Europe and the Antipodes



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The Playmaker
p. 1 haunt: hjemsøge, plage

cove: vig, bugt

obdurate: hård, forhærdet

sap: plantesaft

penal: straffe-

compound: afspærret område

suburb: forstad

H.E.: His Excellency, dvs. guvernør Philip

lagtown: straffefangeby

p. 2 engrossing: opslugende, spændende

wattle and daub : lerklinet

thatch: tækkerør

awning: markise, solsejl

escarpment: (stejl) skråning

contorted timber: forvredent tømmer

cantoment: indkvartering

listless: sløv, uinteresseret

shingles: tækkespåner, tagspåner

habitation: bolig

ford: vade over

p. 3 iguanna: lille øgle

spouse : ægtefælle

concubinage: uægteskabeligt samliv

jiggle: gynge, vippe med

surreptitiously: stjålent, i smug

inevitable: uundgåelig

wake: kølvand

malice: ondskabsfuldhed

thigh : lår

vengeful: hævngerrig

species : art

Cornish looter of spinsters: Dabby Bryant er fra Cornwall og er blevet dømt for at berøve ugifte kvinder

ultimately: i sidste ende

concept: ide, begreb

redolence : duft, lugt

gut the fish: rense fiskene

p. 5 notorious: berygtet

wailings: jamren

extend: række frem

Fowey: den by i Cornwall Dabby kommer fra

reconcile oneself to: forsone sig med

lagdom: ‘straffefangernes historie’

clod: jordknold

p. 6 vice-like: som i en skruestik

Home Secretary: indenrigsminister

feral: egl. om dyr der er vendt tilbage til naturlig, vild tilstand

ministering an urgent mercy: yde en hårdt tiltrængt barmhjertighed

mutually: gensidigt

astounded: forbløffet

infidelity: utroskab

dimly: svagt, utydeligt

p. 7 abandon: opgive

rigorously: strengt, punktligt

Hell-hole prison turned convicts to cannibals
p. 1 convict: straffefange

penal: straffe-

perish: dø, gå til

ferocity: vildskab

oblivion: glemsel

hostile: fjendtlig

escapee: undvegen (fange)

infamous : skændig, infam

bushranging: landevejsrøveri

depravity: lastefuldhed

degradation: fornedring

woe: smerte, kval

concur: indtræffe samtidigt, samvirke

aspect: udseende, karakter

tempest: storm

humid: fugtig

precarious: usikker, uholdbar

passage: overfart

dreary: trist, sørgelig

dwelling place: opholdssted

confine: indespærre

torment: plage, pine

impervious thicket: uigennemtrængeligt krat

adamant: maget hård stenart

rigour : strenghed

p. 2 equivalent to: svar på, pendant til

Roaring 40’s: stærke storme ved 40. breddegrad

averaged: talte i gennemsnit

peat: tørv

huon pine: stort fyrretræ

tributary: biflod

sleet: slud

squalls : kastevinde med byger

cat-o’-nine-tails: den nihalede kat (pisk)

lash: slag

recalcitrant: genstridig person

noose: løkke

defy: trodse

Kevin Gilbert (1933 – 93) was born in Condobolin, New South Wales. His Irish father and part-Aboriginal mother both died when he was seven years old, and Kevin Gilbert was brought up in welfare homes and by relatives. He did not get much schooling and worked as an itenerant labourer to support his wife and two children. In 1957 he was sentenced to life imprisonment for having murdered his wife after a domestic argument. In prison he took a keen interest in literature and art, and his work from prison was exhibited in 1970. He was paroled in 1971, and till his death in 1993 he lived as a writer, and became engaged in various aid projects for the Aboriginal communities. He took an active interest in the landrights debate (see p. ) and “proposed a programme of physical and spiritual compensation for 200 years of deprivation.” (The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature, p. 313)

Not Choosing
fervent: inderlig, brændende

bludger: drivert

stagger on: vakle videre

ache : føle smerte

plonk: billig vin

white lady: kogesprit

netho: methylated spirits=kogesprit

batter: slå, lædere

repugnance: afsky, væmmelse

despise: foragte, føle afsky for

gutter: rendesten

be entitled to: have ret til

Price Warung (1855 – 1911) was born in Liverpool, England, but was brought to Australia when he was four years old. He was educated in Melbourne, and from 1875-90 he worked as a free-lance journalist. His real name was William Astley, but his substantial contribution to the Australian literary Naissance of the 1890’s (see p. ) was under the adopted name Warung. He settled in Sydney in 1890 and was one of the Bulletin’s most prolific contributors. In the 1890’s he also devoted himself to labour and Federal movements, and became the editor of the Australian Workman in 1893; later in the decade he also wrote for the Truth. Price Warung took a keen interest in Australia’s history and was among the writers who endeavoured to make up for years of historical amnesia and distortion (see p. ), especially with respect to the convict system. When he died in 1911 he was broken down by ill health and drug addiction.

Lieutenant Darrell’s Predicament
p. 1 VDL: Van Diemen’s Land (=Tasmania)

predicament: knibe, vanskelig stilling

mortal: dødelig

reversed conditions: omvendte forhold

defy: trodse

proprieties: sømmelig/velanstændig adfærd

humbly: ydmygt

Catechism : regelsamling for korrekt opførsel

abject: hundsk, ydmyg

dormitory: sovesal

specimen: eksemplar

giunea : mønt (=21 shillings)

