European history



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Comprehensive Exam #2

EUROPEAN HISTORY

SECTION I

Time—55 minutes

80 Questions

  1. Which of the following experienced a dramatic decline by the mid-fifteenth century?

    1. Holy Roman Empire

    2. Kingdom of Poland

    3. Republic of Venice

    4. Muscovite Dominion

    5. Byzantine Empire



Galleria Borghese, Rome

  1. The statue of David (shown above) was created in which of the following styles?

    1. Rococo

    2. “High Renaissance”

    3. Mannerist

    4. Baroque

    5. Gothic



  1. Which of the following was considered the “first lady of the Renaissance” who played an important role in promoting Renaissance culture in her city-state?

    1. Artemesia Gentileschi

    2. Laura Cereta

    3. Isabella d’ Este

    4. Angela Merici

    5. Teresa of Avila



  1. Which of the following had the largest number of urban centers in Europe around 1500?

    1. Italy

    2. France

    3. Spain

    4. England

    5. Germany



  1. Compared to life in the Middle Ages, the typical peasant during the Renaissance would have experienced

    1. increased educational opportunities

    2. few, in any changes

    3. an increased life expectancy

    4. a decrease in religious devotion

    5. marriage at a younger age than during the Middle Ages



  1. The Atlantic slave trade grew enormously in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries largely due to the cultivation of

    1. rice

    2. tobacco

    3. potatoes

    4. cotton

    5. sugar



British Library

  1. The above map created by Henricus Martellus most likely represents the world as Europeans saw it in

    1. 1489

    2. 1525

    3. 1580

    4. 1620

    5. 1680

_________________________________________________

  • That no one shall invite another to drink under penalty of 3 sous.

  • If anyone sings immoral, dissolute or outrageous songs, or dances the virollet or other dance, he shall be put in prison for three days and then sent to the consistory

  • That no one shall play at any dissolute game or at any game whatsoever it may be, neither for gold nor silver nor for any excessive state



  1. Which of the following early-modern European cities most likely would have enforced the above-mentioned provisions?

    1. Rome

    2. Florence

    3. Paris

    4. Amsterdam

    5. Geneva

  1. All of the following are characteristics of the “new monarchies” in early-modern Europe EXCEPT

    1. increased taxation

    2. increased control over national churches

    3. decreased influence of the nobility

    4. increased use of mercenary armies

    5. increased role of government bureaucracies



  1. The Ducal Palace at Urbino, pictured above, demonstrates influence from which of the following styles?

    1. Medieval Gothic

    2. Moorish

    3. Ancient Roman

    4. Byzantine

    5. Gothic Revival



  1. The Lutheran Reformation in Germany emphasized

    1. a “priesthood of all believers”

    2. the rejection of secular authority

    3. political and social rights for the peasantry

    4. salvation through “good works”

    5. celibacy among the clergy



  1. The Thirty Years’ War most dramatically affected the civilian population in

    1. Germany

    2. France

    3. Sweden

    4. England

    5. Austria



  1. The central issue dividing Parliament and the English monarchy under James I and Charles I was

    1. land laws

    2. religious freedom

    3. foreign threats

    4. mercantilist policies

    5. taxation




  1. During the Protestant Reformation, the French government maintained a policy of

    1. neutrality in international religious conflicts

    2. support for the Holy Roman Empire

    3. tolerance for religious minorities

    4. support for Lutheran princes

    5. support for strong papal influence in France



  1. Which of the following sought to reduce the further spread of Protestantism in central Europe during the sixteenth century?

