 - He denies papal infallibility and so Luther declared an outlaw by Charles V and the Diet of Worms.
("Nobody loves me, everybody hates me...") Luther is rescued by the Elector of Saxony and placed in protective
custody at Wartburg where he translates the Bible into German.
1524 - Peasant's rebellion in Germany is stirred by Luther's writings thought condemned by Luther himself.
1525 - Lutheranism becomes official religion of Saxony.
- in East Prussia, Albert of Branderberg converts the area belonging to the Teutonic Knights into a secular
1526-1532 - Charles V's war with the Turks.
1527 - Henry VIII of England petitions Pope Clement VII for a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Pope won't agree
because he is in debt to Charles V who is Catherine's nephew.
1529 - German Lutheran princes protest imperial decrees against their faith. That's how they come to be known as
Protestant! It's political: princes against Emperor, not religious: Luther against Pope. Diet of Speyer
1530 - Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer annuls the marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine.
1531 - Ulrich Zwingli killed.
- Schmalkaldic League founded including the majority of Protestant Princes and Imperial Cities for the
defense of Protestantism
1534 - The Act of Supremacy completes the English Reformation.
- Jesuit order founded by Ignatius Loyola.
1534-1535 - The Anabaptist movement led by John of Leyden, takes control of Munster in an attempt to make it a"City of God."
1535 - In England Sir Thomas More, who wrote U topia, is beheaded for refusing to take the oath of supremacy.
1536 - John Calvin's Institute s are published in Geneva.
1539 - British Parliament passes the S ix Article s reaffirming many of the sacraments of the Catholic church.
1540 - The Jesuit Order is approved by the Pope to counter the spread of Protestantism.
1541 - Calvin constructs a government based on the subordination of the states to the church and becomes "ruler"
over the city of Geneva until he dies in 1564.
1545 - The Council of Trent is called by Pope Paul III. It reaffirms the seven sacraments.
1546-1547 - Schmalkaldic War: Charles V vs. Schmalkaldic League
1547 - The S ix Article s are repealed by Parliament.
- Schmalkaldic League defeated at Muhlberg
1549 - The British Parliament passes the Act of Uniformity, adopts the Anglican mass and a prayer book as new implements of the state religion.
1550 - John Knox establishes Presbyterianism in Scotland.
1551 - Thomas Cranmer publishes 42 Articles of Religion.
1553 - Michael Servetus, one of the founders of Unitarianism, is burned at the stake by John Calvin.
1555 - Peace of Augsburg established religious peace in the HRE. "The religion of the prince is the religion of the
people." Only Catholics and Lutherans get to play. The Calvinists and other sects are excluded.
1562 - Conflicts between the Huguenots and Catholic nobles lead to civil wars (nine of them) that end in the Edict
of Nantes that gives the Huguenots religious toleration in 1598.
1563 - British Parliament adapts thirty-nine of Cranmer's 42 Articles, and develops the Elizabethan prayer book.
1572 - St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Catholic France tries to off all the Protestants, mostly for political
1598 - Edict of Nantes. Henry IV of France tolerates the Huguenots after himself converting to Catholicism,
asserting that "Paris is well worth a mass."
1618 - Defenstration of Prague starts the 30 Years War, the last act in the wars of religion. It's Calvinist Bohemians
vs. the Catholic HRE, but it ends up being much more about the Balance of Power and the decline of the
Habsburgs than about religion.
1642-1648 - The English Civil War. England turns Calvinist for a short time, then turns back when Oliver
Cromwell's incompetent son Richard is tossed out, along with the Commonwealth.
1660 - Restoration of the Stuarts to the English throne. Score one for the Anglicans.
1648 - The Peace of Westphalia pretty much duplicates the Peace of Augsberg, except that this time the Calvinists win
THEMATIC TIMELINE FOR ENGLISH RELIGIOUS/POLITICAL FREEDOM
1215 - Magna Carta. English barons force King John to sign it establishing their right to a council to discuss
1265 - Simon de Montfort expands council by calling burgesses (freemen from towns) as representatives of certain
1295 - Model Parliament. Edward I needs money for war. He calls 2 knights from each shire and two burgesses to
vote taxes for him. It is the basis for the House of Commons.
1297 - Rights of Parliament to approve taxes and customs dues confirmed. Petitions from Parliament that get the
King's approval become law. Parliament can initiate legislation.
1332 - Parliament meets in two "houses," Lords and Commons, for first time.
1337-1453 - Hundred Years War against France.
1348-1349 - Black Death
1381 - Peasant's Revolt
[Between the Black Death and the 100 Years War the population of nobles is decimated, wages go up because of
fewer workers, and the King needs more money to fight the war.]