prepatory to: forud for, som forberedelse til

destiny: skæbne

trifle : anelse

discernible: synlig, til at få øje på

environ: omkredse, danne ring omkring

putrescence: forrådnelse

constitute ... the arbiter: indsætte ... som dommer

retort: svar, det at svare igen

p. 2 fluctuate twixt: svinge imellem

the stocks of the muskets: kolberne på geværerne

protrusion: det at skyde frem, udbulning

felon gang: banden af straffefanger

tender: give

taunt : hån

wince: krympe sig

gibe : spydighed, skose

sustain life: opretholde livet

pith: marv

slavering: savlen

absconder: bortløben fange

flog: piske

p. 3 grog: sprut

cogent reason: overbevisende, stærkt argument

scourging : piskning

‘baccy: tobacco

tender ministrations: blide tjenesteydelser

species : art

pine-timber: fyrretræstømmer

august: streng

circumstantiality: udførlighed

conditionally consent to: sige ja på betingelse af

pending the dispatch: afvente afsendelsen af

verify: bevise at noget er sandt

revel in: nyde i fulde drag; slå sig løs, solde

the weed: tobak

resolve: beslutning

utilize: udnytte

debouchment : udløb, udmunding

density: tæthed

tenant: bebo

entourage : følge

die: støbeform

p. 4 mould: forme

ore: malm, metal

retain: bibeholde

whim: lune, indfald

caprice: grille, påfund

triangles: trekantet stativ hvortil straffefanger fastspændes, når de skal piskes

tersely: kortfattet

ruffian: slyngel

roll: liste, fortegnelse

Colonial Treasury: koloniens finansforvaltning

meritorious: fortjenstfuld

John Price:

ascertain : forvisse sig om, konstatere

imbued with: gennemvædet af

sufficiently: tilstrækkeligt

adopt ... to present exigencies: tilpasse til nuværende presserende forhold

cracker: snert (på en pisk)

plait : flette

p. 5 chastisement: revselse, straf

welt: strime på huden

abandon: opgive

scourge: svøbe, pisk

forcat: fransk=galejslave

attain: opnå

sham Abraham: simulere at man er syg

scheme: plan

squelch: slå ned, holde nede

maroon: efterlade på en øde ø

chart: søkort

inter: begrave

bond and free: fanger og frie mænd

embrace: omfavnelse

Great Emancipator: den store frigiver (dvs. Gud)

oppressor: undertrykker, tyran

talemonger: een der opdigter historier

excavate: udgrave, udhugge

incorrigible : uforbedrelig person

as were unsubdued: som ikke kunne undertrykkes

recess: afsats

p. 6 subjugate: undertvinge

laurels: laurbær

untractable: umedgørlig

fiat : ordre, befaling

melefactor: misdæder

illiterate: analfabet

anticipate: se frem til

gag: knebel, mundjern

issue instruction: udstede ordrer

apply: anvende

sleety rain: regn med slud

p. 7 crest: top

mutiny: mytteri

lock: lås (på et gevær)

priming: tændladning

monolith: her=høj klippe

receding reverberations: genlyden der rullede bort

gorge: kløft

superstitious: overtroisk

entrenchment: forskansning

p. 8 lithe : smidig

dispatch: sende

penalty: straf

rejoinder: svar

hoop-iron: tøndebånd

protuberance: udbulning

rivet: nitte

vertebrae : ryghvirvler

endow : udstyre med

sever: adskille

p. 9 be partial to: ynde, have en svaghed for

cuticle : overhud

agency: formidling, mellemkomst

manacle: håndlænke

moisture: fugtighed

pan: fængpande, krudtpande

charge of fiends : angreb af djævle

climes: himmelstrøg

Tommy Atkins: menig soldat

dear the brunt: tage skraldet

folly: tåbelighed

turned topsy-turvy: vendt op og ned på

p.10 virtually: praktisk taget

Juggernaut: indisk gud der blev kørt frem på en tung vogn under hvis hjul tilhængere skulle kaste sig

gory: blodig

stoic fortitude: rolig styrke

prostrate: udstrakt (på jorden)

apprehend their object: forstå deres hensigt

concede: indrømme, tilskrive

preliminary: indledende

assent: samtykke

loath to tempt: uvillig til at løbe en risiko med

p.11 encumber: besvære, hindre, bebyrde

gyve : lænke

endurance: udholdenhed

manifest: lægge for dagen

apostrophize: højtideliggøre

ode: digt

eloquence : veltalenhed, retorik

lament: begræde

aisle : midtergang (som i en kirke)

refrain from: afstå fra

primeval : oprindelig, som hører til urtiden

amiable: elskværdig

p.12 solicitude: omsorg

rasher: skive bacon

faciliate: gøre lettere

enfranchised: som har fået stemmeret/bogerret

nauseous: kvalmende

lather: indsæbe

contortion: forvreden stilling

truss: binde

seduction: forførelse

confer ... on: give

p.13 cancel: annullere

rogue: slyngel

festering: bulne, betændte

gash: flænge

bring into requisition: rekvirere

ribald conclave: uærbødig råd/forsamling

deficient: mangelfuld

p.14 compel: tvinge

demurring: betænkeligheder, indsigelser

approve: billige, vedtage

demolish: tilintetgøre

inkling: vink, antydning

gluttonous: grådig

index: fingerpeg

disdainfully: foragteligt, hånligt

vacillation: vaklen

contemptuous: hånlig

exult: juble, fryde sig

p.15 sentinel: vagtpost

unerringly: usvigeligt

Manning Clark (1915 -1991) was born in Sydney and educated at the universities of Melbourne and Oxford. He taught grammar school for some years before he became a lecturer at the University of Melbourne, and later professor of history at Canberra University College. In 1960 he was appointed professor of history at the newly inaugurated Australian National University in Canberra. From 1962 to 1987 he wrote the six volumes of A History of Australia which made him “Australia’s most widely read but also most controversial historian.” (The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature, p. 167). He took a very personal view of Australia’s development, and has often been accused of combining historical research with fictional elements. His “stately prose style”, however, has not been without admirers, and despite the alleged historical inaccuracies “the vision and magnitude” of his achievement is widely acknowledged (see also p., ).