    1. The League of Schmalkalden

    2. The Council of Trent

    3. The Hanseatic League

    4. The Treaty of Westphalia

    5. The Spanish Inquisition



The Artchive



  1. The image above most likely represents which of the following events?

    1. Reconquista

    2. Battle of Poltava

    3. Siege of Vienna

    4. Hundred Years’ War

    5. Spanish Armada

________________________________

  1. Religions divisions within England in the late-sixteenth century resulted in

    1. the marriage of Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon

    2. the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

    3. a civil war between Puritans and Catholics

    4. the supremacy of Parliament in political matters

    5. the rise of the Stuart dynasty

  1. The French Civil Wars of the late sixteenth century were largely due to

    1. class warfare between the nobility, bourgeoisie, and peasantry

    2. noble resentment over the king’s absolute powers

    3. religious differences among various noble families

    4. economic and military decline throughout the country

    5. disagreements in the Estates General over privileges and taxation



  1. Which of the following thinkers had ideas similar to Peter the Great’s concept of leadership and power?

    1. Thomas Hobbes

    2. John Locke

    3. Voltaire

    4. Bishop Bossuet

    5. Jean Bodin



  1. Which of the following enhanced the power and prestige of the French monarchy in the early seventeenth century?

    1. Madame de Pompadour

    2. Francois Guizot

    3. Duke of Sully

    4. Adolph Thiers

    5. Jacques Necker



  1. William and Mary’s ascension to the English throne in 1689

    1. restricted the right of Parliament to raise taxes

    2. nullified the Petition of Right

    3. was built upon the “divine right” theory of monarchs

    4. indicated the supremacy of Parliament’s power

    5. restored the Tudor dynasty



  1. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the French economy during the late-seventeenth century?

    1. The condition of the peasantry improved significantly.

    2. Higher tariffs among the various provinces brought in large revenues for the crown.

    3. France became the leading industrial power in Europe.

    4. Guilds and trade unions enjoyed greater autonomy.

    5. Foreign economic ventures, such as the Mississippi Bubble, enhanced France’s banking system.



  1. Which of the following reasons best explains why the Spanish empire experienced relative decline during the seventeenth century?

    1. The Spanish Armada never recovered from the catastrophe of 1588.

    2. Spain lacked a strong middle-class compared to other western European countries.

    3. The Spanish Inquisition drained the national treasury.

    4. Many of Spain’s New World colonies gained their independence.

    5. Spain’s multi-ethnic kingdom diverted royal attention from foreign affairs.



  1. Which of the following was NOT a similarity shared by the rising eastern European absolute powers of Russia, Prussia and Austria in the seventeenth century?

    1. Heavy reliance on the nobility to lead the officer corps in the army

    2. Strong noble class that demanded increased benefits in return for their loyalty

    3. Use of baroque architecture to demonstrate the power of the monarchy

    4. Lack of foreign military threats compared to western Europe

    5. Use of serfdom for agricultural production



  1. Which of the following conflicts represented an end to the expansionist wars of Louis XIV?

    1. Thirty Years’ War

    2. War of Spanish Succession

    3. War of Austrian Succession

    4. Seven Years’ War

    5. War of the League of Augsburg



  1. Which of the following scientists synthesized mathematics, empirical evidence, and laws of physics to create an overarching system for how the universe functioned?

    1. Nicolaus Copernicus

    2. Tycho Brahe

    3. Johannes Kepler

    4. Rene Descartes

    5. Isaac Newton



  1. Which of the following would most likely have supported the ideas of Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations (1776)?

    1. François Quesnay

    2. Jean-Baptiste Colbert

    3. Louis Blanc

    4. Friedrich Engels

    5. Eduard Bernstein

  2. All of the following are results of the scientific revolution on eighteenth-century European society EXCEPT

    1. it led directly to the Enlightenment and a secular view of the universe.

    2. it increased conflict between church and science in Protestant countries.

    3. it led to a decline in witch hunts.

    4. it accelerated the agricultural revolution.

    5. it improved navigation and mapping



  1. “As long as several men in assembly regard themselves as a single body they have only a single will which is concerned with their preservation. If the assembly needs new laws the first man to propose them merely says what all have already felt and everyone has already decided to do. This General Will is constant, unalterable, and pure. It is the best advice." When minorities begin to exercise an influence over the majority, the General Will ceases to be the will of all. The General Will then becomes subordinated to other wills.”

