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Comprehensive Exam #2
Which of the following experienced a dramatic decline by the mid-fifteenth century?
Holy Roman Empire
Kingdom of Poland
Republic of Venice
Galleria Borghese, Rome
The statue of David (shown above) was created in which of the following styles?
Which of the following was considered the “first lady of the Renaissance” who played an important role in promoting Renaissance culture in her city-state?
Isabella d’ Este
Teresa of Avila
Which of the following had the largest number of urban centers in Europe around 1500?
Compared to life in the Middle Ages, the typical peasant during the Renaissance would have experienced
increased educational opportunities
few, in any changes
an increased life expectancy
a decrease in religious devotion
marriage at a younger age than during the Middle Ages
The Atlantic slave trade grew enormously in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries largely due to the cultivation of
The above map created by Henricus Martellus most likely represents the world as Europeans saw it in
That no one shall invite another to drink under penalty of 3 sous.
If anyone sings immoral, dissolute or outrageous songs, or dances the virollet or other dance, he shall be put in prison for three days and then sent to the consistory
That no one shall play at any dissolute game or at any game whatsoever it may be, neither for gold nor silver nor for any excessive state
Which of the following early-modern European cities most likely would have enforced the above-mentioned provisions?
All of the following are characteristics of the “new monarchies” in early-modern Europe EXCEPT
increased control over national churches
decreased influence of the nobility
increased use of mercenary armies
increased role of government bureaucracies
The Ducal Palace at Urbino, pictured above, demonstrates influence from which of the following styles?
The Lutheran Reformation in Germany emphasized
a “priesthood of all believers”
the rejection of secular authority
political and social rights for the peasantry
salvation through “good works”
celibacy among the clergy
The Thirty Years’ War most dramatically affected the civilian population in
The central issue dividing Parliament and the English monarchy under James I and Charles I was
During the Protestant Reformation, the French government maintained a policy of
neutrality in international religious conflicts
support for the Holy Roman Empire
tolerance for religious minorities
support for Lutheran princes
support for strong papal influence in France
Which of the following sought to reduce the further spread of Protestantism in central Europe during the sixteenth century?
The League of Schmalkalden
The Council of Trent
The Hanseatic League
The Treaty of Westphalia
The Spanish Inquisition
The image above most likely represents which of the following events?
Battle of Poltava
Siege of Vienna
Hundred Years’ War
Religions divisions within England in the late-sixteenth century resulted in
the marriage of Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon
the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
a civil war between Puritans and Catholics
the supremacy of Parliament in political matters
the rise of the Stuart dynasty
The French Civil Wars of the late sixteenth century were largely due to
class warfare between the nobility, bourgeoisie, and peasantry
noble resentment over the king’s absolute powers
religious differences among various noble families
economic and military decline throughout the country
disagreements in the Estates General over privileges and taxation
Which of the following thinkers had ideas similar to Peter the Great’s concept of leadership and power?
Which of the following enhanced the power and prestige of the French monarchy in the early seventeenth century?
Madame de Pompadour
Duke of Sully
William and Mary’s ascension to the English throne in 1689
restricted the right of Parliament to raise taxes
nullified the Petition of Right
was built upon the “divine right” theory of monarchs
indicated the supremacy of Parliament’s power
restored the Tudor dynasty
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the French economy during the late-seventeenth century?
The condition of the peasantry improved significantly.
Higher tariffs among the various provinces brought in large revenues for the crown.
France became the leading industrial power in Europe.
Guilds and trade unions enjoyed greater autonomy.
Foreign economic ventures, such as the Mississippi Bubble, enhanced France’s banking system.
Which of the following reasons best explains why the Spanish empire experienced relative decline during the seventeenth century?
The Spanish Armada never recovered from the catastrophe of 1588.
Spain lacked a strong middle-class compared to other western European countries.
The Spanish Inquisition drained the national treasury.
Many of Spain’s New World colonies gained their independence.
Spain’s multi-ethnic kingdom diverted royal attention from foreign affairs.
Which of the following was NOT a similarity shared by the rising eastern European absolute powers of Russia, Prussia and Austria in the seventeenth century?
Heavy reliance on the nobility to lead the officer corps in the army
Strong noble class that demanded increased benefits in return for their loyalty
Use of baroque architecture to demonstrate the power of the monarchy
Lack of foreign military threats compared to western Europe
Use of serfdom for agricultural production
Which of the following conflicts represented an end to the expansionist wars of Louis XIV?