A History Of Australia
p. 1 Sir Charles Hotham: Governor of Victoria

attachment: hengivenhed

revenue: (stats)indtægter

impose taxation: pålægge skatter

trap: slang=politibetjent

offensive: krænkende

offsider: hjælper, kammerat

impertinent: uforskammet

felon: forbryder

bail: kaution

on the bench: i retten

degrade: nedværdige

p. 2 callousness: barskhed, hjertesløshed

famine: hungersnød

Protestant ascendancy: protestantisk overherredømme/magthavere

Foster: Colonial Secretary

Stawell: Attorney General

foe: fjende

excess: udskejelser

ensure: sikre, garantere

solemn: højtidelig

measured: afmålt

Vandemonian: person fra Van Diemen’s Land (=Tasmanien)

sot: drukkenbolt, sut

smudge: plette, snavse til

epiphany: åbenbaring

urge: tilskynde

Carboni, Raffaello: Italian radical working at the diggings

p. 3 mar: skæmme, spolere

transfigured: forklaret

stockade: palisade

pit-prop: stiver i en minegang

corrupt to the core: fordærvet ind til kernen

gestures: fagter

intemperate: voldsom, ubehersket

sedition: tilskyndelse til oprør

windlass: hejsespil

tippling: pimperi, drikkeri

sinew: sene

Djerid: (rytter)spyd

cutlass of ‘Jack tar’: sømandens huggert

reaping hook: høstsegl, (en slags le)

allegiance: troskab

carouse : svire, holde drikkegilde

canopy: baldakin

remorse: anger

mounted police: bereden politi

p. 4 rebel: oprører

bugler: hornblæser

commence: begynde

cease: ophøre

contingent: gruppe

sly-grog shop: smugkro

issue: udgang, udfald

elude: undvige

bolt: stikke af, flygte

cabbage tree hat: hat med stor blød skygge

moan: klage

p. 5 intimations: anelser, vink

hail: hylde

founder: grundlægger

restore: genoprette

charged with insurrection: anklaget for oprør

apprehension: pågribelse

traiterously: foræderisk

levy and array: udskrive og opstille i slagorden

uproar: tumult

bushranging: landevejsrøveri

frothing : med fråde om munden

insensate: vanvittig, meningsløs

prop: støtte

squatter: farmer

p. 6 inheritance: arv

selection: jordlod

remote: fjern

inaccessible: utilgængelig

vicious: ond

grow to man’s estate: nå manddomsalder

forcing house: drivhus

notorious: berygtet

drover: kvæg/fåre driver

subject to indinities: udsætte for nedværdigelser

guano: goanna = en slags øgle

bullock: okse

mare: hoppe

vow: sværge på

warrant: arrestordre

menace : true

blab: sladre

p. 7 persecute: forfølge

dingo: vild hund

roam: strejfe om i

indulge in: hengive sig til

wantonly: hensigtsløst

bloated: oppustede, kvabsede

captives: tilfangetagne

apologia: forsvarsskrift

profession of: bekendelse af, forsikring om

orphan: forældreløst barn

gaoler: fangevogter

weave mad schemes: udtænke vilde planer

rust: rustsvamp

druth:

grievance: grund til at klage



delusion: vildfarelse

p. 8 entrench: forskanse

besiege: belejre

indiscriminate: vilkårlig

premises: ejendom, lokaler

casualty ward: skadestue

armour: rustning

discharge: afskyde, fyre af

herald: indvarsle

encased in: iklædt

whirl: hvirvle

ordeal: prøvelse

superstitious awe: overtroisk ærefrygt

occur: finde sted

appropriate: passende

pluck and bounce: mod og mandshjerte

white feather: symbol på fejhed

p. 9 opponents of capital punishment: modstandere af dødsstraf

catcall: pibekoncert

philistines: spidsborgere

mouthpiece: talerør

restraint: tvang

dregs: bundfald

ruffian: slyngel

morose: sur, gnaven

death throes: dødskamp

consternation: forfærdelse

Miles Franklin (1879 – 1954) was born at Talbingo, a grazing property, in New South Wales. She was known to her family as Stella, but later adopted the pseudonym, Miles, which was the family name on her mother’s side. Her great-great-grandfather had been a convict on the First Fleet, whereas her Franklin grandparents were Irish immigrants. Her childhood years on various farms and her typical Australian ancestry form much of the meterial for her novels. In 1906 she went to the USA, and apart from brief visits home she spent the next 26 years in America and England, where she was caught up in feminist movements. Her books and the literary contacts which she made during that period of her life to a certain degree estranged her from the mainstream of Australian culture and “Miles Franklin was one of a small group of Australian women who, born into a colonial society in the ultra-conservative Victorian era, attempted to fulfil themselves according to their own lights and in defiance of the accepted conventions of the day.” (The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature, p. 300)



Up the Country
p. 1 corruption: forvanskning

Huguenot: een der tilhører de franske reformerte – de blev forfulgt på grund af deres religion

dignitary: standsperson, rangsperson

persecution: forfølgelse

brood: yngel

run: (lille) gård, græsningsareal

meet: passende

trifle: bagatel

sinister: dyster

forbidding: afskrækkende

p. 2 goanna: en slags øgle

relish: nydelse

wedlock: ægteskab

extend hospitality: udvise gæstfrihed

render him conspicuous: gøre ham iøjnefaldende

drove: flok

enamoured of adventure: begejstret for eventyr, ude på eventyr

sired: faldet efter, avlet

go astray: fare vild

intrepid: dristig, uforfærdet

inevitable: uundgåelig

genial: gemytlig, elskværdig

inculcate: indpode

a squire’s hall: en herregård

sleeping attire: sengetøj, nattøj

accoutrements: mundering, udstyr

deride: håne, se ned på

take charge of: her = påtage sig ansvaret for

prematurely born: for tidligt født

in excess of: ud over

p. 3 visit the sins of the father on: hjemsøge faderens synder på

alleged: påstået

uproar: tumult

alert: kvik

hussy: tøjte

lag: straffefange

be a shingle short:

