Evolution Week 1 Practice Assignment



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Evolution Week 1 Practice Assignment


11.1 Evolutionary Theory

____ 1. Which of the following is a definition of evolution?



a.

a process by which populations exhibit gradual changes over several generations

b.

a theory that best describes how species living today are descendants of species of past generations

c.

provides an explanation of how the great biological diversity present today occurred and is increasing

d.

an explanation of how mutations change the composition of a population

e.

all of the above


Short Answer

2. Explain what is meant by the term species.

3. List four categories of evidence for evolution and briefly describe each one.

Evidence






11.2 Evidence From the Past

____ 1. The most impressive direct evidence of evolution comes from the study of



a.

the fossil record

b.

present-day organisms

c.

the geographic distribution of plant and animal species

d.

homologous and analogous structures present in embryological development

e.

RNA structure

____ 2. The term radioactive dating refers to

a.

the release of subatomic particles from an element

b.

atoms that have an unstable nuclear arrangement

c.

an element that is found in rock as it forms

d.

an element that is found in rock as it ages

e.

the time that is calculated by an examination of the elements present in a rock sample

3. ____________________ is the term that refers to the time that is needed for 50% of a parent isotope to decay into a daughter isotope.

11.3 Early Ideas About Evolution

____ 1. The Theory of Evolution by Acquired Characteristics did not include which of the following?



a.

organisms can change during their own lifetime

b.

physical characteristics cannot be passed to offspring

c.

organisms were originally created by a Creator

d.

strenuous activities can change organisms

e.

the environment plays a role in selecting favourable characteristics

____ 2. Which of the following scientists was associated with forming the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?



a.

Thomas Malthus

d.

Charles Darwin

b.

Charles Lyell

e.

Georges Cuvier

c.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

____ 3. Which of the following scientists was associated with forming the Theory of Evolution by Acquired Characteristics?



a.

Thomas Malthus

d.

Charles Darwin

b.

Charles Lyell

e.

Georges Cuvier

c.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

____ 4. Carl Linnaeus is important to the study of evolution because he



a.

conducted genetic experiments with garden peas

b.

proposed that the environment could drive evolutionary change

c.

proposed a theory of evolution called natural selection

d.

proposed a theory of evolution called adaptations

e.

constructed a modern system used to classify organisms

____ 5. Gregor Mendel is important to the study of evolution because he



a.

conducted genetic experiments with garden peas

b.

proposed that the environment could drive evolutionary change

c.

proposed a theory of evolution called natural selection

d.

proposed a theory of evolution called adaptations

e.

constructed a modern system used to classify organisms

____ 6. Jean Baptiste Lamarck is important to the study of evolution because he



a.

conducted genetic experiments with garden peas

b.

proposed that the environment could drive evolutionary change

c.

proposed a theory of evolution called natural selection

d.

proposed a theory of evolution called adaptations

e.

constructed a modern system used to classify organisms

____ 7. Charles Lyell wrote Principles of Geology. This book was important to the formation of the Theory of Evolution because it



a.

described how rocks form

b.

described how fossils form

c.

suggested that species do not change

d.

stated that natural processes that take place today are the same as those that took place in the past

e.

stated that organisms change by acquiring new characteristics during their life span

____ 8. Charles Lyell wrote Principles of Geology. This book was important to the formation of the Theory of Evolution because it



a.

described how rocks form

b.

described how fossils form

c.

suggested that the Earth was 6000 years old

d.

suggested that the Earth was more than 100 000 years old

e.

suggested that species do not change

____ 9. Which of the following scientists did not propose a theory to explain evolution?



a.

Darwin

d.

Lyell

b.

Lamarck

e.

Wallace

c.