The above passage most likely comes from

    1. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan

    2. John Locke, Two Treatises on Government

    3. Baron Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws

    4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract

    5. John Stuart Mill, On Liberty




  1. Which of the following believed that a monarch should be the “first servant of the state?”

    1. Maria Theresa of Austria

    2. Louis XIII of France

    3. James I of England

    4. Alexander III of Russia

    5. Frederick the Great of Prussia




  1. In which of the following countries did the agricultural revolution begin?

    1. Germany

    2. The Netherlands

    3. France

    4. Italy

    5. England




  1. The most common non-farming occupation for a peasant female in the eighteenth century was in

    1. nursing

    2. teaching

    3. domestic work

    4. prostitution

    5. wet-nursing




  1. Which of the following groups was most enthusiastic about the creation of a republic during the early years of the French Revolution?

    1. Jacobins

    2. Émigres

    3. “Refactory” clergy

    4. Nobility of the robe

    5. Peasantry




  1. Which of the following reasons best explains the emergence of the cottage industry in England?

    1. Vast amounts of cotton flowed into England from its American colonies.

    2. Merchant-capitalists were eager to bypass powerful guilds.

    3. The steam engine allowed for faster production of textiles.

    4. New farming techniques allowed small farmers to compete against large landowners.

    5. A large railroad network enabled more efficient transportation of goods.







The Granger Collection, New York


  1. Which of the following events does the above image most likely represent?

    1. Bread riots prior to the Russian Revolution in 1917

    2. A mob relocating of the royal family from Versailles to Paris

    3. The Pugachev Rebellion

    4. The militant suffragette movement in England around 1900

    5. Puritan women demanding the execution of Charles I

______________________________________________________


  1. “Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey,

Where wealth accumulates, and men decay:

Princes and lords may flourish, or may fade;

A breath can make them, as a breath is made:

But a bold peasantry, their country’s pride;

When once destroy’d, can never be supplied

The above passage written by Oliver Goldsmith in 1770 most likely refers to



  1. the ravages of the bubonic plague on his village

  2. the impact of the Seven Years’ War on the English peasantry

  3. the rape of the countryside by the industrial revolution

  4. the emigration of large numbers of English people to the American colonies

  5. the impact of the enclosure movement on the English countryside



  1. France, by the perfidy of her leaders, has utterly disgraced the tone of lenient council in the cabinets of princes, and disarmed it of its most potent topics. She has sanctified the dark suspicious maxims of tyrannous distrust; and taught kings to tremble at (what will hereafter be called) the delusive plausibilities of moral politicians.

--Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)

The above passage most likely reflects criticism aimed at



    1. the Third Estate

    2. the Second Estate

    3. the First Estate

    4. the peasantry

    5. the military




  1. During the French Revolution a critical weakness of the Directory (1795-1799) was that it

    1. sought to impose the Cult of the Supreme Being on French society.

    2. failed to organize the military effectively against foreign threats.

    3. relied heavily on the nobility which suffered the distrust of most French people.

    4. relied too heavily on democratic measures for which French society was unprepared.

    5. had leaders who only represented a narrow band of French society.



  1. A relative advantage enjoyed by England during the early years of the industrial revolution included

    1. its strong government-controlled mercantilist system

    2. its vast pool of skilled laborers

    3. its stable and responsive banking system

    4. its adaption of foreign technologies for domestic manufacturing

    5. its rich colonial markets in Africa



  1. The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) had as one of its major goals

    1. the permanent dismemberment of France

    2. the restoration of Old Regime ruling families to their traditional thrones

    3. the imposition of Christian uniformity throughout Europe

    4. the right of self-determination for large populations of ethnic minorities

    5. the development of a free-market economy among Europe’s largest countries





The Death of Socrates Metropolitan Museum of Art

  1. Which of the following best characterizes the late-eighteenth century work above by Jacques-Louis David?

    1. It is a clear example of French classicism pioneered by Nicolaus Poussin.

    2. It demonstrates strong elements of the mannerist style.

    3. It is a clear example of baroque themes.

    4. The action in the painting reflects Romantic sensibilities.

    5. It is a clear example of the neoclassical style.

_____________________________________________________________

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding the Concert of Europe in the nineteenth century?

