European medieval cities



Download 160.02 Kb.
Page1/8
Date conversion13.05.2016
Size160.02 Kb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8
Urban challenge

College 2



European medieval cities

c.1000 CE onwards; Renaissance trading towns; centres of commerce, culture and community; walled cities; churches spiritual needs, social ritual and community unity; islands of freedom in seas of feudal obligation



Renaissance

The Renaissance (French for "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento, from ri- "again" and nascere "be born") was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the term. As a cultural movement, it encompassed a resurgence of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform. Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man".

There is a general, but not unchallenged, consensus that the Renaissance began in Florence, Tuscany in the 14th century. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici; and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks.

Industrial cities

European imperial expansion; capitalist industrialization; division advanced nations and rest, also social order capital and labour; cities new industrial centres and dismal concentrations of factories, poverty and slum destitution



Suburbanization and technoburbs

White (middle class) flight; socio-spatial segregation; social disharmony and class conflict; “edge cities” and new hi-tech “technoburbs”



Suburbanization

Suburbanization (or suburbanisation) is a term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities. It is one of the many causes of the increase in urban sprawl. Many residents of metropolitan areas no longer live and work within the central urban area, choosing instead to live in satellite communities called suburbs and commute to work via automobile or mass transit. Others have taken advantage of technological advances to work from their homes, and chose to do so in an environment they consider more pleasant than the city. These processes often occur in more economically developed countries, especially in the United States, which is believed to be the first country in which the majority of the population lives in the suburbs, rather than in the cities or in rural areas. Proponents of containing urban sprawl argue that sprawl leads to urban decay and a concentration of lower income residents in the inner city.



White flight

White flight is the sociologic and demographic term denoting the trend wherein white people flee desegregated urban communities, and move to other places like commuter towns; although an American coinage, “white flight” denotes like behavior in other countries. In the U.S. the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision of the Supreme Court — ordering the de jure racial desegregation of public schools in the United States — was and remains a major factor propelling white flight from mixed-race cities.

The business practices of redlining, mortgage discrimination, and racially-restrictive covenants accelerated white flight to the suburbs. The denying of banking and insurance and other social services or the exorbitant prices of said services increased their cost to residents in predominantly non-white suburbs and city neighborhoods. Furthermore, the historical processes of suburbanization and urban decentralization are instances of white privilege contributing to contemporary environmental racism.

Urban sprawl

Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs over rural land and to its outskirts. The problem with urban sprawl is that it is costly to initiate the development of new infrastructure adequate enough to support its residents. As a result, suburbanization generally results in low livability due to: (1) Long transport distances to work (2) Low-density housing (3) Inadequate facilities eg: health, recreational, entertainment. etc.

The term urban sprawl generally has negative connotations due to the health and environmental issues that sprawl creates. Residents of sprawling neighborhoods tend to emit more pollution per person and suffer more traffic fatalities. Sprawl is controversial, with supporters claiming that consumers prefer lower density neighborhoods and that sprawl does not necessarily increase traffic. Sprawl is also linked with increased obesity since walking and bicycling are not viable commuting options. Sprawl negatively impacts land and water quantity and quality, and may be linked to a decline in social capital.

College 3



Ebenezer Howard

Sir Ebenezer Howard (29 January 1850 – May 1 1928) is known for his publication Garden Cities of To-morrow (1898), the description of a utopian city in which man lives harmoniously together with the rest of nature. The publication led to the founding of the Garden city movement, that realized several Garden Cities in Great Britain at the beginning of the Twentieth Century.



Garden Cities Movement

The Garden city movement is an approach to urban planning that was founded in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom. Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained, communities surrounded by greenbelts, containing carefully balanced areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.

Inspired by the Utopian novel Looking Backward, Howard published his book To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform in 1898 (which was reissued in 1902 as Garden Cities of To-morrow). His idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres (24,000,000 m2), planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, a further garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 50,000 people, linked by road and rail.

Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for being one of the pioneers of what now is called Modern architecture or the International Style via the principles of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM). He was born in Switzerland, but became a French citizen in his 30s.

He was a pioneer in studies of modern high design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities. His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout central Europe, India, Russia, and one each in North and South America. He was also an urban planner, painter, sculptor, writer, and modern furniture designer

Broadacre City plan

Broadacre City was an urban or suburban development concept proposed by Frank Lloyd Wright late in his life. He presented the idea in his article The Disappearing City in 1932. A few years later he unveiled a very detailed twelve by twelve foot (3.7 by 3.7 m) scale model representing an hypothetical four square mile (10 km²) community. The model was crafted by the student interns who worked for him at Taliesin. Wright would go on refining the concept in later books and in articles until his death in 1959. Many of the building models in the concept were completely new designs by Wright, while others were refinements of old ones, some of which had been rarely seen.

Broadacre City was the antithesis of a city and the apotheosis of the newly born suburbia, shaped through Wright's particular vision. It was both a planning statement and a socio-political scheme by which each U.S. family would be given a one acre (4,000 m²) plot of land from the federal lands reserves, and a Wright-conceived community would be built anew from this. In a sense it was the exact opposite of transit-oriented development. There is a train station and a few office and apartment buildings in Broadacre City, but the apartment dwellers are expected to be a small minority. All important transport is done by automobile and the pedestrian can exist safely only within the confines of the one acre (4,000 m²) plots where most of the population dwells.

New urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement, which promotes walkable neighborhoods that contain a range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s and continues to reform many aspects of real estate development and urban planning. New Urbanism is strongly influenced by urban design standards prominent before the rise of the automobile and encompasses principles such as traditional neighborhood design (TND) and transit-oriented development (TOD). It is also closely related to Regionalism, Environmentalism and the broader concept of smart growth. A more ecology and pedestrian-oriented variant is New Pedestrianism.

The organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New Urbanism, founded in 1993. Its foundational text is the Charter of the New Urbanism.,

New urbanists support regional planning for open space, context-appropriate architecture and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their strategies can reduce traffic congestion, increase the supply of affordable housing, and rein in urban sprawl. The Charter of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, and the redevelopment of brownfield land.



Market Street, downtown Celebration, Florida, US

Celebration, Florida is a census-designated place and an unincorporated master-planned community in Osceola County in the U.S. state of Florida, near Walt Disney World Resort. It was developed by The Walt Disney Company. Celebration is part of the Orlando–Kissimmee Metropolitan Statistical Area.

.

College 4



Utopia is a name for an ideal community or society, that is taken from Of the Best State of a Republic, and of the New Island Utopia, a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional island in the Atlantic Ocean, possessing a seemingly perfect socio-politico-legal system. The term has been used to describe both intentional communities that attempted to create an ideal society, and fictional societies portrayed in literature. "Utopia" is sometimes used pejoratively, in reference to an unrealistic ideal that is impossible to achieve. It has spawned other concepts, most prominently dystopia. The word comes from the Greek: οὐ, "not", and τόπος, "place", indicating that More was utilizing the concept as allegory and did not consider such an ideal place to be realistically possible. The homophone Eutopia, derived from the Greek εu, "good" or "well", and τόπος, "place", signifies a double meaning that was almost certainly intended. Despite this, most modern usage of the term "Utopia" assumes the latter meaning, that of a place of perfection rather than nonexistence.

3. New Urbanism is an urban design movement, which promotes walkable neighborhoods that contain a range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s and continues to reform many aspects of real estate development and urban planning. New Urbanism is strongly influenced by urban design standards prominent before the rise of the automobile and encompasses principles such as traditional neighborhood design (TND) and transit-oriented development (TOD). It is also closely related to Regionalism and Environmentalism.

Urban sociology and culture


  • The people are the city” (Shakespeare), not just form and design of built environment

  • People’s individual aspirations, collection struggles, everyday lives and moments of enlightenment/ heightened awareness

  • Subtle and changing relations society, community and culture in cities

  • Sociology “science of society”, also anthropology, cultural studies, social theory, parallel to rise of industrial cities

Whose culture? Whos city?