Thirty Years’ War
War of Spanish Succession
War of Austrian Succession
Seven Years’ War
War of the League of Augsburg
Which of the following scientists synthesized mathematics, empirical evidence, and laws of physics to create an overarching system for how the universe functioned?
Which of the following would most likely have supported the ideas of Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations (1776)?
All of the following are results of the scientific revolution on eighteenth-century European society EXCEPT
it led directly to the Enlightenment and a secular view of the universe.
it increased conflict between church and science in Protestant countries.
it led to a decline in witch hunts.
it accelerated the agricultural revolution.
it improved navigation and mapping
“As long as several men in assembly regard themselves as a single body they have only a single will which is concerned with their preservation. If the assembly needs new laws the first man to propose them merely says what all have already felt and everyone has already decided to do. This General Will is constant, unalterable, and pure. It is the best advice." When minorities begin to exercise an influence over the majority, the General Will ceases to be the will of all. The General Will then becomes subordinated to other wills.”
The above passage most likely comes from
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
John Locke, Two Treatises on Government
Baron Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty
Which of the following believed that a monarch should be the “first servant of the state?”
Maria Theresa of Austria
Louis XIII of France
James I of England
Alexander III of Russia
Frederick the Great of Prussia
In which of the following countries did the agricultural revolution begin?
The most common non-farming occupation for a peasant female in the eighteenth century was in
Which of the following groups was most enthusiastic about the creation of a republic during the early years of the French Revolution?
Nobility of the robe
Which of the following reasons best explains the emergence of the cottage industry in England?
Vast amounts of cotton flowed into England from its American colonies.
Merchant-capitalists were eager to bypass powerful guilds.
The steam engine allowed for faster production of textiles.
New farming techniques allowed small farmers to compete against large landowners.
A large railroad network enabled more efficient transportation of goods.
The Granger Collection, New York
Which of the following events does the above image most likely represent?
Bread riots prior to the Russian Revolution in 1917
A mob relocating of the royal family from Versailles to Paris
The Pugachev Rebellion
The militant suffragette movement in England around 1900
Puritan women demanding the execution of Charles I
“Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey,
Where wealth accumulates, and men decay:
Princes and lords may flourish, or may fade;
breath can make them, as a breath is made:
But a bold peasantry, their country’s pride;
When once destroy’d, can never be supplied
The above passage written by Oliver Goldsmith in 1770 most likely refers to
the ravages of the bubonic plague on his village
the impact of the Seven Years’ War on the English peasantry
the rape of the countryside by the industrial revolution
the emigration of large numbers of English people to the American colonies
the impact of the enclosure movement on the English countryside
France, by the perfidy of her leaders, has utterly disgraced the tone of lenient council in the cabinets of princes, and disarmed it of its most potent topics. She has sanctified the dark suspicious maxims of tyrannous distrust; and taught kings to tremble at (what will hereafter be called) the delusive plausibilities of moral politicians.
--Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)
The above passage most likely reflects criticism aimed at
the Third Estate
the Second Estate
the First Estate
During the French Revolution a critical weakness of the Directory (1795-1799) was that it
sought to impose the Cult of the Supreme Being on French society.
failed to organize the military effectively against foreign threats.
relied heavily on the nobility which suffered the distrust of most French people.
relied too heavily on democratic measures for which French society was unprepared.
had leaders who only represented a narrow band of French society.
A relative advantage enjoyed by England during the early years of the industrial revolution included
its strong government-controlled mercantilist system
its vast pool of skilled laborers
its stable and responsive banking system
its adaption of foreign technologies for domestic manufacturing
its rich colonial markets in Africa
The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) had as one of its major goals
the permanent dismemberment of France
the restoration of Old Regime ruling families to their traditional thrones
the imposition of Christian uniformity throughout Europe
the right of self-determination for large populations of ethnic minorities
the development of a free-market economy among Europe’s largest countries
The Death of Socrates Metropolitan Museum of Art
Which of the following best characterizes the late-eighteenth century work above by Jacques-Louis David?
It is a clear example of French classicism pioneered by Nicolaus Poussin.
It demonstrates strong elements of the mannerist style.
It is a clear example of baroque themes.
The action in the painting reflects Romantic sensibilities.
It is a clear example of the neoclassical style.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the Concert of Europe in the nineteenth century?
It supported liberalism and reform.
It supported nationalist causes.
It maintained a balance of power.
It spread the ideals of the French Revolution.
It ended the wars of religion.
Which of the following most energetically advocated universal male suffrage during the nineteenth century?