1445 - Invention of the printing press
1455-1485 - War of the Roses, civil war about who will succeed to the English throne.
1485-1509 - Reign of Henry VII
1509-1547 - Reign of Henry VIII
1531 - English clergy recognize Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in England.
1533 - Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon declared void. Pope excommunicates Henry.
1534 - Act of Supremacy. Makes Henry head of the Church of England and cuts all ties to Rome. (This is the law that they got Sir Thomas More on.)
1547-1553 - Reign of Edward VI
1549 - Act of Uniformity and new prayer book
1552 - 2nd Act of Uniformity
1553-1558 - Reign of Mary Tudor (aka Bloody Mary) who reinstates the Catholic Church
1558-1603 - Reign of Elizabeth I who reinstates Anglican Church
1559 - Act of Uniformity, makes only 1 legal church in England. New Act of Supremacy and new Prayer Book.
Elizabeth is now supreme governor of all English institutions, church and state.
1563 - Statute of Artificers
1587 - Mary Queen of Scots (aka Mary Stuart) executed. She was Catholic.
1588 - Defeat of Spanish Armada. England is now safe from Catholic Spain.
1592 - Presbyterianism adopted in Scotland.
1593 - Act Against Sectaries. Legislation against Puritans.
1603 - Elizabeth I dies, succeeded by Mary Q-of-S's son James I. He believed in the "Divine Right of Kings."
1611 - King James Version of the Bible
1624-40 - "Eleven Years Tyranny." Charles I dissolves Parliament.
1639 - Archbishop Laud tries to force the Scotch Presbyterians to conform to the Church of England. The Scots
threaten to invade England.
1640 - Charles I has to recall Parliament because he needs money to fight Scottish invasion. The Short Parliament
is followed by the Long Parliament. (Compare to France of Louis XVI.)
1641 - Parliament passes laws to limit the King's power
1642-1648 - English Civil War. King Charles invades Parliament and tries to arrest five leaders.
1641647 - Parliament tries and fails to dissolve the New Model Army
1648 - Capture of Charles I
1649 - Charles I is tried and executed.
1651 - Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes (Tyranny is better than chaos and death.)
1649-1653 - English Commonwealth - Rule by House of Commons
1653-1660 - English Protectorate - Rule by Oliver Cromwell
1658 - Cromwell dies. He is succeeded by his less skillful and less charismatic son Richard.
1659 - George Monck calls back Parliament.
1660 - Restoration of Stuart Monarchy. Charles II becomes king.
1679 - Habeas Corpus
1685 - James II, who is Catholic, becomes king. He's Charles II's brother.
1687 - Government positions opened to Catholics
1688 - Glorious Revolution. William of Orange, married to James II's Protestant daughter Mary, is invited by House of Lords to save England from Catholicism.
1689 - English Bill of Rights
1688-1702 - Reign of William and Mary. All's well that ends well.
1701 - Act of Settlement. Parliament decides there will never be another Catholic king of England. After the reign of Anne (the sister of Mary, daughter of the former James II) succession is settled on the Hanover
BLOW BY BLOW: THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR
1625 - Charles I succeeds his father James I as King of England.
His "favourite" is Buckingham.
1628 - Charles wants money to fight a war against France (1626-1630) and so Parliament passes the PETITION OF
RIGHT which Charles must sign before Parliament will give him any money. It prohibits benevolences, billeting of
soldiers in private houses, and imprisonment without specific charges.
1629 - Parliament meets, furious at the King's persistent levying of "tonnage and poundage." Eliot reads his "resolutions" which say that whoever introduced innovations in religion or disagreements with the one true church; whoever advised levy of tonnage and poundage without consent of the Parliament and who ever voluntarily paid such duties was an enemy of the kingdom. John ELIOT was arrested and sent to the Tower and Parliament
dissolved. Notice that early on religion and politics are confounded. Beginning of the ELEVEN YEARS
1634 - SHIP MONEY CASE focus of hatred of Charles I. It extends to the whole country a tax heretofore levied only on seaboard towns. The idea is that the whole country should support the navy. Typical position of the King
(ANY European king) vs. the nobles. JOHN HAMPDEN defies the tax, goes to court and loses, but the public is on his side.
1637 - Under pressure from the Archbishop of Canterbury, William LAUD, an attempt is made to force the
Anglican religion on the Presbyterian Scots. Bad idea.
1639 - First Bishop's War. Scots rise against Charles I. Charles I makes peace with Pacification of Dunce, avoids a big battle, the armies are disbanded but the Scots Parliament remains firm.
