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Quarter Comprehensive Exam
Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
In his critique of the Roman Catholic Church, Martin Luther’s 95 Theses focused most on the
corruption of Pope Alexander VI
lack of Biblical justification for the selling of indulgences
nepotism in the appointment church offices
inaccuracies in the translation of the Latin Vulgate
clerical ignorance that existed in many German parishes
Which of the following Renaissance writers was well-known for his emphasis on courtly manners and achieving excellence in many different disciplines?
Jacques Lefevre d’Etaples
“All are not created on equal terms, but some are preordained to eternal life, others to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one or the other of these ends, we say that he has been predestined to life or death…”
This statement reflects an essential view of
Teresa of Avila
Pope Paul III
Which of the following was most important in discovering the way in which the human body’s blood circulatory system works?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
El Escorial, 1563-1584
The above image of the Escorial in Spain best reflects
the height of baroque architecture in sixteenth-century Spain
the failure of the reconquista to achieve its goals in the fifteenth century
the excessive spending on grandiose projects that bankrupted the government of Philip II
the strong connection between the monarchy and church authority
the strong influence of mannerism in Spanish architecture
Which of the following statements best explains how humanism influenced the Protestant Reformation?
The secular character of humanism caused a counter reaction among religious leaders.
The visual arts during the High Renaissance had a profound impact on religious reformers.
The humanistic ideals of the Middle Ages encouraged a spiritual and personal relationship with God.
New Latin and Greek translations of the Bible influenced Church reformers to challenge Catholic authority.
Most religious leaders of the Protestant Reformation were prominent humanist writers who intensively studied the Greek and Roman classics.
What was the significance of the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon to Isabella of Castile?
It brought Spain into an alliance with France.
It signaled the rise of the hacienda as a powerful political institution.
It united the two largest states in Spain under one kingdom.
It signaled the decline of the Holy Roman Empire.
It ushered a new era of Muslim invasions into southern Spain.
Which of the following denounced the secularism of the Renaissance and created a theocratic republic in Florence in the late-fifteenth century?
Cosimo d’ Medici
Pope Julius II
Which of the following statements best reflects the Elizabethan Settlement during late-sixteenth century?
The doctrine of the Anglican Church was essentially Calvinist.
The doctrine of the Anglican Church returned to its original form under Henry VIII.
The doctrine of the Anglican Church was essentially Protestant with some Catholic rituals.
The doctrine of the Anglican Church remained fiercely Catholic.
The doctrine of the Anglican Church allowed clergy members to marry and reinstated monasteries.
Which of the following further developed absolutism in France by introducing the intendant system?
Which one of the following statements best characterizes the differences between John Locke’s “state of nature” and Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s “state of nature?”
Locke called for reform; Rousseau was satisfied with the status quo.
Rousseau’s “state of nature” did not have political connotations.
Rousseau’s “state of nature” was one of economic equality.
Locke’s “state of nature” ended with a “social contract,” while Rousseau’s did not.
Locke’s “state of nature” envisioned a violent and dangerous society.
While France developed absolutism during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the English monarchy was checked by
a strong peasantry
a few powerful and independent noble families
a Bill of Rights guaranteeing individual freedoms
the Anglican Church
a strong Parliament
The largest European import from the New World that required massive African slave labor in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was
gold and silver
Which of the following treaties represented the biggest setback for France in terms of lost territory?
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis, 1559
Treaty of Westphalia, 1648
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Treaty of Versailles, 1919
Which of the following pairs of philosophers are most closely identified with skepticism?
Pico and Ficino
Montaigne and Hume
Bodin and Bossuet
Kant and Hegel
Dumas and Zola
All of the following were new technologies used during World War One EXCEPT
A major cause of the War of Austrian Succession was Frederick the Great’s violation of the
Concordat of Bologna
Edict of Fountainbleu
Edict of Restitution
Which of the following rulers had the biggest impact on reshaping Russia’s social structure?
Ivan the IV
Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
Which of the following was most important in defending Protestant self-rule in the Netherlands in the late sixteenth century?
William of Orange
Catherine de Medicis
Robert Walpole was notable for
being the first English prime minister
working to perfect the steam engine
leading the British trade union movement
innovation as a physicist
writing romantic poetry
Which of the following people would most likely have had the above 1628 frontispiece included in his book?
Pope Pius IX
The historical significance of Prince Henry the Navigator was his
centralization of power that became the model for the “New Monarchs”
discovery of Brazil in the early-fifteenth century with the use of modern instruments
failure to maintain Catholic dominance in the Low Countries
encouragement of Portuguese expeditions on the western coast of Africa
role in instigating the religiously-motivated French Civil Wars
Which of the following is NOT a provision of the English Bill of Rights (1689)?