convict level: straffefangeniveau

equivocation: tvetydig udtryksmåde, ordkløveri

countenance: støtte

imperturbably: uanfægtet, roligt

obliging: imødekommende

deflect: blive afledt fra

ascent : opstigning

abandon: opgive

descent: nedstigning

hind legs: bagben

p. 4 execute his threat: føre sin trussel ud i livet

disinheritance: det at gøre arveløs

forgo: give afkald på

rear: opdrage

wean: vænne fra

volcanic eruptions: vulkanske vredesudbrud

amenities: bekvemmeligheder

subterfuge: udflugter, kneb, påskud

contrive: udtænke, opfinde

deficiencies: mangler

besiege: belejre

burgeon: spire, begynde at blomstre

on the qui vive: på vagt, på sin post

espouse: gifte sig med

renowned: berømt

thrift: økonomisk sans

beckon to: kalde, drage

squattocracy: “landadel”

qualms: betænkeligheder, skrupler

p. 5 propensity: tilbøjelighed

collar: flip

bush lore: her = kendskab til vildnisset

tuition: undervisning

had cradled him: havde opfostret ham

inconceivable: untænkeligt

serpent: slange

surcingle: gjord

accomplishment: færdighed

prowess: overlegen dygtighed; tapperhed

remain on his dignity: bevare sin værdighed

magisterial visitation: embedsrejse som fredsdommer

stake out somebody: indsætte een som opsynsmand

expansive: meddelsom, åbenhjertig

reiterate: gentage

p. 6 vanity: forfængelighed

on the plea of fatigue: under påskud af træthed

a chip of the father’s block: han var faderen op ad dage

cut adrift: uden fast tilknytning

landed gentry: landadel

flog: piske

lash: slag (med pisk)

requisite severity: påkrævede strenghed

ferocity: grusomhed

ordeal: prøvelse

vow: sværge

funk: skræk; nedtrykthed

initiator: iværksætter

pang: smerte, kval

bribe: bestikke

wield rawhide thongs: svine (piskens) ugarvede læderremme

triangle: trekantet stativ som fangerne bindes til, når de skal piskes

fortitude: styrke

p. 7 nape to loin: nakke til lænd

jibe: håne, komme med spydigheder

gangrened: med koldbrand

main arteries: hoved færdselsårer

lure: lokke, friste

implements: redskaber

nucleus of flock: stamdyr

stake out one’s claims: afmærke det område, man ønsker at dyrke

relent: lade sig formilde

reinstate as heir: genindsætte som arving

p. 8 waxen-petalled: med voksagtige kronblade

punt: fladbundet båd

suffocating: kvælende

her heart quailed: hun tabte modet

dilapidated: faldefærdig

ostrich: struds

veriest rim: mindste kant/krans

brawl: slagsmål

mending: reparation

abode: bolig

stockman: kvægpasser

mesmerise: tryllebinde

tinsel: glitterværk

metropolitan denizen: een der bor i storbyen

gregarious: selskabelig, som optræder i flok

p. 9 affluence: vestand

John Bull nugget: kæmpe guldklump

chaff: avner

shaft: mineskakt

receipt: kvittering

mollify: formilde, blødgøre

lead astray: føre på gale veje

overtures: tilbud, tilnærmelser

effusive: overstrømmende

intrigued: pirret

roisterous: larmende, livlig

p.10 equivalent to: svarende til

restore: genoprette

domestic pursuits: huslige gøremål

unabating: usvækkede, aldrig vigende

stays: korsetter

was procurable: kunne skaffes

tardiness: træghed, sendrægtighed

fret: irritere

pine for: længes stærkt efter

bushranger: landevejsrøver

fringe: udkant

inaccessible: utilgængelig

cattle duffer: kvægtyv

p.11 fluctuate: svinge (i antal)

purport: bedyre, påstå

orchard: frugthave

sly-grog shanty: smugkro

bait: madding

a brace: et par

keg: tønde, anker

vigilance: årvågenhed, vagtsomhed

cronies: kammerater

sufficient: tilstrækkelig

affidavit: beediget skriftlig erklæring

dam or sire: mor eller far

superfluous: overflødig

inevitable: uundgåeligt

pelt: skind

will be lagged again: gjort til straffefanger igen

swing: dingle i galgen

p.12 prosecute: retsforfølge

incur the enmity: pådrage sig fjendskabet

dashed: nedslået

possum: lille pungdyr

grant a reprieve: tilstå en udsættelse/benådning

delusion: vildfarelse, bedrag

tussock: (græs)tue

banish: fordrive

drowsiness: døsighed

copious: rigelig

slab: planke

manger: krybbe

ti-tree:


whinny: vrinske

fretfully: utålmodigt, klynkende

p.13 repudiate: afvise

commotion: uro, tumult

garments; klæder, tøj

cremation pyre: ligbål

hornets’ nest: hvepserede

urge restraint: mane til tilbageholdende

colloquy: samtale, drøftelse

stallion: hingst

savvy: forstå

avenging: hævnende

roost: sætte sig på pind

p.14 sprightly, prancing gait: livlig, dansende gangart

bridle track: ridesti

reprisal: gengældelsesaktion

Tim Bonyhady ( ) is a cultural historian and lawyer. A former curator in the Department of Australian Art at the Australian National Gallery in Canberra, he is the author of several books, for example Australian Landscape Painting 1801 – 1890 and The Law of the Countryside: Rights of the Public. He now teaches environmental and planning law at the Australian National University in Canberra.

Burke & Wills. From Melbourne to Myth
p. 1 haphazard: tilfældig, på må og få

p. 2 emulate: efterligne, stræbe efter at blive jævnbyrdig med

fern: bregne

plight: sørgelig forfatning

starch: stivelse

lizard: firben

grub: larve, kålorm

abandon: opgive

billy: kogekar

swag: bylt

game: vildt

Sturt and Mitchell: opdagelsesrejsende

cache: depot, opbevaringssted

p. 3 extract: hive ud

constipation: forstoppelse

gully: kløft, grøft

warrant reciprocity: garantere gensidighed

dire straits: sørgelig forfatning

aggravate: forværre

predicament: knibe, vanskelig stilling

urging: tilskyndelse

shrivel up: skrumpe ind

quell: dæmpe, stille

stool: lort, afføring

p. 4 toxic: giftig

thiaminase:

nutriment: næring

retain: bibeholde

distracted: forstyrret

Jeg så en gud i kød og blod,

da jeg i nat ved havet vandred’

han smuk og rank i bølgen stod –

jeg ved at nu er alt forandret.