1640 - Charles I is strapped for funds and unable to conquer the Scots without more money. So he calls Parliament
- the SHORT PARLIAMENT - that refuses to vote him any money until he settles their grievances, so he dissolves
- Second Bishops War breaks out, Charles I is defeated and he must agree to pay the Scots a big
indemnity. To get the money he must call Parliament and make it work this time.
- Beginning of the LONG PARLIAMENT (which lasts until 1660.) The Scots won't disband until they are
paid, so the Parliament has Charles where they want him. 1. Laud is impeached and sent to the Tower. 2.
Parliament passes Triennial Act that calls Parliament every three years whether the King wants to or not.
3. Another bill is passed to prevent Charles from dissolving the Long Parliament without its own consent. 4. The
ROOT AND BRANCH BILL that abolishes Anglican bishops is introduced, which leads to a split between the moderate Puritans and the more radical Presbyterians.
1641 - Abolition of the courts of Star Chamber and High Commission.
- Parliament hears of the massacre of Protestants in Ulster, in which 30,000 people are killed, but is
unwilling to entrust Charles with an army. Instead they pass the GREAT REMONSTRANCE, which is a long list of all their complaints about his reign.
1642 - Charles orders the impeachment of five members of Parliament for treason. Commons refuses to order their arrest. Charles shows up in Parliament with soldiers, but the five had been warned and escaped. Parliament then passes bills excluding bishops from the House of Lords and giving command of the militia to the Parliament. The king, with some of his supporters, leaves London for York, taking the Great Seal with him. Thus Parliament commits to passing laws that are NOT submitted to the king and are NOT signed with the Great Seal.
- Parliament makes one final appeal to Charles, submitting to him the NINETEEN PROPOSITIONS
among which are: 1. King should assent to the militia bill
2. fortified places entrusted to officers appointed by
3. liturgy and church government should be reformed according to the wishes of Parliament
4. Parliament should appoint and dismiss all royal ministers and guardians of the king's children.
5. Parliament should have the power to exclude from the House of Lords all peers created after that date. To no one's surprise, the King refused.
- Expecting violence, Parliament raises an army and creates a committee of public safety (not to be
confused with the French version of the same thing which won't happen until 1792) and Charles raises his army and the Great Rebellion is begun.
THE CIVIL WAR
"In this corner, the challenger..." Parliament took with it East Anglia, London, and the south of England. Socially
it included the middle classes, the great merchants and many great nobles. Religiously they tended to be Puritans.
Their nickname was ROUNDHEADS.
"In this corner, the champion..." North England and west-central England stood by the King. The King was
supported by the gentry, the Anglican clergy (surprise) and the peasantry. Royalists were sometimes called
OLIVER CROMWELL (1599-1658) emerges as the best general on either side - he works for Parliament. Cromwell
is a member of the lesser landed GENTRY and he is an ardent PURITAN. His forces are called the IRONSIDES.
1643 - The SOLEMN LEAGUE AND COVENENT makes England, Ireland and Scotland all the same religion:
Presbyterian. Scots agree to help the English against the king.
1644 - BATTLE OF MARSTON MOOR. Royalist cavalry leader Prince Rupert defeats the Scots and then is
trounced thoroughly by Oliver Cromwell and his Ironsides. This is the crucial battle of the war that gives the north
1645 – LAUD is tried and executed. Meanwhile England is moving toward more extreme Protestantism. Cromwell,
with his Independents, rose to leadership. The whole Parliamentary army is reformed, the NEW MODEL ARMY,
on the model of Cromwell's Ironsides.
1646 - BATTLE OF NASEBY is the decisive defeat of the King's forces, after which royalists and royalist towns
surrender one after the other. Charles surrenders himself to the Scots.
- Parliament submits the NEWCASTLE PROPOSALS to captive Charles. They demand 1. that
Parliament control the militia for 20 years 2. that Charles take the Covenant (and turn himself into a Presbyterian)
3. that Charles support the Presbyterian establishment. Charles knows that trouble is brewing between the
Presbyterians in Parliament and the Independents in the Army, and so he refuses the propositions.
1647 - The Scots turn Charles over to the Parliament, but soon the Army and Parliament are in open conflict.
Parliament votes to disband the army not needed for garrisons or service in Ireland. The Army collects Charles before an agreement can be reached between the King and the Presbyterians. Furthermore the army has taken an oath at TRIPTOW HEATH not to disband until freedom of conscience is obtained.
- The Army asks Parliament to exclude 11 members that it doesn't like in the HUMBLE
REMONSTRANCE, which is anything but humble. Many members of Parliament flee to the army.