Malthus

____ 10. The major weakness in Lamarck's explanation of evolution is the fact that



a.

he knew nothing of genetic theory

b.

mutations were not part of his explanation

c.

acquired characteristics cannot be passed on

d.

organisms cannot develop certain structures through use

e.

no fossils had been found


11.4 Darwin's Voyage of Discovery

____ 1. Charles Darwin is important to the study of evolution because he



a.

conducted genetic experiments with garden peas

b.

proposed that the environment could drive evolutionary change

c.

proposed a theory of evolution called natural selection

d.

proposed a theory of evolution called adaptations

e.

constructed a modern system used to classify organisms



11.5 What Darwin Observed

____ 1. During the early stages of pregnancy, human embryos have paired gill pouches. This is an example of



a.

macroevolution

d.

development

b.

molecular record

e.

homology

c.

vestigial structures

____ 2. In North America, there lives a gliding rodent, the flying squirrel. In Australia, there lives a gliding marsupial, the sugar glider. This is an example of



a.

convergent evolution

d.

vestigial structures

b.

homology

e.

molecular record

c.

macroevolution

____ 3. The basic structure of the hemoglobin molecule is the same in humans, penguins ,and salmon. This is considered to be an example of



a.

parallel adaptation

d.

microevolution

b.

homology

e.

molecular record

c.

vestigial structures

____ 4. Thomas Malthus wrote a paper on the rate of population growth and the rate of the increase in food supply. Malthus proposed that



a.

at some point in the future, population will exceed food supply

b.

the rate of food production will always be greater than the population

c.

the distribution of food is a problem, but the supply of food is not.

d.

the rate of population growth has exceeded food production for at least 200 years

e.

population increases steadily, but food supply increases rapidly

____ 5. Hormones such as insulin, cortisone, and ACTH are extracted from cattle and swine. The fact that these may be used successfully to treat humans illustrates



a.

genetic variability

d.

biochemical copying

b.

homology

e.

a recent common ancestor

c.

embryonic similarity

____ 6. The biochemical evidence for evolution is based on the concept that



a.

all organisms share identical DNA molecules and similar proteins

b.

the more similar the DNA of two species is, the more distantly they are related

c.

comparisons of the DNA and proteins of different species indicate the degree to which those species are related

d.

identical DNA molecules shared by present and extinct organisms suggest that they are descended from a common ancestor

e.

the DNA in all organisms came from their parents

____ 7. Birds, turtles and snakes all lay eggs. This is considered to be an example of



a.

parallel adaptation

d.

microevolution

b.

convergence

e.

analogous structures

c.

vestigial structures

8. Explain what is meant by the term homology. Include an example to demonstrate homology.


9. Explain what is meant by the term artificial selection. Include an example to demonstrate artificial selection.


10. Explain what is meant by the term analogous structures. Include an example to demonstrate analogous structures.


11.6 The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

1. An examination of the fossil evidence indicates that, over time, giraffes have become taller, with longer legs and necks.

a. Explain this evidence using the Theory of Evolution by Acquired Characteristics.

b. Explain this evidence using the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection.


2. Explain what is meant by the term genetic variation. Include an example to demonstrate genetic variation.



  1. Explain what is meant by the term continental drift. Include an example to demonstrate continental drift.

NAME: I AM RIGHT


Evolution Week 1 Practice Assignment


11.1 Evolutionary Theory

____ 1. Which of the following is a definition of evolution?



a.

a process by which populations exhibit gradual changes over several generations

b.

a theory that best describes how species living today are descendants of species of past generations

c.

provides an explanation of how the great biological diversity present today occurred and is increasing

d.

an explanation of how mutations change the composition of a population

e.

all of the above


Short Answer

2. Explain what is meant by the term species.



A species is considered to be the members of a population of organisms that are able to reproduce under natural conditions and have fertile offspring.