Men min glæde er så kort,

for han længes mod det fjerne;

ak! mit håb en falden stjerne,

og om lidt er alting glemt.

Han tændte længslen i mit sit

og svøbte mig i søde drømme,

der vejred’ bort i nattevind.

Og nu er savnet mit alene.

Edward Dyson (1865 – 1931) was born near Ballarat, Victoria, the son of a mining ingineer. He moved with his family about the goldfields during childhood and grew up familiar with life both in the bush and on the diggings. In adoloscence he worked in odd jobs about the Victorian mines, then was a miner in Tasmania and a factory worker in Melbourne before turning to journalism and freelance writing. Throughout a long career as a writer he contributed short stories and novels of bush life and the diggings to the Bulletin (see p. ), the Age and Melbourne Punch under various pseudonyms. He is mostly known for his short stories, his novels being little more than a series of simply connected sequential events. (Based on The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature, p. 247)



A Golden Shanty
p. 1 shanty: hytte

disjointed: usammenhængende

vinous frenzy: vinøs (dvs. beruset) vanvid

promiscuously: uordentligt

shingle roof: tag lavet af træspåner

hoop-iron: tøndebånd

possum: lille pungdyr

bilious tint: galdesyg tone

discarded female apparel: kasserede klædningsstykker for kvinder

mooring: egl. fortøjning; her: gardinring

despondently: fortvivlet

succulent: saftig

a shattered trough: et ødelagt trug

hewn from the butt of a tree: hugget ud af en træstub

complacently: selvtilfreds

brood: yngel

fermented: gæret

current: gangbar

ardent beverages: kraftige drikkevarer

at the disposal of: til rådighed for

venture: vove

turnover: omsætning

p. 2 versatile: alsidig

revel in a spree: ‘slå til søren’, solde og svire

cockatoo farmer:

prad: øg


dwelling: bolig

ramshackle: faldefærdig

gunny bag: jutesæk

fossicker: guldgraver, en der søger efter mineraler

limpid rivulet: sølvklar å

verdant: grøn

enterprising prospector: foretagsom guldgraver

shaft: mineskakt

bottom on ‘the wash’:

denuded of: ribbet for

morgue: lighus

desolation: trøstesløshed

lucrative: indbringende

sapling: ungt træ

supersede: overtage

extraction/stock: afstamning

infer: slutte, drage en konklusion

paternal progenitor: fædrende stamfader

wanst: once

p. 3 weskit: waistcoat

unkempt urchins: usoignerede unger

provender: foder, mad

Boniface: krovært

wood-jamber:

augment: forøge

teetotal: afholds-

abandoned: forladt, opgivet

wind-lass stand: stativ til hejseværk

aslant: skæv, på skrå

primeval: oprindelig

desecrate: skænde, vanhellige

Chow: kineser

ferret in: (ferret=fritte, der går ind i kaninhuller); bore sig ind i

profanity: bespottelse, banden

pagan influx: hedensk indvandring

victualler: proviant leverandør

sedate: rolig, sindig, adstadig

propriety: sømmelighed, anstændighed

nocturnal rambles: natlige udflugter

erstwhile: tidligere, tilforn

precincts: enemærker

cooking utensils: kogegrejer

porker: fedesvin

p. 4 preamble: indledning

placid: rolig, sindsligevægtig

no savee: don’t understand

bandy jests: udveksle vittigheder

smothered: kvalt

patronise: være kunde hos

beguile: lokke; besnakke

seductive: forførende

endeavoured to ensnare: bestræbte sig på at fange

misgiving: bange anelser

caravansary: herberg

p. 5 wombat: punggnaver

slate: tavle

lamentable: sørgelig, jammerlig

elucidate the enigma: belyse/løse gåden

abstract: fjerne

ingenuity: opfindsomhed

cognizance: viden, kendskab

dismantle: egl. nedlægge

alienate: støde fra sig

filch: stjæle, rapse

run the gauntlet: løbe spidsrod

bat: mursten, halvsten

marauder: een der plyndrer

p. 6 pillage: plyndring

prostration: nedtrykthed

insatiable: umættelig

infatuation: forgabelse

Celestial: himmelsk

elope with: stikke af med

submissive: underdanig, ydmyg

prevarication: undvigende svar, udflugter

impair the velocity: nedsætte hastigheden

devastation: ødelæggelse

contrivance: indretning

cocky: selvsikker, kæphøj person

canine: hund

skirmish around: kæmpe i spredt orden

p. 7 vestments: klædedragt

brandish: svinge med

deferential bearing: ærbødig holdning

truce: våbenstilstand

obsequiousness: kryben

pock-marked leper: koparret spedalsk

van: vanguard = fortrop

carcass: kadaver

purchis: purchase = købe

hail: hilse velkommen

contorted countenance: forvrænget ansigtsudtryk

bargain: handel, køb

appertain to: høre til

p. 8 denizen: beboer

babel: Babylonisk forvirring

carouse: gilde, fest

fantan: kinesisk hasardspil

get to the windward of: ‘tage fusen på’