The Carlsbad Diet
The Romantic ideal of revolution and liberty is most dramatically expressed in the works of
Victor Hugo and Emile Zola
John Milton and William Shakespeare
J.M.W. Turner and John Constable
Paul Cezanne and Edgar Degas
Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix
Which of the following countries was the first to gain its independence in the period between 1815 and 1930?
A strong link between nationalism and Romantic music during the last-half of the nineteenth century is evident in the works of
Franz Joseph Haydn
Ludwig van Beethoven
The Revolutions of 1848 were significant in that they
resulted in the creation of several new states
abruptly ended the general peace that Europe had enjoyed since 1815
marked the triumph of liberalism in politics
convinced conservatives that concessions to the middle and working classes were necessary
ushered in an era of declining nationalism in politics
Which of the following had the biggest influence on city planning to meet the challenges of urbanization?
Joseph Pierre Proudhon
Baron von Haussmann
Count Sergei Witte
All of the following are social trends in the late-nineteenth century EXCEPT
Increased participation of women in sports
Decreasing mortality rates
Increased church attendance
Rise of a consumer culture
Mass participation in politics
Which of the following represented an attack on liberalism in the nineteenth century?
Syllabus of Errors by Pope Pius IX
Rerum Novarum by Pope Leo XIII
On Liberty by John Stuart Mill
J’Accuse by Émile Zola
“April Theses” by Vladimir Lenin
Which of the following classes saw the largest drop in the number of children per family by the late-nineteenth century?
The working class
The middle class
Coal Output, 1830-1850*
German States (including Prussia)
*In thousands of metric tons
Source: Lynn Hunt, et al.,
The Making of the West, 3 rd ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2009)
Which of the following conclusions best reflects the table above?
Great Britain will never be caught in coal production by any other country.
Continental Europe’s combined production of coal exceeds that of Great Britain in 1850.
At the present rate of growth, Austria will out-produce Great Britain by the year 1900.
France’s economy remains agricultural to larger extent than Belgium, Germany and Britain.
Germany is clearly the second most powerful industrial economy in 1850.
Which of the following statements most accurately portrays the state of education in Europe by 1900?
Women had higher literacy rates than men.
The literacy rate between people in cities and rural areas had become approximately equal.
Compulsory education for primary school existed in western Europe.
Girls enjoyed the same equal access to secondary school as did boys.
Southern and eastern Europe enjoyed higher literacy rates on average than did northern and western Europe.
A significant result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 was the
creation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
completion of Prussian efforts to unify Germany.
catastrophic loss of life in Alsace and Lorraine.
removal of Klemens von Metternich from power in Austria.
rise of Austria as a major industrial power in Europe.
Which of the following is most likely the point of view of the artist of the political cartoon above?
The theory of evolution has revolutionized European thought.
The artist is criticizing the excesses of the environmental movement.
The artist is lampooning those who criticize natural selection.
The artist believes that religion has no place in a modern science-dominated society.
The artist is ridiculing Darwinism.
The crisis over German reparations payments in the 1920s was addressed by the
League of Nations
Dawes and Young Plans
Despite his many successes during his tenure as chancellor, Otto von Bismarck failed in his attempt to
destroy the Social Democratic Party
unify all the Germany states under Catholicism
institute a progressive social welfare system
maintain an effective balance of power in Europe
infuse the German military with Prussian leadership
The biggest challenge that the French Third Republic faced before it stabilized politically was
the Paris Commune
the Boulanger Crisis
the Panama Crisis
the Fashoda Crisis
the Kruger Telegram
By 1914 the only two African countries that were not subject to European domination were
South Africa and Angola
Ethiopia and Liberia
Kenya and Tanzania
Egypt and Somalia
Algeria and Morocco
After serfdom was abolished in Russia in1861, Russian communities came to be regulated politically through the
Russian Orthodox Church
Which of the following best represents the philosophy of the “White Man’s Burden” in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries?
Conservatives in Europe increasingly looked to anti-Semitism as an answer to society’s challenges.
Overpopulation in western and central Europe was putting a significant strain on the food supply.
The “dismal science” of economics emphasized the growing gap between rich and poor in European society.
Liberals throughout Europe called for an end to serfdom in Russia.
Imperialists justified their conquests by “civilizing” non-European peoples.