- The Army is now making proposals of its own to the King: that worship be free for all; that Parliament
control the army and navy for ten years and then appoint officers of state; that Parliament serve for three years.
Needless to say, these proposals are rejected by the King.
- Parliament presents the FOUR BILLS to the King: 1. Parliament to command the army for 20 years. 2.
All declarations and proclamations of the King against Parliament are recalled 3. All peers created since the great seal was sent to Charles to be incapable of sitting in the House of Lords. 4. The two houses should adjourn at pleasure.
Charles has been negotiating with the Scots, who really really hate the idea of the Independents getting
freedom of religion. He agrees to dump Anglicanism and accept Presbyterianism. The Scots agree to support him with their army, so we end up with
1648 - THE SECOND CIVIL WAR
It's a war between Scotland and England, between royalists and Roundheads and also between Presbyterians and
Independents. (Can't tell the players without a scorecard!)
It runs from January 1648 to August of 1648 when Oliver Cromwell defeats the Scots at the BATTLE OF
PRESTON. Charles ends up captured by the army.
- Meantime the Army is becoming impatient and Colonel Pride forces 96 Presbyterians out of Parliament
in PRIDE'S PURGE (the aftermath of Pride's Binge, no doubt) and the result is the RUMP PARLIAMENT of only 60 members.
- The Rump votes that Charles be brought to trial.
1649 - The army council drew up a temporary INSTRUMENT OF GOVERNMENT. Charles was tried before a high court whose jurisdiction he did not recognize. He was sentenced to death and beheaded on January 30.
It is a republican form of government with power in the hands of Cromwell. Technically the Rump Parliament is the legislative body. The title and office of King is abolished and so is the House of Lords.
1649 - With the death of Charles I, the Scots and the Irish revolt, proclaiming Charles II as king. Cromwell goes to Ireland and massacres thousands of Irish at Drogheda and Wexford. In the Cromwellian Settlement the Catholic landholders are dispossessed in favor of Protestant landholders.
1650 - Cromwell defeats the Scots and pursues Charles II unsuccessfully. Charles II escapes to France in disguise. "He who fights and runs away, lives to fight another day."
1651 - First Navigation Act. Forbids the importation of goods into England except in English vessels. A classic measure of mercantile policy, it helps the English merchant marine gain ascendancy over the Dutch.
1652 - War with the Dutch breaks out over the First Navigation Act. (Peace is made in April 1654)
- Things are still bad between the Rump and the Army and so
1653 - Cromwell dumps the Rump, dissolves the council of state, and sets up a new council and a nominating parliament called the BAREBONES or Little Parliament. Cromwell's supporters then give him all their powers and
Cromwell sets up the
- PROTECTORATE (Cromwell himself, of course, is the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of
England, Scotland and Ireland)
The Protector and the council could issue ordinances but only the Parliament could grant supplies and levy taxes.
1654 - The New Parliament quarrels with the Lord Protector who responds by dissolving it.
1655 - Cromwell divides England into 12 military districts, each with a force supported by a tax on royalist estates.
Anglican clergy are forbidden to preach and Catholic priests are ordered out of the country. Censorship of the press. Cromwell enforces rigid "Puritanical" rule on arts and morals.
1656 - War with Spain (Hey, why not?) It lasts until 1659.
- Cromwell's Third Parliament still suffers from exclusion of members, those to whom Cromwell objects.
They pass the Humble Petition and Advice ( very humble) which establishes a second house, deprives the Protector
of the power to exclude members, reduces power of the council, fixes supply for the army and navy, and tolerates all Trinitarian Christians except the Anglicans and the Catholics.
- Cromwell rejects the title of King.
1658 - Cromwell dies on September 3. He is succeeded by his son Little Richard. The Parliament is in a fight with the Army once again and the army induced Richard to dissolve the Parliament. Undaunted - for once - the
Parliament met anyway and Richard was induced to resign as Protector. . The
army tried to object, there were insurrections and in the end the Parliament won.
1660 - General Monk led his army from Scotland to London, reconstituted the Long Parliament with the surviving members excluded by Pride's Purge.
- Charles II issued his DECLARATION OF BREDA that proclaimed amnesty to all not especially
excepted by Parliament, promising freedom of religion and confirmation of confiscated estates in the hands of the actual holders. He was officially proclaimed king by Parliament on May 8, 1660.
AND THEY ALL LIVED HAPPILY EVER AFTER. At least until 1688.
TIMELINE ON FRANCE
1066 - William of Normandy ("The Conqueror") invades England
1204 - Philip II conquers English territory in Northern France (Normandy, Maine, Anjou and Touraine.)