rejoice: glæde sig

felicitate oneself: lykønske sig selv

shrewd: skarpsindig, snu

dilapidated: faldefærdig

humpy: hytte

capacious garments: rummelige klæder

harassed: plaget, forpint

samples: prøver

sentinel: vagtpost

repugnant: afskyeligt

evince: vise, lægge for dagen

resentment: afsky

ceaselessly: uophørligt

tom: vasketrug

suave: blød, mild

affable: elskværdig

fractiousness: genstridighed

consummation: fuldbyrdelse, resultat

p. 9 beamed complacently: strålede veltilfreds

all and sundry: alle og enhver

prejudiced: forudindtaget

savoury: appetitlig

touch up: skærpe, hvæsse

prodigious: fænomenal

nugget: guldklump

p.10 frolic: tumle sig

occiput: nakke, baghoved

fawn: rålam

consternation: bestyrtelse

woe: kval

JP: Justice of the Peace (= fredsdommer)

sylvan: skovbevokset

hob: sten til at sætte en gryde på

intelligence: efterretning

summon: tilkalde

hilarious: støjende munter

sally: udfald, angreb

p.11 disconsolate: utrøstelig

demolition: nedrivning

dray: ladvogn

battery: maskineri hvor sten og malm knuses

reprisal: gengældelse

vestige: spor, antydning


A.B.(Banjo) Paterson (1864 – 1941) was born near Orange, New South Wales. His real name was Andrew Barton, but when he started writing for the Bulletin (see p. ) he adopted the rather flash pseudonym. He grew up on a station near Yass, NSW, and from an early age he was acquainted with life in the bush. After early schooling in the local town he completed his education in Sydney and later became a solicitor. He became a literary celebrity after the publication of The Man from Snowy River and Other Verses (1895) – see p. : He led a very adventurous life: crocodile and buffalo hunting in the north and diving for pearls with the Japanese. Later he became a war correspondent (the Boer War and WW I). Paterson is the chief folk-poet of Australia; he is, for example, the author of Australia’s national song “Waltzing Mathilda”.



Clancy of the Overflow
overflow: overløb (der skal forhindre floden i at gå over sine bredder)

The Lachlan: flod i New South Wales

shear: klippe får

verbatim: ordret

drove: drive får/kvæg

erratic: uberegnelig

bar: sandbanke

dingy: snusket, lurvet

foetid: stinkende

gritty: kornet, grynet

lowing cattle: brølende kvæg

gutter: rendesten

ceaseless: uophørligt

daunt: tage modet fra, kue

pallid: bleg

Henry Lawson (1867 – 1922) was born on the goldfields at Grenfell, New South Wales, the eldest son of Niels Hertzberg Larsen, a Norwegian ex-sailor, and his wife Louisa; his name was registered as Lawson, which also became the family one. Henry Lawson’s early life was difficult: the family was poor, and the tensions between his parents resulted in their separation in 1883 when Louisa moved to Sydney to become active in publishing and the women’s movement: Lawson attended several schools, and then worked with his father on building contracts until he went to live with his mother in Sydney: Here he was influenced by his mother’s radical friends and became interested in the republican movement. In 1887 he started writing for the Republican and the Bulletin (see p. ). In the early 90’s he travelled widely in Australia and got first hand knowledge of life in the bush which he preferred to depict in a realistic, sometimes grim way. This involved him in the Bulletin-debate with A.B.(Banjo) Paterson who took a more optimistic view of the matter (see p. ). In 1896 Lawson married Bertha Bredt, and they went travelling in Western Australia, New Zealand and England. When they returned in 1902 the marriage was breaking up, and Lawson lived apart from Bertha and the children, with increasing bitterness on both sides. By this time Lawson’s best work was behind him, and the remaining twenty years of his life were years of steady personal disintegration: he collapsed in alcoholism and mental illness and was in and out of prison for drunkenness and arrears of maintenance: Lawson took an active part in the literary Naissance of the 1890’s, and still stands out as one of the great figures in Australian literature who is admired for both his artless yarns and the enduring literary virtues of his prose and poetry.



Middleton’s Rouseabout
rouseabout: altmuligmand på en australsk gård

lout: bondeknold

ply: gøre flittig brug af

shears: saks til at klippe får med

drought : tørke

prevail: vinde hævd, være fremherskende

drover: een der driver med får/kvæg

Barbara Baynton (1857 – 1929) was born in Scone, New South Wales. She married a selector in 1880 and bore him three children. When in 1887 he ran away with her niece, Barbara Baynton moved to Sydney where she remarried. She started writing in the early 90’s, and her first story was published in the Bulletin (see p. ) in 1896. Married three times, last to the fifth Lord Healey, Barbara Baynton became acquainted with many walks of life, and from 1904 until her death she divided her time between Australia and England. However, it is the bush part of her life that informs her fiction “which depicts the horrors of bush life and confirms Australia as the ‘windblown, shimmering, shifting, awful place’ ... The malevolence of the bush is insisted upon throughout her work; so is the suffering of her female characters, who are consistently seen as the victims of predatory, brutal men.” (The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature, p. 84)



The Chosen Vessel
p. 30 vessel: kar

tether: tøjre

stray: flakke omkring, fare vild

bellow: brøle

pen up: lukke inde

cur: køter

brandish: svinge med

skirmish: kamp, træfning

shearer: fåreklipper

wine shanty: smugkro (shanty=hytte)

swagmen: vagabond

tucker: mad

p. 31 billy: kogekar

with a pretence of: under påskud af

swag: bylt

taunt: håne

flatter: smigre

porthole: koøje

p. 32 stealthily: stjålent, hemmelighedsfuldt

gauge the width: måle bredden

unendurable: uudholdeligt

assail: overfalde, angribe

slab: planke

p. 33 lascivious: vellystig, liderlig

cease: ophøre

conceal: skjule

throbs: (hjerte)slag

frantically: vildt, ude af sig selv

peril: fare

curlew: spove (en vadefugl)

boundary rider: mand der passer hegnene på store ejendomme

dingo: vild hund

ewe: moderfår

p. 34 squatter: jordbesidder, farmer

over-ride superstition: have forret frem for overtro

partition: skillevæg

dairy: mælkerum

canter: ride i kort galop

the bruised incence: duften der fremkommer ved at planten er blevet

mast


vaguely: vagt, uklart

preoccupied with: fordybet i, stærkt optaget af

agony: kval, pine

invocation: påkaldelse, besværgelse

p. 35 awe: ærefrygt

rally voters: ‘hverve stemme’