The above map most likely represents Europe in
“The Rhodes Colossus,”
The artist’s point of view from the above image most likely
criticizes British imperialism in the late-nineteenth century
supports Russia’s war aims during the Crimean War
condemns German aggression prior to World War Two
supports French efforts toward decolonization after World War Two
criticizes the colonial mandate provisions in the Treaty of Versailles
Which of the following represents a military failure for Germany during World War One?
Battle of Tannenberg
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Battle of Borodino
All of the following are examples of “total war” during World War One EXCEPT
civilian populations became targets of military actions.
all men in warring countries were conscripted into the military.
the British blockade aimed to destroy the German economy.
women worked in traditionally male-dominated occupations.
the press was censored and government propaganda was employed on a massive scale.
In 1935, Benito Mussolini’s desire to prove Italy’s military superiority came with his invasion of
A consequence of Nuremberg Laws in Nazi Germany was the
outlawing of the German Communist Party
creation of the SS and Gestapo
repudiation of the Versailles Treaty
exclusion of Jews from mainstream society
“Night of Long Knives”
One of the results of the Revolution of 1905 in Russia was
the domination of the royal court by Gregorii Rasputin
the public’s demand for a declaration of war against Japan regarding Chinese territories
the dramatic decline in the power of the tsar
the beginning of Russia’s industrial revolution
the creation of a weak parliament
Adolf Hitler’s desire to invade Poland in 1939 was directly facilitated by the
German-Soviet Non-Aggression Treaty
“Toward a Prosperous and Cultured Life,” 1934
The above political poster most likely represents which of the following views of women in the Soviet Union?
Women were viewed as subordinate to men.
Women should do domestic work while men should do industrial work.
Women were expected to work as hard as men in farming and industry
Women should not focus on having children but rather on furthering the Russian economy.
Women were a vital part of the Russian military.
Which of the following pairs of battles represented a major turning point in the eastern front during World War Two?
Normandy and Battle of the Bulge
El Alamein and Kassarine Pass
Sicily and Monte Casino
Stalingrad and Kursk
Somme and Verdun
In direct response to West Germany’s entrance into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1954, the Soviet Union
formed the Warsaw Pact
developed its hydrogen bomb
stripped East Germany of industrial supplies
blocked all access into West Berlin
built the Berlin Wall
Which of the following leaders would have been least likely to support an expansion of the welfare state after World War II?
Which of the following initiated the “space race” during the Cold War?
Yuri Gagarin’s orbit around the earth
U.S. development of missile-based warheads
The Soviet launching of sputnik
The U.S. successfully sending a spaceship to the moon
The Apollo-Soyuz Project
In the two decades following the post-World War Two era, women
tended to marry earlier
increased the average number of children they had
tended to have children at a later age
were less likely to work outside the home
achieved absolute equality with men in virtually every European country
Which of the following became known for his strong opposition to both the increased number of “guest workers” and the creation of the European Union in the late-twentieth century?
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Pope John Paul II
A significant difference between fascism in Italy and Germany in the 1930s was
the existence of militarism in Germany.
the existence of private ownership in
Germany’s major industries
the glorification of the state and the cult of personality in Italy
the ruthlessness with which political opponents were silenced in Germany
the willingness of Germany to aid Spanish fascists in Spain’s civil war
“All of us … thought about freedom and injustice, about human rights, about democracy and political pluralism, about market economics and much else besides. Because we thought, we also dreamed. We dreamt, whether in or out of prison, of a Europe without barbed wire, high walls, artificially divided nations and gigantic stockpiles of weapons, of a Europe free of ‘blocs,’ of a European policy based on respect for human rights…”
The above quote, given in 1990, is most likely attributed to
Josep Broz Tito
Which of the following conclusions best represents the above graph concerning British government debt as a percentage of GNP?
The British economy tended to prosper most during wartime.
The industrial revolution led to significant deficit spending during the nineteenth century.
The Napoleonic Wars destroyed the British economy.
By the late-twentieth century, Britain had seen a dramatic increase in its debt compared to its industrial production.
Peacetime seems to have been beneficial for the British economy.
Source: The Waterbury Republican
The Middletown press
Which of the following is most likely the point of view of Edmund Valtman, the creator of the political cartoon above?
Joseph Stalin and Vladimir Lenin are deviating from traditional Marxism.
Mikhail Gorbachev is leading the Soviet Union to its death.
The Brezhnev Doctrine has failed to achieve its purpose.
Nikita Khrushchev’s secret speech at the Twentieth Party Congress is weakening the Communist party.
Karl Marx, as the father of communism, is proud of the accomplishments of the Soviet Union.
END OF EXAMINATION
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