3. List four categories of evidence for evolution and briefly describe each one.



Evidence

Fossils are records of the structure of organisms and the changes they have undergone

The early embryos of organisms such as vertebrates are similar, suggesting that they evolved from a common ancestor

Homologous structures, such as the flipper of a seal, the wing of a bat, the leg of a dog, and the human arm all have the same basic bone structure

Biochemical analysis of compounds such as DNA and protein indicates evolutionary relationships between closely and more distantly related organisms



11.2 Evidence From the Past

____ 1. The most impressive direct evidence of evolution comes from the study of



a.

the fossil record

b.

present-day organisms

c.

the geographic distribution of plant and animal species

d.

homologous and analogous structures present in embryological development

e.

RNA structure

____ 2. The term radioactive dating refers to

a.

the release of subatomic particles from an element

b.

atoms that have an unstable nuclear arrangement

c.

an element that is found in rock as it forms

d.

an element that is found in rock as it ages

e.

the time that is calculated by an examination of the elements present in a rock sample

3. HALF – LIFE is the term that refers to the time that is needed for 50% of a parent isotope to decay into a daughter isotope.

11.3 Early Ideas About Evolution

____ 1. The Theory of Evolution by Acquired Characteristics did not include which of the following?



a.

organisms can change during their own lifetime

b.

physical characteristics cannot be passed to offspring

c.

organisms were originally created by a Creator

d.

strenuous activities can change organisms

e.

the environment plays a role in selecting favourable characteristics

____ 2. Which of the following scientists was associated with forming the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?



a.

Thomas Malthus

d.

Charles Darwin

b.

Charles Lyell

e.

Georges Cuvier

c.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

____ 3. Which of the following scientists was associated with forming the Theory of Evolution by Acquired Characteristics?



a.

Thomas Malthus

d.

Charles Darwin

b.

Charles Lyell

e.

Georges Cuvier

c.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

____ 4. Carl Linnaeus is important to the study of evolution because he



a.

conducted genetic experiments with garden peas

b.

proposed that the environment could drive evolutionary change

c.

proposed a theory of evolution called natural selection

d.

proposed a theory of evolution called adaptations

e.

constructed a modern system used to classify organisms

____ 5. Gregor Mendel is important to the study of evolution because he



a.

conducted genetic experiments with garden peas

b.

proposed that the environment could drive evolutionary change

c.

proposed a theory of evolution called natural selection

d.

proposed a theory of evolution called adaptations

e.

constructed a modern system used to classify organisms

____ 6. Jean Baptiste Lamarck is important to the study of evolution because he



a.

conducted genetic experiments with garden peas

b.

proposed that the environment could drive evolutionary change

c.

proposed a theory of evolution called natural selection

d.

proposed a theory of evolution called adaptations

e.

constructed a modern system used to classify organisms

____ 7. Charles Lyell wrote Principles of Geology. This book was important to the formation of the Theory of Evolution because it



a.

described how rocks form

b.

described how fossils form

c.

suggested that species do not change

d.

stated that natural processes that take place today are the same as those that took place in the past

e.

stated that organisms change by acquiring new characteristics during their life span

____ 8. Charles Lyell wrote Principles of Geology. This book was important to the formation of the Theory of Evolution because it



a.

described how rocks form

b.

described how fossils form

c.

suggested that the Earth was 6000 years old

d.

suggested that the Earth was more than 100 000 years old

e.

suggested that species do not change

____ 9. Which of the following scientists did not propose a theory to explain evolution?



a.

Darwin

d.

Lyell

b.

Lamarck

e.

Wallace

c.