    1. It supported liberalism and reform.

    2. It supported nationalist causes.

    3. It maintained a balance of power.

    4. It spread the ideals of the French Revolution.

    5. It ended the wars of religion.



  1. Which of the following most energetically advocated universal male suffrage during the nineteenth century?

    1. The Luddites

    2. The Chartists

    3. The Tories

    4. The Whigs

    5. The Carlsbad Diet



  1. The Romantic ideal of revolution and liberty is most dramatically expressed in the works of

    1. Victor Hugo and Emile Zola

    2. John Milton and William Shakespeare

    3. J.M.W. Turner and John Constable

    4. Paul Cezanne and Edgar Degas

    5. Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix



  1. Which of the following countries was the first to gain its independence in the period between 1815 and 1930?

    1. Poland

    2. Greece

    3. Italy

    4. Ireland

    5. Germany



  1. A strong link between nationalism and Romantic music during the last-half of the nineteenth century is evident in the works of

    1. Franz Joseph Haydn

    2. Ludwig van Beethoven

    3. Giuseppe Verdi

    4. Claude Debussy

    5. Igor Stravinsky



  1. The Revolutions of 1848 were significant in that they

    1. resulted in the creation of several new states

    2. abruptly ended the general peace that Europe had enjoyed since 1815

    3. marked the triumph of liberalism in politics

    4. convinced conservatives that concessions to the middle and working classes were necessary

    5. ushered in an era of declining nationalism in politics



  1. Which of the following had the biggest influence on city planning to meet the challenges of urbanization?

    1. Joseph Pierre Proudhon

    2. Baron von Haussmann

    3. Robert Peel

    4. Robert Owen

    5. Count Sergei Witte



  1. All of the following are social trends in the late-nineteenth century EXCEPT

    1. Increased participation of women in sports

    2. Decreasing mortality rates

    3. Increased church attendance

    4. Rise of a consumer culture

    5. Mass participation in politics



  1. Which of the following represented an attack on liberalism in the nineteenth century?

    1. Syllabus of Errors by Pope Pius IX

    2. Rerum Novarum by Pope Leo XIII

    3. On Liberty by John Stuart Mill

    4. J’Accuse by Émile Zola

    5. “April Theses” by Vladimir Lenin



  1. Which of the following classes saw the largest drop in the number of children per family by the late-nineteenth century?

    1. The nobility

    2. The working class

    3. The proletariat

    4. The peasantry

    5. The middle class



Coal Output, 1830-1850*




Austria

Belgium

France

German States (including Prussia)

Great Britain

1830

214

N/A

1,863

1,800

22,800

1835

251

2,639

2,506

2,100

28,100

1840

473

3,930

3,003

3,200

34,200

1845

689

4,919

4,202

4,400

46,600

1850

877

5,821

4,434

5,100

50,200

*In thousands of metric tons

Source: Lynn Hunt, et al., The Making of the West, 3rd ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2009)



  1. Which of the following conclusions best reflects the table above?

    1. Great Britain will never be caught in coal production by any other country.

    2. Continental Europe’s combined production of coal exceeds that of Great Britain in 1850.

    3. At the present rate of growth, Austria will out-produce Great Britain by the year 1900.

    4. France’s economy remains agricultural to larger extent than Belgium, Germany and Britain.

    5. Germany is clearly the second most powerful industrial economy in 1850.

________________________________________________________

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately portrays the state of education in Europe by 1900?

    1. Women had higher literacy rates than men.

    2. The literacy rate between people in cities and rural areas had become approximately equal.

    3. Compulsory education for primary school existed in western Europe.

    4. Girls enjoyed the same equal access to secondary school as did boys.

    5. Southern and eastern Europe enjoyed higher literacy rates on average than did northern and western Europe.



  1. A significant result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 was the

    1. creation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

    2. completion of Prussian efforts to unify Germany.

    3. catastrophic loss of life in Alsace and Lorraine.

    4. removal of Klemens von Metternich from power in Austria.

    5. rise of Austria as a major industrial power in Europe.