Only Parliament can levy taxes.
The king may maintain a standing army without the consent of Parliament.
All rights must be made with the consent of Parliament.
The right of trial by jury is guaranteed.
Due process of law is guaranteed.
Which of the following was the most important cause of the population explosion in Europe after 1750?
The industrial revolution
The eradication of the bubonic plague
The agricultural revolution
The smallpox vaccine
The decrease in illegitimate births
Women played important roles in all of the following movements EXCEPT
the Protestant Reformation
the French salon movement
the French Revolution
the Russian Revolution
the socialist movement
Which of the following was a result of the Thirty Years’ War?
The independence of Belgium
The decline of Lutheranism in northern Germany
The death of approximately one-third of the German population
The acquisition for Russia of territory on the Baltic Sea
The end to the expansionist ambitions of Louis XIV
Which of the following was most important in reducing the political power of the nobility in early modern Europe?
Increase in the use of mercenary armies
Introduction of firearms and cannon
Use of the crossbow
Rise in the influence of knights and vassals
Which of the following had the largest impact on the development of deism in the eighteenth century?
John Wesley and the emergence of Methodism.
The universal laws of gravitation proposed by Isaac Newton.
The rise of superstition due to natural calamities.
European colonial penetration into the interior of Asia.
The American and French Revolutions.
Peasant Wedding, c. 1565
Which of the following statements best reflects the above painting?
The artist’s technique demonstrates strong influences from the art of the Middle Ages.
It is a quintessential example of High Renaissance painting in Italy.
It exemplifies the religious ideals of the Northern Renaissance.
It serves as a window into the ordinary lives of people in the Low Countries.
It demonstrates the gender inequalities that existed in Renaissance society.
Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.
The above quotation helps explain which of the following?
The failures of the Revolutions of 1848
The failure of socialist revisionism in the late-nineteenth century
The rising influence of the Eastern Orthodox Church in central Europe
The triumph of the Paris Commune in 1871
The atheism of the Bolshevik Revolution in the early twentieth century
Which of the following is most closely associated with nineteenth-century nationalism?
John Stuart Mill
Johann Gottfried Herder
The impact of the Versailles Treaty of 1919 on European diplomacy differed from the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) because the Congress of Vienna
prevented a major world war for nearly a century
promoted liberalism and capitalism throughout Europe
created numerous independent states based on ethnic and linguistic unity
failed to create a coalition of major countries that would ensure a balance of power
toppled Old Regime monarchies and replaced them with new ruling families
In the period from 1852 to 1871, when Napoleon III was leader, France could best be described as a(an)
Which of the following best characterizes the condition of the middle class in western Europe in the mid-nineteenth century?
Married women enjoyed increased job opportunities.
The average family grew in size due to increased wealth.
The standard of living decreased as industrialism replaced skilled craft occupations.
Morality and education issues often dictated family decisions.
Children were increasingly separated from their families due to the changing economy.
All of the following are examples of conservative political measures in Europe between 1815 and 1850 EXCEPT
the Carlsbad Decrees
the Peterloo Massacre
the Holy Alliance
the repeal of the Corn Laws
the Congress System
A distinguishing feature of the Austrian Empire in the nineteenth century was its
incorporation of an influential liberal parliament alongside a conservative monarchy
struggle to resolve conflicts among large groups of ethnic minorities
cultural unity and political cohesion compared to other eastern European states
rapid industrialization and dominance of manufacturing in central Europe
military dominance after 1850
The assumption of the German throne by Wilhelm II in 1888 led to the
rise of the middle class as Germany’s most influential social class
systematic oppression of German Catholics
decline in the stability of European diplomatic arrangements
abolition of serfdom throughout most of the German states
increase in military and economic cooperation between Germany and Russia
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the “Eastern Question” of the late-nineteenth century?
European empires were competing to dominate trade in Asia.
The Great Powers struggled over who would control Balkan territories liberated from the Ottoman Empire.
Europeans were interested in expanding its economic influence throughout the Middle East.
Russia and Japan became increasingly hostile towards one another regarding northeastern China.
A great debate occurred in Japan regarding the incorporation of European industrial and military methods.