Sharon Zukin: The Cultures of Cities (1995)

High culture and street cultures of cities: ethnicity, aesthetic and marketing tool

Urban political economy and symbolic economy of tourism, media and entertainment

NYC, privatization of public spaces

Clashes between middle-class whites and homeless, poor minority ethnic groups

Bryant Park, Manhattan: private non-profit managed park to “remove” homeless panhandlers and drug dealers

Erosion of democratic public spaces of modernity

Conclusion:


  • Cities as hubs of high class and street/ popular cultures

  • People make cities; centrality of the human spirit in shaping what cities are

  • Diverse social identities in cities: class, race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality etc.

  • Contested cultures: poverty, underclass and social interaction in the urban context

College 5

Urban sustainability



Sustainability

Sustainability, in a broad sense, is the capacity to endure. In ecology, the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. For humans it is the potential for long-term maintenance of wellbeing, which in turn depends on the wellbeing of the natural world and the responsible use of natural resources.

Sustainability has become a wide-ranging term that can be applied to almost every facet of life on Earth, from a local to a global scale and over various time periods. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. Invisible chemical cycles redistribute water, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon through the world's living and non-living systems, and have sustained life for millions of years. As the earth’s human population has increased, natural ecosystems have declined and changes in the balance of natural cycles has had a negative impact on both humans and other living systems.

There is now abundant scientific evidence that humanity is living unsustainably. Returning human use of natural resources to within sustainable limits will require a major collective effort. Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganising living conditions (e.g., ecovillages, eco-municipalities and sustainable cities), reappraising economic sectors (permaculture, green building, sustainable agriculture), or work practices (sustainable architecture), using science to develop new technologies (green technologies, renewable energy), to adjustments in individual lifestyles.



Sustainable development

  • Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

  • The Brundtland Commission

Staat heel goede op de powerpoint over Klimaat congres van Kopenhagen voor meer info kijk op de pp.

  • Concept of a sustainable city, or eco-city, is one designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimisation of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO2, methane, and water pollution

  • Pollution

  • Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances, or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. The Blacksmith Institute issues annually a list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine and Zambia

A sustainable city can feed itself with minimal reliance on the surrounding countryside, and power itself with renewable sources of energy

Alternative energy



  • Creating the smallest possible ecological footprint, and to produce the lowest quantity of pollution possible, to efficiently use land; compost used materials, recycle it or convert waste-to-energy, limiting city’s contribution to climate change

Ecological footprint

  • The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems. It compares human demand with planet Earth's ecological capacity to regenerate. It represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area needed to regenerate the resources a human population consumes and to absorb and render harmless the corresponding waste. Using this assessment, it is possible to estimate how much of the Earth (or how many planet Earths) it would take to support humanity if everybody lived a given lifestyle. For 2005, humanity's total ecological footprint was estimated at 1.3 planet Earths - in other words, humanity uses ecological services 1.3 times as fast as Earth can renew them. Every year, this number is recalculated - with a three year lag due to the time it takes for the UN to collect and publish all the underlying statistics.

  • While the term ecological footprint is widely used, methods of measurement vary. However, calculation standards are now emerging to make results more comparable and consistent.

Recycling

Recycling involves processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste management and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy.

Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste – such as food or garden waste – is not typically considered recycling.[2] Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing.

In a strict sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material, for example used office paper to more office paper, or used foamed polystyrene to more polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so "recycling" of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (e.g., cardboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their intrinsic value (e.g., lead from car batteries, or gold from computer components), or due to their hazardous nature (e.g., removal and reuse of mercury from various items).