  1. Which of the following is most likely the point of view of the artist of the political cartoon above?

    1. The theory of evolution has revolutionized European thought.

    2. The artist is criticizing the excesses of the environmental movement.

    3. The artist is lampooning those who criticize natural selection.

    4. The artist believes that religion has no place in a modern science-dominated society.

    5. The artist is ridiculing Darwinism.



  1. The crisis over German reparations payments in the 1920s was addressed by the

    1. Locarno Pact

    2. Kellogg-Briand Pact

    3. League of Nations

    4. Dawes and Young Plans

    5. Lateran Pact

  2. Despite his many successes during his tenure as chancellor, Otto von Bismarck failed in his attempt to

    1. destroy the Social Democratic Party

    2. unify all the Germany states under Catholicism

    3. institute a progressive social welfare system

    4. maintain an effective balance of power in Europe

    5. infuse the German military with Prussian leadership



  1. The biggest challenge that the French Third Republic faced before it stabilized politically was

    1. the Paris Commune

    2. the Boulanger Crisis

    3. the Panama Crisis

    4. the Fashoda Crisis

    5. the Kruger Telegram



  1. By 1914 the only two African countries that were not subject to European domination were

    1. South Africa and Angola

    2. Ethiopia and Liberia

    3. Kenya and Tanzania

    4. Egypt and Somalia

    5. Algeria and Morocco



  1. After serfdom was abolished in Russia in1861, Russian communities came to be regulated politically through the

    1. robot

    2. zemstvos

    3. corvée

    4. pogroms

    5. Russian Orthodox Church



  1. Which of the following best represents the philosophy of the “White Man’s Burden” in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries?

    1. Conservatives in Europe increasingly looked to anti-Semitism as an answer to society’s challenges.

    2. Overpopulation in western and central Europe was putting a significant strain on the food supply.

    3. The “dismal science” of economics emphasized the growing gap between rich and poor in European society.

    4. Liberals throughout Europe called for an end to serfdom in Russia.

    5. Imperialists justified their conquests by “civilizing” non-European peoples.



  1. The above map most likely represents Europe in

    1. 1815

    2. 1871

    3. 1919

    4. 1945

    5. 1989

“The Rhodes Colossus,” Punch Magazine



  1. The artist’s point of view from the above image most likely

    1. criticizes British imperialism in the late-nineteenth century

    2. supports Russia’s war aims during the Crimean War

    3. condemns German aggression prior to World War Two

    4. supports French efforts toward decolonization after World War Two

    5. criticizes the colonial mandate provisions in the Treaty of Versailles



  1. Which of the following represents a military failure for Germany during World War One?

    1. Gallipoli Campaign

    2. Battle of Tannenberg

    3. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    4. Schlieffen Plan

    5. Battle of Borodino




  1. All of the following are examples of “total war” during World War One EXCEPT

    1. civilian populations became targets of military actions.

    2. all men in warring countries were conscripted into the military.

    3. the British blockade aimed to destroy the German economy.

    4. women worked in traditionally male-dominated occupations.

    5. the press was censored and government propaganda was employed on a massive scale.




  1. In 1935, Benito Mussolini’s desire to prove Italy’s military superiority came with his invasion of

  1. Yugoslavia

  2. Libya

  3. Ethiopia

  4. Somalia

  5. Greece




  1. A consequence of Nuremberg Laws in Nazi Germany was the

    1. outlawing of the German Communist Party

    2. creation of the SS and Gestapo

    3. repudiation of the Versailles Treaty

    4. exclusion of Jews from mainstream society

    5. “Night of Long Knives”



  1. One of the results of the Revolution of 1905 in Russia was

    1. the domination of the royal court by Gregorii Rasputin

    2. the public’s demand for a declaration of war against Japan regarding Chinese territories