All of the following were significant causes of the French Revolution EXCEPT
the high cost of wars throughout the eighteenth century
the liberal influences of the American Revolution
the refusal of French nobles to grant tax increases requested by Louis XVI
poor harvests and economic depression in the 1780s
the oppressive conditions among the French peasantry
Recent challenges to the traditional explanation of the origins of the French Revolution have centered on the fact that
the Old Regime did not correspond to the social reality by the late-eighteenth century.
the clergy played a liberal role in French society.
the revolution broke out all over France, not just in Paris.
the lower middle class was actually more reactionary than radical.
the nobility and upper bourgeoisie were not necessarily enemies.
By 1850, the industrialism in Continental Europe differed from industrialism in England because
few textiles were produced on the Continent.
industrialism in Continental countries often depended heavily on government investment.
Continental countries utilized railroads to a much larger extent than England did.
there were fewer workers on the Continent which resulted in frequent labor shortages.
workers in England experienced a far lower standard of living than their counterparts on the Continent.
A major impact of the Scientific Revolution on European society between 1600 and 1750 was the
official support of scientific discoveries in Catholic countries such as Spain and Italy
decreased international cooperation in the scientific community due to competition between nation-states
decline in mortality rates due to medical advances
decline in the persecution of witches
growth of military power in the Holy Roman Empire and Poland
Classical liberalism in late-eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Europe can best be described as
favoring economic policies to promote economic equality
favoring representative government with limited male suffrage
favoring mercantilism in government economic policies
favoring the interests of the aristocracy rather than the middle class
rejecting any form of monarchy in government
“Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man… Considering how little men value other men; from whence continually arise amongst them, emulation, quarrels, factions, and at last war, to the destroying of one another, and diminution of their strength against a common enemy; it is necessary that there be laws of honor.. And as the power, so also the honor of the sovereign, ought to be greater than that of any or all the subjects. For in the sovereignty is the fountain of honor.”
The above quote is most likely attributed to
All of the following were major features of the Industrial Revolution in Europe EXCEPT
Peter Paul Rubens,
The Elevation of the Cross
The painting shown above, The Elevation of the Cross by Peter Paul Rubens, is an example of which of the following styles?
Which of the following philosophies was most responsible for influencing the political situation seen in the above map?
Which of the following statements best describes why serfdom between 1600 and 1800 grew in eastern Europe but had largely disappeared in western Europe?
Peasants were far more numerous in western Europe and thus more difficult to control.
The urban nature of western Europe did not allow for serfdom.
Eastern Europe did not suffer catastrophes due to disease and famine that continually plagued western Europe.
Nobles tended to be far more powerful in eastern Europe than in western Europe.
The Enlightenment discouraged the institution of serfdom in western Europe.
“…It is not by speeches and majority resolutions that the great questions of the time are decided – that was the big mistake of 1848 and 1849 – but by iron and blood.
-- Otto von Bismarck, 1882
Which of the following statements best reflects the above quote?
Bismarck sought to make Prussia the nucleus of a newly unified Germany.
Bismarck sought Germany’s military conquest of Europe.
Bismarck sought to oppress Jews throughout the German states.
Bismarck sought to limit the power of the German Reichstag.
Bismarck sought to support the major goals of the German Socialist Party.
Which of the following trends best reflects the average western European family by 1900?
Lower numbers of children per family on average
Movement away from a single nuclear family living in a single household
Higher rate of well-educated women entering the workforce
Increasingly over-crowded living conditions
Increased reliance on child labor to help families meet rising living expenses
Which of the following Europeans promoted Zionism, a proposal for a new Jewish homeland in Palestine?
Which of the following was the first European country to dominate the interior of sub-Saharan Africa after 1870?
Napoleon’s plan to invade England was thwarted by the
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Borodino
Battle of Austerlitz
Which of the following composers was most important in developing atonal music and the twelve-tone row?
The Bettman Archive
The National Razor”
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above French Revolutionary-era political cartoon?
(A) The construction of guillotines became a major industry in France during the revolution.
Though regrettable, executions were necessary to preserve the revolution.
The Guillotine was a humane instrument of mercy inspired by Enlightenment views.
The Reign of Terror had become excessive in its violence.
Robespierre’s leadership was effective in inspiring the masses.
Which of the following succeeded in gaining its permanent independence in the period between 1815 and 1848?
The middle-class feminists of England in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries
worked for property rights and then voting rights for women
were influenced by utopian socialism
supported strong nationalistic goals and imperialist ventures
rejected the militant tactics of earlier feminists
generally supported separate spheres for men and women
Which of the following events had the most divisive and negative impact on politics within the country in which it occurred?