Critics dispute the net economic and environmental benefits of recycling over its costs, and suggest that proponents of recycling often make matters worse and suffer from confirmation bias. Specifically, critics argue that the costs and energy used in collection and transportation detract from (and outweigh) the costs and energy saved in the production process; also that the jobs produced by the recycling industry can be a poor trade for the jobs lost in logging, mining, and other industries associated with virgin production; and that materials such as paper pulp can only be recycled a few times before material degradation prevents further recycling. Proponents of recycling dispute each of these claims, and the validity of arguments from both sides has led to enduring controversy.


  • Around 50% of the world’s population now lives in cities and urban areas, which are essentially unsustainable thus providing challenges for environmentally conscious planning and development

  • Sustainable design

Sustainable design (also called environmental design, environmentally sustainable design, environmentally-conscious design, etc) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment and services to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. The intention of sustainable design is to "eliminate negative environmental impact completely through skillful, sensitive design". Manifestations of sustainable designs require no non-renewable resources, impact on the environment minimally, and relate people with the natural environment. Applications of this philosophy range from the microcosm — small objects for everyday use, through to the macrocosm — buildings, cities, and the earth's physical surface. It is a philosophy that can be applied in the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, urban planning, engineering, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, and fashion design.

Sustainable design is mostly a general reaction to global environmental crises, the rapid growth of economic activity and human population, depletion of natural resources, damage to ecosystems and loss of biodiversity. The limits of sustainable design are reducing. Whole earth impacts are beginning to be considered because growth in goods and services is consistently outpacing gains in efficiency. As a result, the net effect of sustainable design to date has been to simply improve the efficiency of rapidly increasing impacts. The present approach, which focuses on the efficiency of delivering individual goods and services does not solve this problem. The basic dilemmas include: the increasing complexity of efficiency improvements, the difficulty of implementing new technologies in societies built around old ones, that physical impacts of delivering goods and services are not localized but distributed throughout the economies, and that the scale of resource uses is growing and not stabilizing.



New Urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement, which promotes walkable neighborhoods that contain a range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s and continues to reform many aspects of real estate development and urban planning. New Urbanism is strongly influenced by urban design standards prominent before the rise of the automobile and encompasses principles such as traditional neighborhood design (TND) and transit-oriented development (TOD). It is also closely related to Regionalism and Environmentalism.

The organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New Urbanism, founded in 1993. Its foundational text is the Charter of the New Urbanism, which says: “We advocate the restructuring of public policy and development practices to support the following principles: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population; communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities and towns should be shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public spaces and community institutions; urban places should be framed by architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice.”

New urbanists support regional planning for open space, context-appropriate architecture and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their strategies can reduce traffic congestion, increase the supply of affordable housing, and rein in urban sprawl. The Charter of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, and the redevelopment of brownfield land



Smart growth

Smart growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in the center of a city to avoid urban sprawl; and advocates compact, transit-oriented, walkable, bicycle-friendly land use, including neighborhood schools, complete streets, and mixed-use development with a range of housing choices.

Smart growth values long-range, regional considerations of sustainability over a short-term focus. Its goals are to achieve a unique sense of community and place; expand the range of transportation, employment, and housing choices; equitably distribute the costs and benefits of development; preserve and enhance natural and cultural resources; and promote public health.

Conclusion



  • Introduction to concept of urban sustainability and ecocities, with examples

  • Links to urban planning practice: sustainable design, new urbanism, smart growth

  • Political sensitivites on global stage, tensions between North and South

Deel 2 gaat over de stad Calgary voor alles kijk maar op powerpoint

  • Canada’s fourth largest and most rapidly growing city

  • Highest per capita income in Canada: $47,178 in 2006

  • Oil and gas industry accounted for 53% of the Alberta economy (direct and multiplier effects) in 2004

  • Oil and gas drives the Calgary economy

Costs of growth

  • Longer commutes

  • More traffic congestion

  • $10.4 billion infrastructure deficit

  • Rising infrastructure and operating costs, leading to higher taxes (23% increase in property taxes, over 3 years, proposed in 2008)

  • Rising cost of housing (new housing prices up 65% from 2005 to 2007; highest rental housing costs in Canada)

  • Rising homelessness (over 4000 people homeless in 2009; 19% of all households at risk in 2006)

  • Difficulty attracting sufficient labour

  • Ecological footprint estimated at 9.9 global hectares per person—highest in Canada (1.9 ha/person available globally)

  • Calgary produces 17.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide per capita, ranking it fifth-highest in a 2010 comparison of 50 global cities

  • Declining quality of lifeà Is This Sustainable?