1214 - Battle of Bovines. Philip II takes remaining English lands except Guinne and Gascony.
1234-1301 - Philip II gets Chartres, Blois, Toulouse, Macon, Poitou and Bar from French nobles.
1328 - Valois Dynasty begins. Charles IV dies. Succeeded by cousin Philip VI.
1337 - Charles IV's nephew, Edward III of England, claims French throne
1337-1453 - 100 Years War with England
1348-1349 - The Black Death
1349 - Dauphine becomes the province of the heir, who is, therefore called the "Dauphin."
1355 - Parisians led by cloth merchant Etienne Marcel rise against taxes.
1358 - The Jacquerie, uprising of French peasants against harsh conditions. They try to ally with Parisian rebels but are crushed by nobles and merchants.
1382 - Uprising in Paris against taxes
1415 - Henry V of England wins Battle of Agincourt
1420 - Henry marries French princess and becomes heir to France by Treaty of Troyes
1429 - Battle of Orleans in which Joan of Arc leads troops.
1453 - England defeated. They get to keep only Calais and Channel Islands
1477 - Louis XI seizes Burgundy and Artois
1480 - Louis XI seizes Lorraine
1491 - Charles VIII marries Anne of Brittany and thus acquires Brittany.
1517 - Luther nails up his 95 Theses
1520 -Luther called to account at the Diet of Worms
1555 - Peace of Augsburg after years of religious wars. The Prince of each German state will decide the religion of the area.
1559 - Henry II, a Valois, dies. One sixth the population of France is Calvinist (Huguenot.) He has four incompetent sons by Catherine de Medici, who rules in their names. On-going fight between the Bourbons (Protestants) and Guises (Catholics.)
1562-1589 - 9 Civil Wars
1572 - St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in Paris. Huguenots killed by Catholics. King is Charles IX, a weak ruler
advised by Admiral de Coligny.
1574 - Charles IX dies, succeeded by Henry III who "reigned but did not rule."
1589 - Catherine de Medici dies. Henry III orders Catholics Guises murdered, is murdered by a friar.
The heir is Henry of Navarre, a Bourbon descendant of St. Louis (Louis IX.) Henry is a Huguenot.
1593 - Henry IV converts to Catholicism, announcing "Paris is worth a mass."
1598 - Henry IV promulgates Edict of Nantes, giving religious toleration to Huguenots everywhere except Paris. He announces his goal of "a chicken in every pot."
1610 - Henry IV is stabbed to death.
1610-1643 - Reign of Louis XIII
1624 - Louis XIII appoints Cardinal Richelieu his advisor.
1) weakens Huguenots
2) weakens nobles
3) strengthens government powers to tax and to dispense justice
4) beats the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs in the 30 Years War.
1627 - Catholics besiege Protestant stronghold of La Rochelle
1635 - Richelieu sends French to fight against Habsburgs on the same side as the Swedish and German Protestants in Thirty Years War.
1642 - Richelieu dies
1643 - Louis XIII dies
1643-1715 - Reign of Louis XIV, "The Sun King," begins when he is five years old. His mother Anne is Regent.
Cardinal Jules Mazarin is prime minister.
1648 - 30 Years War ends. The German economy is ruined. In the Peace of Westphalia France takes Alsace and emerges as Europe's strongest country. A triumph for Mazarin.
1648-1653 FRONDE rebellion against Mazarin
1661 - Mazarin dies. Louis XIV rules and dominates France until 1715. Louis XIV's minister of finance is Jean- Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) who pursues a policy of a) mercantilism and b) subsidies and tax benefits for French manufacturers.
1667-16971683 - Colbert dies. Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes. Huguenots flee. There goes the middle class. Compare to Spain in 1492.
Louis tries for military gain but is restrained by a coalition of smaller countries. Welcome to the Balance of Power!
1697 - Louis XIV reacquires Alsace but ends up nearly broke.
1700 - Charles II of Spain dies and will his kingdom to Louis XIV's grandson Philip. There suddenly exists the possibility that France and Spain will be united.
1701 - England, Austria, Dutch Republic, Denmark, Portugal, several German States, and the Duchy of Savoy unite against France and Spain in T he War of Spanish Successio n .
1713 - War of Spanish Succession ends in the Peace of Utrecht. Britain is the big winner. The German state of Prussia is recognized as a kingdom, as is the Duchy of Savoy.
1715 - Louis XIV dies of gangrene. He is succeeded by his five year old grandson Louis XV.
1715-1774 - Reign of Louis XV: "Apres moi, le deluge!"
1774-1792 - Reign of Louis XVI: End of Ancien Regime.