The Ems Dispatch
The “Humiliation of Olmutz”
The Dreyfus Affair
The Kruger Telegram
The Fashoda Crisis
The Russian Revolution in February 1917 was started by
the Petrograd Soviet
a mutiny by sailors
women rioting for bread
During the late-nineteenth century, Friedrich Nietzsche argued that
conventional morality was suffocating individual achievement.
philosophy is only the logical clarification of thought.
human beings are motivated by primal desires.
religious belief provided stability in an absurd world.
the masses contained wisdom for the creation of a new and better society.
Which of the following rulers could be considered the most powerful ruler in the world during his time?
Ludovico the Moor
Sulieman the Magnificent
Cosimo d’ Medici
All of the following became a newly independent country as a result of World War One EXCEPT
Great Britain entered World War One as a direct response to
the sinking of the Lusitania
Germany’s naval blockade of European ports
Germany’s invasion of Belgium
Austria-Hungary’s invasion of Serbia
the Russian Revolution
The psychological ideas of Sigmund Freud were influential after World War One because they
renewed public interest in the physics of Isaac Newton
encouraged violent revolution if governments were overly oppressive
theorized that human society would continue to evolve in positive ways even though the war was catastrophic
validated the views of Social Darwinists
reflected the irrational nature of the human subconscious
Germany failed to achieve its objective of defeating France quickly at the outset of World War One as a result of the
Battle of Verdun
Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Marne
The “New Science” in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries was significant because it
established Albert Einstein’s concept of the universe as more stable and knowable than the universe of Isaac Newton
challenged Charles Darwin’s underlying principles on evolution
created uncertainties in the ability of science to provide absolute answers in physics and astronomy
disproved previously held theories dealing with sub-atomic energy
led to the rise of positivism by such thinkers as Auguste Comte
The French Revolution and the Bolshevik Revolution were similar in that
both dramatically increased the equality of women.
both found themselves alone against foreign powers.
both were influenced to some extent by the ideas of Karl Marx.
both supported international wars to rally the people.
both were directly responsible for overthrowing the monarchy.
Of the following, which pair of authors is most closely associated with realism after 1850?
Zola and Ibsen
Wordsworth and Coleridge
Moliere and Racine
Scott and Dumas
Spencer and Huxley
The fatal blunder made by Russia’s Provisional Government in 1917 was
continuing the war effort
confiscating and redistributing noble lands
instituting legal and political equality
suppressing the Petrograd Soviet
refusing Lenin’s participation in the government
Which of the following was most responsible for helping Germany to recover economically during the 1920s?
The Locarno Pact
The Dawes Plan
The Ruhr Crisis
Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
The political party that emerged as the leader of the Weimar Republic after World War I was the
National Socialist German Worker’s Party
Catholic Center Party
Democratic Socialist Party
The most notable critic of European imperialism in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries was
J. A. Hobson
Which of the following best represents the ideas of John Maynard Keynes regarding the Versailles Treaty (1919)?
He fully supported Georges Clemenceau’s objectives regarding French economic and military security.
He condemned Britain’s refusal to join the League of Nations.
He argued that a healthy German economy was crucial to Europe’s economic recovery from the war.
He called for increased military spending.
He criticized the League of Nations as a ploy by the United States to dominate Europe economically.
European women generally experienced which of the following conditions during World War One?
A return to more traditional gender roles.
Increased combat roles in the military.
Full legal equality.
Highly restrictive wartime legislation regulating marriage and birth rates.
Increased economic opportunities in industry and transportation.
Which of the following best reflects the political philosophy of Vladimir Lenin?
Socialist revisionism was the most effective method to gain political power.
A socialist revolution could only occur in a fully industrialized country.
World War I was an effective opportunity for exporting an international communist revolution.
The “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” could only occur through the leadership of a small revolutionary elite.
Marx’s prediction of violent revolution was no longer necessary given the power of the communist party in Russia.
Which of the following statements regarding Bauhaus movement in Germany is true?
It reflected the ideals of the newly unified Germany Empire.
It strongly rejected middle-class values.
It emphasized art for art’s sake.
It emphasized that the form of a building should follow its function.
It combined Dadaism and Futurism to achieve total abstraction.
As a result of the Congress of Berlin in 1878
Russia gained large territories in the Black Sea Region.
Germany and Russia made a military alliance.
new states of Romania and Serbia were created.
the Austria-Hungarian Empire lost significant territory in the Balkans.
the Ottoman Empire gained sole control of the Danubian principalities.
Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament), London (1836-1868)
The above structure is of which architectural style?
Age of Workers in Cotton Mills in Lancashire, England in 1833
11 - 16
17 - 21
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