Malthus

____ 10. The major weakness in Lamarck's explanation of evolution is the fact that



a.

he knew nothing of genetic theory

b.

mutations were not part of his explanation

c.

acquired characteristics cannot be passed on

d.

organisms cannot develop certain structures through use

e.

no fossils had been found


11.4 Darwin's Voyage of Discovery

____ 1. Charles Darwin is important to the study of evolution because he



a.

conducted genetic experiments with garden peas

b.

proposed that the environment could drive evolutionary change

c.

proposed a theory of evolution called natural selection

d.

proposed a theory of evolution called adaptations

e.

constructed a modern system used to classify organisms



11.5 What Darwin Observed

____ 1. During the early stages of pregnancy, human embryos have paired gill pouches. This is an example of



a.

macroevolution

d.

development

b.

molecular record

e.

homology

c.

vestigial structures

____ 2. In North America, there lives a gliding rodent, the flying squirrel. In Australia, there lives a gliding marsupial, the sugar glider. This is an example of



a.

convergent evolution

d.

vestigial structures

b.

homology

e.

molecular record

c.

macroevolution

____ 3. The basic structure of the hemoglobin molecule is the same in humans, penguins ,and salmon. This is considered to be an example of



a.

parallel adaptation

d.

microevolution

b.

homology

e.

molecular record

c.

vestigial structures

____ 4. Thomas Malthus wrote a paper on the rate of population growth and the rate of the increase in food supply. Malthus proposed that



a.

at some point in the future, population will exceed food supply

b.

the rate of food production will always be greater than the population

c.

the distribution of food is a problem, but the supply of food is not.

d.

the rate of population growth has exceeded food production for at least 200 years

e.

population increases steadily, but food supply increases rapidly

____ 5. Hormones such as insulin, cortisone, and ACTH are extracted from cattle and swine. The fact that these may be used successfully to treat humans illustrates



a.

genetic variability

d.

biochemical copying

b.

homology

e.

a recent common ancestor

c.

embryonic similarity

____ 6. The biochemical evidence for evolution is based on the concept that



a.

all organisms share identical DNA molecules and similar proteins

b.

the more similar the DNA of two species is, the more distantly they are related

c.

comparisons of the DNA and proteins of different species indicate the degree to which those species are related

d.

identical DNA molecules shared by present and extinct organisms suggest that they are descended from a common ancestor

e.

the DNA in all organisms came from their parents

____ 7. Birds, turtles and snakes all lay eggs. This is considered to be an example of



a.

parallel adaptation

d.

microevolution

b.

convergence

e.

analogous structures

c.

vestigial structures

8. Explain what is meant by the term homology. Include an example to demonstrate homology.



A condition in which the similarity between characteristics of organisms indicate a common ancestry, such as the bone numbers and structures in the arm of a human and the wing of a bat.
9. Explain what is meant by the term artificial selection. Include an example to demonstrate artificial selection.

The differential reproduction of genotypes caused by human intervention (e.g., breeding dogs).


10. Explain what is meant by the term analogous structures. Include an example to demonstrate analogous structures.
These are structures that have some similarities, but do not share any embryonic or developmental similarities (e.g., both vertebrates and arthropods have joints).
11.6 The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

1. An examination of the fossil evidence indicates that, over time, giraffes have become taller, with longer legs and necks.

a. Explain this evidence using the Theory of Evolution by Acquired Characteristics.

b. Explain this evidence using the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection.


a. Giraffes needed to be taller to reach the leaves in the tallest trees. During their lifetime, they would continually stretch to reach the top branches. This stretching strengthened their muscles and lengthened their bones. These changes were passed to each succeeding generation.

b. Sexual reproduction caused variation in genes passed to each offspring. At times, some of these genes mutated. These processes caused some giraffes to be born taller (and also shorter) than average. These taller giraffes were able to reach the tallest branches and they therefore had the most food. This allowed these giraffes to have more energy to reproduce and had more offspring, which inherited their genes. Over time, this meant that the population contained more giraffes that were taller.
2. Explain what is meant by the term genetic variation. Include an example to demonstrate genetic variation.

Independent assortment of chromosomes leads to a variety of possible phenotypes (e.g., children in a family are similar but not identical).

  1. Explain what is meant by the term continental drift. Include an example to demonstrate continental drift.

Continental drift is the theory that the crust of the earth is divided into slowly moving plates (e.g., the meeting of plates formed the Rocky Mountains).


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