Voor meer check pp.

College 6a Beaumont



  1. Sustainable development

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (The Brundtland Commission); Refer also to the points made in Levente’s lecture

2. Characteristics of an ecocity

These ecological cities are achieved through various means, such as:

* Different agricultural systems such as agricultural plots within the city (suburbs or centre). This reduces the distance food has to travel from field to fork. Practical work out of this may be done by either small scale/private farming plots or through larger scale agriculture (eg farmscrapers).

* Renewable energy sources, such as wind turbines, solar panels, or bio-gas created from sewage. Cities provide economies of scale that make such energy sources viable.

* Various methods to reduce the need for air conditioning (a massive energy demand), such as planting trees and lightening surface colors, natural ventilation systems, an increase in water features, and green spaces equaling at least 20% of the city's surface. These measures counter the "heat island effect" caused by an abundance of tarmac and asphalt, which can make urban areas several degrees warmer than surrounding rural areas—as much as six degrees Celsius during the evening.

* Improved public transport and an increase in pedestrianization to reduce car emissions. This requires a radically different approach to city planning, with integrated business, industrial, and residential zones. Roads may be designed to make driving difficult.

* Optimal building density to make public transport viable but avoid the creation of urban heat islands.

* Solutions to decrease urban sprawl, by seeking new ways of allowing people to live closer to the workspace. Since the workplace tends to be in the city, downtown, or urban center, they are seeking a way to increase density by changing the antiquated attitudes many suburbanites have towards inner-city areas. One of the new ways to achieve this is by solutions worked out by the Smart Growth Movement.

* Green roofs

* Zero-emission transport

* Zero-energy building

* Sustainable urban drainage systems or SUDS

* energy conservation systems/devices

* Xeriscaping - garden and landscape design for water conservation

3. Implications for urban planning

Sustainable design

New urbanism

Smart growth

Planning for sustainability in European cities



  • Timothy Beatley (2003)

  • The Sustainable Urban Development Reader

  • Prof. urban planning, University of Virginia, US

  • Green urbanism

  • Planning for sustainability

  • European cities

Argument

  • Hard evidence European cities

  • Compact, walkable, energy-efficient, green communities can be created

  • Cities that are sustainable, livable and also economically viable

  • Against largely US view that these qualities are “nice” but not possible economically

Features

  • Policies to limit/ restrict sprawl

  • Accepting higher density developments (compared to US urban/ suburban areas)

  • New developments adjacent to exisiting urban areas

  • Fostering urban development and industrial reuse

  • Higher density makes possible more efficient public transit and energy systems, and facilitates pedestrian spaces

Points to consider

  • Growing car use and large ecological footprints of European cities: threats to future viability?

  • Crucial role of municipatities in green urbanism

  • Key role of partnerships between diverse stakeholders in green urbanism

  • Political economy of sustainability and differences in governance arrangements

  • Political culture, openness to green politics and stronger planning and land-use control systems

Great attractiveness of urban living in Europe

College 6b Levente Ronczyk PhD,



  • Urbanization processes today are different from the urban transitions of the past:

    • Magnitude:

      • ~3.5 billion people live in urban areas (UN 2009)

    • Speed:

      • 2000, 2.86 billion 2030, 5 billion (UN 2009)

    • Quality:

      • One-third of all urban households in the world live in absolute poverty (UN 2002).

The characteristic of urban development

  • The European city is a social-oriented city, where individual productivity defined a person’s social status within the community.

  • Urbanization was triggered by industrialization, which resulted a new distribution of population in the space and in the society.

  • Industrial urbanisation resulted compact cities.