outskirts: udkant

penance: bodsøvelse

subdued: neddæmpet, spagfærdig

repentant: angrende

chastened: revset, tugtet

reverent: ærbødig

erring: vildfaren

adoration: tilbedelse

transfixed: henført

exaltation: sjælelig opstemthed


Patrick White (1912 – 90) was a member of a family of pastoralists that had been established in Australia for several generations. Born in London, he was brought back to Australia at the age of six months and educated first at private schools in New South Wales and, from the age of 13, in England. In 1929 he returned to Australia, where he spent two years as a jackeroo and one preparing himself for entrance to King’s College, Cambridge. He graduated in 1935 and moved to London where his first novel, Happy Valley, was published in 1939. Apart from a brief visit to Australia he spent the next 13 years in Europe and the USA, but in 1948 he settled permanently in Australia. Although White lived a secluded life he occasionally made public statements on national issues such as the war in Vietnam, environmental matters and Aboriginal affairs. In 1976 he withdrew from the Order of Australia in protest against some of the government’s policies. Though White’s work received some important early appreciation in Australia it was not until the overseas acclaim of The Tree of Man (1955) that it began to arouse more general, if still ambivalent, interest. He described his own writing as a “struggle to create completely fresh forms out of the rocks and sticks of words”, a struggle that each work resolves differently. White never repeated himself, each novel creating a fresh perspective even while remaining faithful to his central preoccupations. (Based on The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature)



A Fringe of Leaves
p. 2 of Cornish stock: nedstammer fra bønder i Cornwall

miscarriage: abort

debility: svækkelse, kraftløshed

devotion to duty: pligtopfyldenhed

blessing: velsignelse

trials: prøvelser

slake our thirst: slukke vores tørst

abandon: forlade, opgive

proprietar: besiddende

encroach on: trænge sig ind på

vines: slyngplanter

vine-embroidered: overbroderet med slyngplanter

dilapidated: egl. faldefærdige

obscene: sjofel, utugtig

putrefying carcase: kadaver i forrådnelse

game: vildt

coax: lokke

shammy-leather: vaskeskind

p. 3 quench: kvæle

greed: grådighed

singe: svitse

palatable: lækker, velsmagende

frizzle: svitse, stege

hide: skind, pels

adjacent: tilstødende

injudicious: uforsigtig, uklog

draught : slurk

contemplate: overveje

salt grime: lag af snavset salt

accumulate: samles, ophobe sig

ostentatious: pralende, demonstrativ

superficial: overfladisk

whiff: lugt

setting: baggrund, kulisse

marquee: markise

creeper: slyngplante

coachman: kusk

hamper: flettet kurv (til mad)

hummock: tue

gibbering : uforståeligt sprog

spring: fjeder

implement: instrument

ominous: ildevarslende

unconscionable time: urimelig lang tid

p. 4 advances: tilnærmelser

refrain from: afholde sig fra

injunction: påbud, formaning

on their own account: for egen regning

overhaul: efterse grundigt

armoury: våbenlager

unseviceable: ikke funktionsdygtig

exposure: det at være udsat for vind og vejr

ambush: baghold

kindle: tænde

inclined to: tilbøjelig til

henchman: følgesvend, håndlanger

depression: hulning

drowsiness: sløvhed

prevail: være fremherskende

reinstate: genoprette

rack: hærge, pine

audible: hørlig

infernal: helvedes-

swill: sluge, drikke

dissolve: opløse

indisposition: utilpashed

confess: bekende

encouragement: opmuntring

p. 5 incapacitated: ikke brugbar

lodged in his conscience: nagede hans bevidsthed

fester: blive betændt

resolve: beslutte

endure: tåle, udholde

confine: spærre inde

batter: egl. slå

patterned with: dækket af et mønster af

ablaze: brændende

torpid: treven, dvask

compel: tvinge

obliquely: skævt

cease: ophøre

graze: strejfe

assert: hævde

dune: klit

landward: på landsiden

congregate: samles

overtly hostile: åbenlyst fjendtlige

frantic: vild, ude af sig selv

subordinate: underordnet

inordinate: voldsomt, umådeholdende

spray: sprøjte

palaverin’: snak, sludder

rejoin: svare igen

horrendous: forfærdelig

emit: udstøde (f.eks. et skrig)