    3. the dramatic decline in the power of the tsar

    4. the beginning of Russia’s industrial revolution

    5. the creation of a weak parliament




  1. Adolf Hitler’s desire to invade Poland in 1939 was directly facilitated by the

  1. Stresa Front

  2. Munich Conference

  3. Tripartite Pact

  4. German-Soviet Non-Aggression Treaty

  5. Wannsee Conference

“Toward a Prosperous and Cultured Life,” 1934




  1. The above political poster most likely represents which of the following views of women in the Soviet Union?

    1. Women were viewed as subordinate to men.

    2. Women should do domestic work while men should do industrial work.

    3. Women were expected to work as hard as men in farming and industry

    4. Women should not focus on having children but rather on furthering the Russian economy.

    5. Women were a vital part of the Russian military.




  1. Which of the following pairs of battles represented a major turning point in the eastern front during World War Two?

    1. Normandy and Battle of the Bulge

    2. El Alamein and Kassarine Pass

    3. Sicily and Monte Casino

    4. Stalingrad and Kursk

    5. Somme and Verdun




  1. In direct response to West Germany’s entrance into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1954, the Soviet Union

    1. formed the Warsaw Pact

    2. developed its hydrogen bomb

    3. stripped East Germany of industrial supplies

    4. blocked all access into West Berlin

    5. built the Berlin Wall




  1. Which of the following leaders would have been least likely to support an expansion of the welfare state after World War II?

    1. Clement Atlee

    2. Konrad Adenauer

    3. Ludwig Erhard

    4. Jean Monnet

    5. Margaret Thatcher




  1. Which of the following initiated the “space race” during the Cold War?

  1. Yuri Gagarin’s orbit around the earth

  2. U.S. development of missile-based warheads

  3. The Soviet launching of sputnik

  4. The U.S. successfully sending a spaceship to the moon

  5. The Apollo-Soyuz Project



  1. In the two decades following the post-World War Two era, women

  1. tended to marry earlier

  2. increased the average number of children they had

  3. tended to have children at a later age

  4. were less likely to work outside the home

  5. achieved absolute equality with men in virtually every European country



  1. Which of the following became known for his strong opposition to both the increased number of “guest workers” and the creation of the European Union in the late-twentieth century?

  1. Helmut Kohl

  2. Jean-Marie Le Pen

  3. Pope John Paul II

  4. Tony Blair

  5. Robert Schuman




  1. A significant difference between fascism in Italy and Germany in the 1930s was

    1. the existence of militarism in Germany.

    2. the existence of private ownership in

Germany’s major industries

    1. the glorification of the state and the cult of personality in Italy

    2. the ruthlessness with which political opponents were silenced in Germany

    3. the willingness of Germany to aid Spanish fascists in Spain’s civil war



  1. “All of us … thought about freedom and injustice, about human rights, about democracy and political pluralism, about market economics and much else besides.  Because we thought, we also dreamed.  We dreamt, whether in or out of prison, of a Europe without barbed wire, high walls, artificially divided nations and gigantic stockpiles of weapons, of a Europe free of ‘blocs,’ of a European policy based on respect for human rights…”

The above quote, given in 1990, is most likely attributed to

    1. Vaclav Havel

    2. Slobodan Milosevic

    3. Gustav Streseman

    4. Yuri Andropov

    5. Josep Broz Tito





  1. Which of the following conclusions best represents the above graph concerning British government debt as a percentage of GNP?

    1. The British economy tended to prosper most during wartime.

    2. The industrial revolution led to significant deficit spending during the nineteenth century.

    3. The Napoleonic Wars destroyed the British economy.

    4. By the late-twentieth century, Britain had seen a dramatic increase in its debt compared to its industrial production.

    5. Peacetime seems to have been beneficial for the British economy.



Source: The Waterbury Republican and The Middletown press


  1. Which of the following is most likely the point of view of Edmund Valtman, the creator of the political cartoon above?

    1. Joseph Stalin and Vladimir Lenin are deviating from traditional Marxism.

    2. Mikhail Gorbachev is leading the Soviet Union to its death.

    3. The Brezhnev Doctrine has failed to achieve its purpose.

    4. Nikita Khrushchev’s secret speech at the Twentieth Party Congress is weakening the Communist party.

    5. Karl Marx, as the father of communism, is proud of the accomplishments of the Soviet Union.

END OF EXAMINATION


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