  • The increasing personal mobility (automobile, public transport) led to spatial expansion of settlements.



  • There was no longer necessary to live and work in the same place.

  • Due to the mobility the spatial representation of society emerged.

  • The evolved socio-spatial structures had massive influence on the housing market and caused unrest and new social and environmental problems in the cities.

  • Socio-political concepts made an appearance on the urban planning, and tried to protect housing market from the market forces:

- Social or council housing

    • Renovation and up valued by development new service subcenters, creation of new function.

    • Social jobs were created for the former worker class, who lost their jobs due to the deindustrialisation.



  • Globalization reduced the ability of the cities to integrate all its population.

  • Significant disparities appears nowadays in the urban areas.

  • Increasing spatial polarisation and social exclusion.

  • Cities are face to with shrinking tax revenues.

  • The economic considerations are the bases of the municipalities’ decision-making processes.

Sustainable urban development

  • "Improving the quality of life in a city, including ecological, cultural, political, institutional, social and economic components without leaving a burden on the future generations. A burden which is the result of a reduced natural capital and an excessive local debt. Our aim is that the flow principle, that is based on an equilibrium of material and energy and also financial input/output, plays a crucial role in all future decisions upon the development of urban areas."

Key dimensions for sustainable development

  • Sustainable urban economy

  • Sustainable urban environment

  • Sustainable urban society

Sustainable Urban Economy

  • Economic activity should serve the common good, be self-renewing, and build local assets and self-reliance.

  • A stable economic situation is a basic precondition for sustainable urban development.

  • Welfare is a relative phenomena, many citizens can feel themselves poor because the social barriers.

  • Lack of sufficient income (personal and municipality level) could be the biggest challenge.

Sustainable urban environment

  • Conflicts between private and environmental goods,

  • Unsustainable lifestyle (urban mobility),

  • Exploitation of non-renewable resources

  • Degradation of ecological resources,

  • Contamination of local environment

Sustainable urban society

  • Central element of the sustainability.

  • Redistribution of wealth.

  • Good Governance:

    • Openness

    • Participation

    • Responsibility

    • Efficiency

    • Coherence

College 6c

Gaat over stad Graz, voor meer info check pp, hier wat ik handig vond:

What is ECOPROFIT


  • Win-win model,

  • Main aim is to provide businesses with, economic advantage based on the application of preventive, innovative, integrated environmental technologies,

Improving the ecological situation within the city or region (through the cooperation with the local municipality)

History


  • ECOPROFIT – ECOlogical PROject For Integrated environmental Technology

  • Programme for sustainable economic development, which was developed by the Environment Department of City of Graz in 1991.

The Programme

  • ECOPROFIT is a specific way of cooperation among local authorities, businesses, research institutions and consultants, which work together in commonly designed training programmes, and the establishment of a network connecting all participating companies.

  • ECOPROFIT Academy was founded for the international dissemination of the project.

The benefits of ECOPROFIT

  • Advantages for authorities

    • Efficient and economic benefits to the environment through better use of resources

    • Establishment of sustainable structures through an efficient economic support system

    • Funds to support innovative companies rather than expenses for environmental recovery

    • Safeguarding of jobs through successful companies

    • Competitive and regional advantages

    • Higher quality of life for the inhabitants of a region

    • Improvements to environmental quality in a region, helping to stimulate tourism

    • Helping to achieve Local Agenda 21 objectives to reach the Kyoto target

  • Advantages for companies

    • Increase in production efficiency and reduction of costs through lower consumption of raw materials and energy

    • Reduction of costs through less waste and emissions

    • Legal certainty through official support

    • Training of employees in the areas of environmental protection, production efficiency and cost awareness

    • Synergies through common training programs with other companies

    • Support of the project by local authorities

    • International market opportunities through networking

    • Certification as an official "ECOPROFITâ -company" and integration in joint PR activities

    • Preparation or addition to EMAS or ISO 14001

College 6 d gaat over stad pecs, weinings boeiends
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page