p. 6 convulsed: med krampetrækninger

demented: afsindig

conspire with: gå i sammensværgelse med

incensed: ophidsede, opildnede

bestir oneself: vågne til dåd

elated: opstemt

whooshing: hvislen

bear down upon: slå ned på

lopsided: skæv

keel over: kæntre

re-assert: gøre sig gældende igen

peter out: forsvinde langsomt

shrimp: reje

palpitate: banke, pulsere

malignant: ondartet

bellow: brøle

gristle: brusk

gush: strømme

p. 7 temple: tinding

transparent: gennemsigtig

crimson: højrød

take refuge: søge tilflugt

matted: sammenfiltret

anguish : kval, pine

dispose of: skaffe af vejen

tomb: grav

mourn over: sørge over

intrude on: trænge sig på

provide: frembringe

dignified: værdig

caper: springe højt i vejret

captive: fange

garment: beklædningsstykke

slender: slank

caracole: foretage halvvendinger

spoils: bytte, rov

thwack: slå

dense: tæte

putrefy: gå i forrådnelse

subject to: underkaste

opulence: overflod

saliva: spyt

p. 8 austerely: strengt

luxuriant: overdådig

interspersed with: iblandet

toss: smide, kaste

hag: gammel kælling

nubile: giftefærdig

flinch: vige tilbage for

sustain: opretholde

endure: tåle, udholde

tormentor: plageånd

convulse: bringe i oprør

audacious: dristig

jowl: kæbe

yank: hive, rykke

glower: stirre ondt, skule

cower: krybe sammen

suppress: undertrykke

appease: tilfredsstille, få til at falde til ro

bedraggled: sjasket, tilsølet

despoiler: røver, een der plyndrer

stays: korset

p. 9 opaque: uigennemsigtig

unhook: hægte op

shift: særk, chemise

trail: slæbe

shreds of modesty: trævler af ærbarhed

clattering armature: skramlende bevæbning

calf: del af underbenet, læg

slope: skråning

laced with: iblandet, pyntet med

strands: trevler, tråde

consequent: deraf følgende

concern: bekymring

lucid: klar

straggling: som breder sig uregelmæssigt

girdle: gjord, lændeklæde

achievement: resultat

console: trøste

mirthful: munter

sustain wounds: være såret

humus: muldjord

modest reassurance: nogenlunde beroligelse

p.10 apparition: genfærd

vicious: ondskabsfuld

unprepossessing: uheldig, frastødende

mend: reparere

captor: fangevogter

anticipate: forvente, forudse

tremor: skælven, rysten

snouted: trynet, med tryne

tumid: opsvulmet

pustular sores: væskende sår

moan fretfully: stønne pirreligt

relieved: lettet

premature: for tidligt

transfer: overdrage

flickering to life: blive kaldt til live igen

douse: slukke, hælde vand på

deceive: bedrage

teat: patte

writhe: sno sig, vride sig

p.11 wretch: pjok, skrog

coax: lokke

hugger-mugger: roderi

spiritual design: åndelig plan/mening

at bay: på afstand

disgusting charge: det afskyelige barn hun her ansvar for

gnaw: gnave

distracting scents: dufte der gør, at hun ikke kan koncentrere sig

embers: gløder

tuber: rodknold

brace: par

testify: vidne om

agony: kval, pine

sear: branke

gorge: æde, proppe sig

solemnity: højtidelighed

morsel: gnalling, bid

grovel: krybe, ligge på maven for

humble: ydmyg

devour: fortære

p.12 aptitude: færdighed, behændighed

opossum: lille pungdyr

addle: blive rådden

fertilize: befrugte

relish: nyde, sætte pris på

honey-comb : bikage

maggot: maddike

eke out: forøge, supplere

dwell on: dvæle ved

submit to: underkaste

humiliation: ydmygelse

vermin: utøj

stray: komme på afveje

dispose of: skaffe sig af med

cinnamon: kanel

doily: mellemlægsserviet

bestiality: dyriskhed

snigger: fnise

imbecile: tåbelig, idiotisk

unalterable: uforanderlig

wizen: visne, tørre ind

attain to: opnå

apathy: sløvhed

resolve: beslutte

subtle: underfundig

assign: tildele

preoccupation: fordybelse, noget der optager tankerne

pious: from

anoint: salve

charcoal: trækul

down: dun

p.13 smoothe: glatte ud

temporarilty: midlertidigt

mooning: drømmende

haunt: hjemsøge

exorcize: uddrive

contemplate: betragte

equanimity: sindsligevægt

enact: opføre

jowled: med kraftige kæber

shin: klatre op i

lily: åkande

protagonist: helt, hovedperson

prowl: luske omkring

ejaculation: udbrud, udråb

squat: sidde på hug

index finger: pegefinger

favour: gunstbevisning

club: kølle

alarm: påstyr, uro

tinder: fængstof, fyrsvamp

pandemonium: vild forvirring, helvede

rouse: vække

leap: springe

bash: slå

rage: raseri

retaliate: gøre gengæld

p.14 frenzy: vanvid

contentious: stridbar

assailant: angriber

gash: stort sår/flænge

complexion: ansigtsfarve, teint

sediment: bundfald

spangle: glitre

pang: smerte, kval

revive: genoplive

lay claim to: gøre krav på

detach: løsne

joint: led

hostile: fjendtlig

conduct: udføre, lede

vigil: nattevagt

recoil: vige tilbage

invest: indhylle, omgærde med

advocate: tilråde, slå til lyd for

constitutional: spadseretur

mesh: net

startling: forbløffende

frond: bregne

shaft: søjle

pinnacle: tinde

p.15 rejuvenate: forynge

font: døbefont

skirr: fare afsted

delectable: lækker, appetitvækkende

scent: duft

alter: ændre

languid: træt, slap, sløv

intruder: een der trænger sig på

resentful: fuld af afsky

blunder: tumle, forkludre

rites: ritualer

indication: antydning

akin to: beslægtet med

communicant: nadvergæst

bland: rolig, uforstyrret

moisture: fugtighed

dispose to: gøre tilbøjelig til

battered: forslået

initiate: indviet person

regurgitate: strømme tilbage, gylpe op

guttural: strubeagtig

dilli: net til at bære noget i

deter from: afholde fra

prostrate: liggende i støvet

p.16 offender: lovovertræder

urgent: påtrængende nødvendig

culprit: misdæder, delinkvent

remonstrate: gøre indsigelser

disentangle: udrede

thigh-bone: lårben

shred: trevl

gobbet: klump, klat

adhere to: hænge fast til

twanging: svirpen

spasmodical: med krampetrækninger

urge: tilskynde

Randolph Stow (1935 – ) was born in Geraldton, Western Australia, and educated at the University of WA. His varied career has included periods of lecturing in English literature at the universities of Adelaide, WA and Leeds, eighteen months of travel in the USA, work on an Aboriginal mission and as an anthropologist and cadet patrol officer in New Guinea. Since 1966 he has lived permanently in England. His first novel, A Haunted Land, was published in 1956 followed by a collection of poetry in 1957. His use of different narrative techniques and his mingling of realism, symbolism, myth, allegory and romance make his fiction difficult to classify. Technically assured and traditionally in form, his poetry reflects his Australian experience, his feeling for the landscape, his wide reading and interest in myth and folklore. (Based on The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature)







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